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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Political Attitudes Vary With Physiological Traits, Douglas R. Oxley, Kevin B. Smith, John R. Alford, Matthew V. Hibbing, Jennifer L. Miller, Mario J. Scalora, Peter K. Hatemi, John R. Hibbing Sep 2008

Political Attitudes Vary With Physiological Traits, Douglas R. Oxley, Kevin B. Smith, John R. Alford, Matthew V. Hibbing, Jennifer L. Miller, Mario J. Scalora, Peter K. Hatemi, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Although political views have been thought to arise largely from individuals’ experiences, recent research suggests that they may have a biological basis. We present evidence that variations in political attitudes correlate with physiological traits. In a group of 46 adult participants with strong political beliefs, individuals with measurably lower physical sensitivities to sudden noises and threatening visual images were more likely to support foreign aid, liberal immigration policies, pacifism, and gun control, whereas individuals displaying measurably higher physiological reactions to those same stimuli were more likely to favor defense spending, capital punishment, patriotism, and the Iraq War. Thus, the degree ...


The Global Impact Of Quotas: On The Fast Track To Increased Female Legislative Representation, Aili Mari Tripp, Alice Kang Mar 2008

The Global Impact Of Quotas: On The Fast Track To Increased Female Legislative Representation, Aili Mari Tripp, Alice Kang

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Quotas have become an important mechanism through which women today are entering legislatures worldwide. This study shows that the introduction of quotas has helped overcome constraints on women’s representation posed by economic underdevelopment, cultural influences, and even electoral systems. This study also demonstrates that the introduction of quotas offers the most explanatory power for women’s representation today, together with electoral systems that allow for greater candidate turnover (i.e., party-list proportional representation systems). The majority of studies explaining women’s legislative representation prior to 2000 focused on electoral systems, cultural considerations, and the strength of leftist political parties ...


The Politics Of Aids In The Black Community, Byron D. Orey Jan 2008

The Politics Of Aids In The Black Community, Byron D. Orey

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Throughout history, dating back to slavery, blacks have been confronted with economic, political and social subjugation while living in the United States. During the course of this struggle, the black church has served as a place of refuge for the black community. The church, for example, served as the catalyst for the civil rights movement. Organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, worked tirelessly to tear down the barriers of inequality. In recent years, however, the black church has, arguably, failed to provide the same type of ...


Affective Flexibility: Evaluative Processing Goals Shape Amygdala Activity, William A. Cunningham, Jay J. Van Bavel, Ingrid Johnsen Haas Jan 2008

Affective Flexibility: Evaluative Processing Goals Shape Amygdala Activity, William A. Cunningham, Jay J. Van Bavel, Ingrid Johnsen Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Although early research implicated the amygdala in automatic processing of negative information, more recent research suggests that it plays a more general role in processing the motivational relevance of various stimuli, suggesting that the relation between valence and amygdala activation may depend on contextual goals. This study provides experimental evidence that the relation between valence and amygdala activity is dynamically modulated by evaluative goals. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants evaluated the positive, negative, or overall (positive plus negative) aspects of famous people. When participants were providing overall evaluations, both positive and negative names were associated with amygdala activation. When ...


Beyond Liberals And Conservatives To Political Genotypes And Phenotypes, John R. Alford, Carolyn L. Funk, John R. Hibbing Jan 2008

Beyond Liberals And Conservatives To Political Genotypes And Phenotypes, John R. Alford, Carolyn L. Funk, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In the past, most political scientists have been oblivious to the growing empirical evidence challenging environmental determinism. Professor Charney, apparently as a result of the fact that genes and the environment interact in a complex fashion, advocates that this passive unawareness be replaced by active denial. Science, however, does not advance by avoiding important relationships merely because they are complicated and, fortunately, science is not heeding Charney’s ideologically-based fears. Molecular geneticists, often working in tandem with political scientists, are quickly moving beyond twin studies to identify the specific suites of genes and biological systems that predict variation in core ...


Twin Studies, Molecular Genetics, Politics, And Tolerance: A Response To Beckwith And Morris, John R. Alford, Carolyn L. Funk, John R. Hibbing Jan 2008

Twin Studies, Molecular Genetics, Politics, And Tolerance: A Response To Beckwith And Morris, John R. Alford, Carolyn L. Funk, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Beckwith and Morris raise concerns about the value of twin studies for understanding the role of genetics in complex human behavior, but virtually all of their concerns have been raised and rebutted before. When it comes to the equal environments assumption (EEA), the best approach is to test for and control possible violations of the EEA on heritability estimates rather than merely rejecting all empirical evidence because of the possibility of EEA violations. In many respects, since the study of the genetic basis of complex human behaviors now includes many methods in addition to twin studies, Beckwith and Morris’s ...


The American Public's View Of Congress, John R. Hibbing, Christopher W. Larimer Jan 2008

The American Public's View Of Congress, John R. Hibbing, Christopher W. Larimer

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Congress has long been unpopular with the American public, with approval numbers above fifty percent serving as the exception rather than the norm. In this essay we argue that such disapproval stems not from calculated reaction to policy outcomes or partisan attachments. Rather, people tend to disapprove of Congress for exactly the thing it was designed to be: an open and deliberative lawmaking body. The more Congress does its job, the more the public tends to disapprove.


A Case Of Moral Heroism: Sympathy, Personal Identification, And Mortality In Rwanda, Ari Kohen Jan 2008

A Case Of Moral Heroism: Sympathy, Personal Identification, And Mortality In Rwanda, Ari Kohen

Faculty Publications: Political Science

What sort of person chooses to remain in a place like Rwanda when an easy exit is offered, when leaving seems the only safe or sane option, and when one is not directly connected to the would-be victims? And how does this person come to develop a circle of care that is expansive enough to include those who are radically Other? In what follows, I consider these questions through a detailed examination of the recent example of Paul Rusesabagina, the Hutu hotel manager in Kigali, Rwanda, who sheltered more than a thousand Tutsi and moderate Hutu refugees during the hundred-day ...


The New Empirical Biopolitics, John R. Alford, John R. Hibbing Jan 2008

The New Empirical Biopolitics, John R. Alford, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Political science traditionally has either ignored biology in favor of purely environmental explanations for political phenomena or merely ruminated about the likely role of biology, leaving data-based research on biopolitics in dangerously short supply. Currently, attention to the apparent genetic basis for political and social orientations holds the greatest promise of advancing empirical biopolitics. Thus, in this essay, we orient behavior genetics research in the larger framework of biology and politics, confront its normative implications, describe the techniques involved, assess the strengths and weaknesses of commonly employed data and procedures, and describe the next steps in this research stream. Because ...