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2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 135

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Challenges For The U.S. Administration, William Wunderle, Gabriel Lajeunesse Dec 2008

Challenges For The U.S. Administration, William Wunderle, Gabriel Lajeunesse

William Wunderle

The U.S. administration of Barack Obama will inherit a host of challenges in the Middle East. Several early policy choices could place its Middle East policy on solid footing.


Généticisation Et Responsabilité: Les Habits Neufs De La Gouvernance Néolibérale (Uncorrected Proofs), Antoinette Rouvroy Dec 2008

Généticisation Et Responsabilité: Les Habits Neufs De La Gouvernance Néolibérale (Uncorrected Proofs), Antoinette Rouvroy

Antoinette Rouvroy

Loin du phantasme spectaculaire d’une “maléabilité” génétique de l’être humain, et nonobstant les discours grandiloquants qui ont accompagné la très coûteuse exploration du génome humain, la “nouvelle génétique humaine” ne révèle ni ne porte atteinte à l’essence de l’être humain (encore faudrait-il qu’une telle essence puisse jamais être définie), mais révolutionne notre perception des causes des smilitudes et variations au sein de l’espèce humaine. Le néologisme ‘généticisation’ désigne la contamination progressive des discours sociétaux (médicaux, juridiques, politiques, sociologiques,...) par une logique réductionniste et essentialiste faisant des gènes la cause privilégiée sinon exclusive des variations ...


Rousseau's Concept Of The General Will: Myth Or Reality, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp Dec 2008

Rousseau's Concept Of The General Will: Myth Or Reality, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp

Dr Ozy B.Orluwene,JP

Abstract The major objective of this paper is to holistically examine Jean Jacques Rousseau’s concept of General will. The thesis of the paper posits that the natural needs of man cannot be satisfied by society, but rather society increases misery.


Ethnicity And Public Service In Nigeria, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp Dec 2008

Ethnicity And Public Service In Nigeria, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp

Dr Ozy B.Orluwene,JP

ABSTRACT This paper essentially examines the concept of ethnicity and public service in Nigeria. It posits that because of the monstrous proportion ethnicity assumed in Nigeria, it has remained a central turning point in the nation’s history. Its impact has further exacerbated problems of growth and development of Nigerian Public service and organizations.


De Lo Épico A Lo Cotidiano: Jóvenes Y Generaciones Políticas En Chile / From The Epic To The Everyday: Youth And Political Generations In Chile, Sergio Y. Toro Dec 2008

De Lo Épico A Lo Cotidiano: Jóvenes Y Generaciones Políticas En Chile / From The Epic To The Everyday: Youth And Political Generations In Chile, Sergio Y. Toro

Sergio Y. Toro

Although the evidence in Chile shows that youth is an important variable for explaining levels of political engagement, electoral participation and social changes, this paper proposes a new generational category that could be adopted in future studies: The post-plebiscite political generation. Working with LAPOP data, this article seeks a new approach to analyzing the divide between youth and adults, showing that, although there are important differences between both groups, there are also significant contrasts between those who participated in the 1988 plebiscite and those who did not.


¿Renovación O Continuismo? Actitudes, Valores Y Trayectoria De La Clase Política Ecuatoriana, Flavia Freidenberg Dec 2008

¿Renovación O Continuismo? Actitudes, Valores Y Trayectoria De La Clase Política Ecuatoriana, Flavia Freidenberg

Flavia Freidenberg

No abstract provided.


