Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Liberdade, Ética E Direito, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2008

Liberdade, Ética E Direito, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Further than Ethics concieved as mere obedience, Republican Ethics expresses the idea of duty for freedom and Liberty. After Law concieved as only duty and imperative norms from power to the subjects, there is the possibility of a fraternal law, in new patterns. This article explores several ways in a new ethics and a new law paradigms, after the objective Roman Law and the subjective modern Law.


No. 6 - 30th Anniversary Issue, Henry Kissinger, James Baker, Warren Christopher, Madeleine Albright, Colin Powell, Lee Hamilton, Daniel R. Fung, Diana Wallis Oct 2008

No. 6 - 30th Anniversary Issue, Henry Kissinger, James Baker, Warren Christopher, Madeleine Albright, Colin Powell, Lee Hamilton, Daniel R. Fung, Diana Wallis

Occasional Papers Series

With this issue of the Occasional Papers, we celebrate the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Dean Rusk Center, which bears the name of the late School of Law faculty member who served as secretary of state under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson from 1961 until 1969.

Our purpose in hosting the conference and lectures published in this volume was to provide a forum for developing the comprehensive new focus necessary to met the American foreign policy demands of the 21st century. In so doing, it is our intent that the advice and counsel of the ...


Africa, Mark J. Calaguas Aug 2008

Africa, Mark J. Calaguas

Mark J Calaguas

The Africa Committee's contribution to the 2007 Year-in-Review issue of the American Bar Association Section of International Law's quarterly journal, The International Lawyer.


Transdisciplinary Conflict Of Laws Foreword: Cavers's Double Legacy, Karen Knop, Ralf Michaels, Annelise Riles Jul 2008

Transdisciplinary Conflict Of Laws Foreword: Cavers's Double Legacy, Karen Knop, Ralf Michaels, Annelise Riles

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

.


Shaping The Contours Of Domestic Justice: The International Criminal Court And An Admissibility Challenge In The Uganda Situation, William W. Burke-White, Scott Kaplan Apr 2008

Shaping The Contours Of Domestic Justice: The International Criminal Court And An Admissibility Challenge In The Uganda Situation, William W. Burke-White, Scott Kaplan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In December 2003, the Government of Uganda referred the situation in conflict-torn northern Uganda to the nascent International Criminal Court. It was the first referral by a State Party under Article 14 of the Rome Statute of ICC and led to the indictment of five leaders of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). Four years later, Uganda found itself in the midst of promising peace negotiations with the LRA. A major obstacle to a final agreement was the refusal of the indicted leaders to face ICC justice. Seeking to peacefully resolve the conflict, the Government signed a preliminary agreement in ...


Generals In Three-Piece Suits—Contractors In Camouflage: A Critical Assessment Of Contractors In Iraq, Wyman E. Shuler Iii Apr 2008

Generals In Three-Piece Suits—Contractors In Camouflage: A Critical Assessment Of Contractors In Iraq, Wyman E. Shuler Iii

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Contractors compose part of the total force for U.S. warfare capability in Iraq.

Some augment U.S. warfare capability; others do not. Some of the contractors are controlled by the military; others are controlled by civilian (nonmilitary/political) government agencies. The problem: Who are the contractors and how has the nature of government oversight and control over contractors determined whether contractor contributions augment or diminish U.S. warfare capability in the Iraq War?

Argument: It is the degree of government control over contractors that determines whether the contractors' contributions have a positive or negative impact on warfare capability. Ultimately ...


Transnational Corporations (Tncs) And The Effective Implementation Of Social And Economic Rights: Current And Prospective Avenues, Analia Marsella Feb 2008

Transnational Corporations (Tncs) And The Effective Implementation Of Social And Economic Rights: Current And Prospective Avenues, Analia Marsella

Analia Marsella Sende

In this Essay, I explain the role and impact of transnational corporations in the process of development and implementation of economic and social rights at a global scale and identify the solutions that I regard as plausible. I do so from an international human rights perspective that integrates both the legal and non-legal approaches. I concentrate on the international aspects of legalization, adjudication, and policy making. First, I analyze social and economic rights in the current context, the old and most recent understandings, and the challenges posed by the phenomenon of globalization together with the rising of corporations in the ...


The Argentine Financial Crisis: State Liability Under Bits And The Legitimacy Of The Icsid System, William W. Burke-White Jan 2008

The Argentine Financial Crisis: State Liability Under Bits And The Legitimacy Of The Icsid System, William W. Burke-White

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay examines the jurisprudence of the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) arbitral tribunals in a series of cases brought against the Republic of Argentina in the wake of the 2001-2002 Argentine financial collapse. The essay considers the ICSID tribunals' treatment of non-precluded measures provisions in Argentina's bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and the customary law defense of necessity and argues that the ICSID tribunals have sought to radically narrow the opportunities available to states to craft policy responses to emergency situations while strengthening investor protections beyond the intent of the states parties to the BITs ...


Patriotismo Constitucional Y Procesos De Integración, Pablo Contreras Jan 2008

Patriotismo Constitucional Y Procesos De Integración, Pablo Contreras

Pablo Contreras

El rol y centralidad del Estado Nación están en cuestión, a lo cual colaboran los procesos de integración regional. En este marco se postula la necesidad de revisar la identidad política nacional y pensar en esquemas postnacionales, buscando los ejes de aglutinación social en bases y principios que escapen a los caracteres típicos del concepto de nación. Clave en este proceso es el empleo del concepto de patriotismo constitucional. A partir del cual el autor plantea tres interrogantes: comprensión del concepto de patriotismo constitucional, su operatividad, y los aportes y desafíos que éste plantea al proceso de integración regional latinoamericano.


In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman Jan 2008

In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following study is an examination of the effects of globalization, regime type and macroeconomic policy on economic growth. 90 countries are examined between the years 1975-2003. While there are issues with the use of the proxy variable, the general effects can be explored. These effects are found to differ between high-income and low-income countries. The analysis finds that low-income countries should focus on improving inefficient distribution of services. High-income countries are able to choose from a range macroeconomic policies and are not forced to converge around any one policy.


Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung Jan 2008

Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Vicuna fiber has a high value in the textile and fashion industry and is seen on the runways of the most selective and luxurious clothing designers in Europe. However, the vicuna fiber process and commodity chain are little known. This thesis presents the commodity chain of vicuna fiber and the positive and negative impacts that vicuna fiber commercialization generates in Peruvian peasant communities. The research, based on in-depth interviews and document analysis, studies the development of this buyer-driven chain, the social actors' roles, and the policies and legislation implemented to preserve vicuna species. In response to consumption demands, the marketing ...


Framing China: How U.S. Media Reported Eight U.S. State Visits By Top Chinese Leaders, Yao Chang Jan 2008

Framing China: How U.S. Media Reported Eight U.S. State Visits By Top Chinese Leaders, Yao Chang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined ways in which eight Chinese leaders' state visits to the United States have been portrayed in terms of coverage and news framing in The New York Times, The Washington Post, Time, and Newsweek. This study included content analysis of both text and photos. It was expected that the content would match the underlying political and economic situations. However, results show coverage does not always fit into economic and political categories. Exceptions occurred when unexpected incidents took place such as protests in the Tiananmen Square Incident. Generally, text coverage was balanced, with positive and negative items in most ...


Neoclassical Realism And The Collapse Of The 1994 Agreed Framework, Chase O. Davidson Jan 2008

Neoclassical Realism And The Collapse