Explorando El «Apartidismo» En México: ¿Apartidistas O Apolíticos? América Latina Hoy, Vol. 50, Diciembre-Sin Mes, 2008, Pp. 119-145, Benjamin Temkin, Sandra Solano, José Del Tronco Dec 2008

Explorando El «Apartidismo» En México: ¿Apartidistas O Apolíticos? América Latina Hoy, Vol. 50, Diciembre-Sin Mes, 2008, Pp. 119-145, Benjamin Temkin, Sandra Solano, José Del Tronco

benjamin (benny) temkin

En las últimas décadas, distintos estudios han identificado, especialmente en las democracias avanzadas, un proceso de debilitamiento de la lealtad partidista. Russell Dalton ha explicado este fenómeno a través del incremento de los niveles educativos y de la mayor capacidad de los ciudadanos para obtener información y participar en asuntos públicos de forma independiente a los partidos. Este trabajo analiza la pertinencia del modelo de Dalton para el caso mexicano, donde el proceso de modernización económica y apertura política es mucho más reciente. Los resultados muestran la utilidad del modelo, pero sugieren la necesidad de tomar en cuenta diversos factores ...


Remapping A Nation Without States: Personalized Full Representation For California’S 21st Century, Mark Paul, Micah Weinberg Nov 2008

Remapping A Nation Without States: Personalized Full Representation For California’S 21st Century, Mark Paul, Micah Weinberg

Mark Paul

California is a state of many distinct regions. To give citizens a voice on regional issues and to reinvigorate California’s Legislature, the state’s central institution of self-government, we propose Personalized Full Representation for the 21st Century (PFR21), a system of representation by means of regionally based legislative elections that will allow the state’s citizens to set the agenda for their regions and for the state as a whole. By reshaping the stage on which legisla- tive politics is played out, California can make state govern- ment more attentive to regional issues and give its citizens a means ...


Organismos Electorales Y Confianza En Las Elecciones En América Latina, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Nov 2008

Organismos Electorales Y Confianza En Las Elecciones En América Latina, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

¿Qué factores explican la confianza hacia las elecciones? Ya sea en las democracias consolidadas como en aquellas en proceso de consolidación, el soporte político positivo hacia los procesos electorales es una condición sine qua non para el soporte político de otras instituciones y de la democracia en su conjunto. Para llevar a cabo procesos electorales eficaces, en las últimas décadas en América Latina se ha privilegiado la gestión electoral encomendada a órganos especializados. ¿En qué medida éstos órganos generan confianza de los partidos hacia las elecciones? ¿Qué otros factores relevantes están asociados con los niveles de confianza hacia las elecciones ...


Quando O Brasil Era Moderno: O Estado Antes Da Crise Do Estado, Adriano Codato Oct 2008

Quando O Brasil Era Moderno: O Estado Antes Da Crise Do Estado, Adriano Codato

Adriano Codato

This article proposes and develops an analytical scheme based on historical neo-institutionalism to explain the genesis of State capacities through exclusively political variables. Taking the case of the exponential growth of State power during the Brazilian Estado Novo regime (1937-1945) as my problem, I seek to reflect on the empirical determinants and, as deriving from them, the theoretical criteria that are responsible for accounting for three simultaneous occurrences: decision-making centralization at the head of the Federal Executive, influence of formal government institutions on processes of recruitment and selection of political personnel and unequal sharing of decision-making power among different elite ...


Las Razones De Presencia Y Éxito De Los Partidos Étnicos En América Latina. Los Casos De Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Nicaragua Y Perú (1990-2005)., Salvador Marti I Puig Oct 2008

Las Razones De Presencia Y Éxito De Los Partidos Étnicos En América Latina. Los Casos De Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Nicaragua Y Perú (1990-2005)., Salvador Marti I Puig

Salvador Marti i Puig

El texto explora si existe alguna causalidad entre la presencia y relevancia de los partidos étnicos (PE) en seis países latinoameri- canos y las “condiciones favorables” que indican diversas perspectivas de la literatura sobre acción colectiva. Para ello se realiza un análisis cuali- tativo multicausal orientado a los casos y a las variables que usa la lógica booleana para sim- plificar estructuras de datos complejos de forma sistemática. Con ello se trata de identificar la variedad de pautas causales de la presencia y éxito de los PÉ en Bolivia, Ecuador y Nicaragua, y no en Guatemala, México y Perú.


Canada's Engagement With Democracies In The Americas, Maxwell A. Cameron, Catherine Hecht Oct 2008

Canada's Engagement With Democracies In The Americas, Maxwell A. Cameron, Catherine Hecht

Maxwell Cameron

Canada’s engagement with Latin America over the past two decades was predicated on three inter-related assumptions: that the region was becoming more democratic, that it had embraced markets, and that, as a result, it was reasonable to expect a more cooperative and pragmatic tone in inter-American affairs. These assumptions have proven faulty. Although democracy remains the preferred system of government, many voters are dissatisfied with their elected governments; the record of progress in reducing poverty and inequality has also been disappointing; finally, the international politics of the region have become more fraught. The current Canadian “re-engagement” with the region ...


From 'Parliamentarized' To 'Pure' Presidentialism: Bolivia After October 2003, Miguel Centellas Oct 2008

From 'Parliamentarized' To 'Pure' Presidentialism: Bolivia After October 2003, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Among the many shifts in Bolivian politics since October 2003 is a subtle, yet significant change in the country's presidential system. Bolivia has recently transitioned from "parliamentarized" to a "pure" presidentism. In the previous system (1985-2002), Bolivian presidents were chosen by the legislature and led multiparty coalition governments. Since October 2003, Bolivia has instead been governed by two independent chief executives. This paper discusses the shift in presidential behavior by analyzing the similarities between Carlos Mesa and Evo Morales—who also fit the the description of "delegate democrats" or "populists"—and their consequences for democratic stability (the lack of ...


From Libertarian To 'Ron Paul' Republican, Craig J. Westover Sep 2008

From Libertarian To 'Ron Paul' Republican, Craig J. Westover

Craig J Westover

Amid the footballs and Frisbees and flags flying over the soccer field at the National Sports Center in Blaine; among the young families sitting on blankets, the older couples comfortably ensconced in canvas lawn chairs, the people of all ages decked out in revolutionary-era garb, Ron Paul and anti-war T-shirts, and red, white and blue in a cacophony of fashion statements, a bald head bobbed along the lengthy beer line snaking along what is normally a soccer field sideline. John Cunningham, looking every bit the 52-year-old Republican (alternate) delegate he is in a gray suit and conservative tie, passed out ...


Elite Network And Conflicts In Niger Delta Region, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp Sep 2008

Elite Network And Conflicts In Niger Delta Region, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp

Dr Ozy B.Orluwene,JP

ABSTRACT Our work on Elite Networks and conflicts in Niger Delta region of Nigeria is desired primarily to examine the role of elites in the Niger Delta Conflicts. It explains why volatile conflicts have come to engulf majority of the states in the region. The people and the environment once reputed for its tranquility and warmth has in the past years acquired the notoriety that has extended to all creeks and hinterland of the region. The famed Niger Delta region has become the epicenter of youth restiveness, hostage taking, cult war, and associated vices. It is hoped that clear identification ...


Obama And Mccain: Running For An Office Not In The Constitution, Craig J. Westover Aug 2008

Obama And Mccain: Running For An Office Not In The Constitution, Craig J. Westover

Craig J Westover

Between now and the November elections, Barack Obama and John McCain will each spend millions of dollars to describe his vision to the American people. From ridding the world of evil to making sure our credit card payments are properly recorded, no task is too sublime or too trivial for the candidates' attention — or voter expectations.

And there's the rub.

The claim of expansive presidential capability to solve the ills of mankind is more than simply over-promising and under-delivering. A president of whom great deeds are expected will demand — or seize — great power to tackle those expectations. The context ...


Convention Speeches: 'The World As It Should Be', Craig J. Westover Aug 2008

Convention Speeches: 'The World As It Should Be', Craig J. Westover

Craig J Westover

Two emotional speeches at the Democratic National Convention Monday Night – by an ailing Sen. Edward Kennedy and vivacious Michelle Obama – were often interrupted by applause. Camera cuts vividly pictured delegates wiping away or smiling through tears, visibly moved by the speakers. Even watching on television, one was cognizant of the emotions swirling inside the Pepsi Center.

We do not expect (although perhaps we should raise our expectations a little) that politicians today match the eloquence of a Lincoln. And one could argue that with their speeches Sen. Kennedy and Ms. Obama accomplished what Lincoln did not – reaching out and connecting ...


La Ciencia Política Española Sobre América Latina, Flavia Freidenberg, Manuel Alcántara Aug 2008

La Ciencia Política Española Sobre América Latina, Flavia Freidenberg, Manuel Alcántara

Flavia Freidenberg

No abstract provided.


Technology And The Romanian Revolution: Performative Contradiction In The Nation-State, Jolan Bogdan Aug 2008

Technology And The Romanian Revolution: Performative Contradiction In The Nation-State, Jolan Bogdan

Jolan Bogdan

This article explores the link between Enframing (Ge-stell) in Martin Heidegger's critique of technology, and Judith Butler's recent work on performative contradiction. The discussion includes a reflection on Baruch de Spinoza's Political Treaties, linking each to the specific political example of the Romanian Revolution of 1989.


Africa, Mark J. Calaguas Aug 2008

Africa, Mark J. Calaguas

Mark J Calaguas

The Africa Committee's contribution to the 2007 Year-in-Review issue of the American Bar Association Section of International Law's quarterly journal, The International Lawyer.


Parties After Success: Why Some Radical Right Parties Persist And Others Collapse, Antonis A. Ellinas Aug 2008

Parties After Success: Why Some Radical Right Parties Persist And Others Collapse, Antonis A. Ellinas

Antonis A. Ellinas

In the past three decades radical right parties have made important electoral advances in most countries across Western Europe. In some cases such parties have managed to endure and grow after their initial electoral breakthroughs, while in other cases they quickly collapsed. To understand the reasons for their divergent trajectories the paper focuses on the development of four radical right parties after their initial breakthroughs: the French National Front, the Austrian Freedom Party, the German Republikaner and theSwedish New Democracy. It examines three different factors affecting their trajectories: the strategic responses of mainstream competitors; the positioning of radical right parties ...


An Analysis Of Source And Frame Interactions On Attitudes Towards Stem Cell Research, Renan Levine, Laura Stephenson Aug 2008

An Analysis Of Source And Frame Interactions On Attitudes Towards Stem Cell Research, Renan Levine, Laura Stephenson

Renan Levine

Despite the apparent acceptance of funding embryonic stem cell research in Canada, the public debate continues. Religious groups have been particularly vocal, especially from the Catholic Church, in expressing their opposition to the research. As a consequence of this high-profile public debate, citizens who look to recognized authorities for guidance on the issue might receive conflicting advice from religious and political leaders. The content of the messages from these different sources can vary widely. Religious groups typically focus on ethical reasoning, while secular elites (including politicians) often highlight more material considerations. In such a situation, where reasonable and persuasive arguments ...


Markets And Famine In North Korea, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard, Erik Weeks Aug 2008

Markets And Famine In North Korea, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard, Erik Weeks

Marcus Noland

In the 1990s, as many as a million North Koreans died in one of the worst famines of the 20th century. Unlike the dramatic recent natural disasters in Burma and China, North Korea’s current food crisis, a product of self-destructive policies, bad weather, and global food price increases, has metastasized largely beyond public view, abetted by Pyongyang’s penchant for secrecy. Permanent resolution of North Korea’s chronic food problems requires revitalization of its industrial economy. Genuine opening would enable the country to earn foreign exchange and import bulk grain on a commercially sustainable basis, just as South Korea ...


Bolivia's Party System After October 2003: Where Did All The Politicians Go?, Miguel Centellas Aug 2008

Bolivia's Party System After October 2003: Where Did All The Politicians Go?, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Bolivia’s political system has recently undergone a dramatic transformation after nearly two decades dominated by three “systemic” parties (MNR, ADN, MIR). Despite resisting challenges from “outsiders” (whether populists, leftists, or indigenous movements) for nearly two decades, the party system was quickly swept away after the “gas war” of October 2003. In its place, the new political landscape appears polarized into two distinct camps: Evo Morales’s MAS and an opposition led by PODEMOS. This paper offers a preliminary exploratory look at Bolivia’s most recent political transformation, looking particularly at the migration patterns of Bolivian career politicians between the ...


Thinking About Power In A Complex System, Dylan Kissane Jul 2008

Thinking About Power In A Complex System, Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

According to many theoretical realists, power in international relations can be measured with attention to material capabilities, the extent influence over other states and even single factors such as military might. Further, for realists the greatest powers in the international system are states or coalitions of states, with international organisations, corporations, transnational groups and individuals barely registering in terms of power in most realist theory. One of the reasons for this state-centricity is the assumption by realists of an anarchic system. Faced with theorising international systemic anarchy, the realists and, indeed, most international relations theorists looking at the notion of ...


China: Re-Emerging, Not Rising, Dylan Kissane Jul 2008

China: Re-Emerging, Not Rising, Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

In late 1993 Nicholas Kristof argued in the pages of Foreign Affairs that “the rise of china, if it continues, may be the most important trend in the world for the next century”. Fifteen years later two things are clear: there is no longer any reason to wonder if China’s rise will continue and the impact of this surge in the East is now clearly the most important trend in international politics this century.


Sustainable Master Planning In Urban Politics And Policy: A Service Learning Project, Shannon Jenkins Jul 2008

Sustainable Master Planning In Urban Politics And Policy: A Service Learning Project, Shannon Jenkins

Shannon Jenkins

Despite evidence that service learning projects can have positive effects on students’ learning and civic engagement, such projects are not yet widely utilized in political science. This seems to be driven, in part, by the concern that service learning projects may politicize students. In my Urban Politics and Policy class, I implemented a service learning project that sought to avoid the problem of politicization. This project focused on developing a sustainable master plan in a local community. While the experience had some limitations, assessment data demonstrate a positive impact on my students’ understanding of the material covered in class and ...


Kosova: Eski Dost, Yeni Devlet (Kosovo: Old Friend, New State), Cuneyt M. Yenigun Jul 2008

Kosova: Eski Dost, Yeni Devlet (Kosovo: Old Friend, New State), Cuneyt M. Yenigun

Cuneyt M. Yenigun

This study discusses Kosovo's unilateral independence proclamation and its positive effects to the Balkan Area.


Bridging Politics And Science, Carl E. Marklund Jun 2008

Bridging Politics And Science, Carl E. Marklund

Carl Marklund

Dissertation Summary In this dissertation I have tried to map how the concept of “social engineering” has been used from its inception in the early 1890s to the beginning of its decline in the late 1940s. The study concentrates upon the 1930s. In particular, I have asked who used this concept, in what contexts, and against which adversaries. I have taken most of my material from Sweden and the USA since both of these countries have been seen as examples of successful “organization of modernity.” And social engineering is indeed often taken to be exactly that—an attempt at organizing ...


A Formação Do Campo Político Profissional No Brasil: Uma Hipótese A Partir Do Caso De São Paulo, Adriano Codato Jun 2008

A Formação Do Campo Político Profissional No Brasil: Uma Hipótese A Partir Do Caso De São Paulo, Adriano Codato

Adriano Codato

Through examination of the political properties and the socio-occupational characteristics of São Paulo state representatives at the 1946 National Constituent Assembly, this article provides evidence of three types. With regard to those who were in control of key positions within the State throughout the period of the República Velha (1889-1930) there was: i) an important change in the social origin of the elite; ii) at the same time, a greater professionalization of the political class and iii) these two processes were not simultaneous, yet a "political renovation" did occur, identifiable for example through the change in age group within the ...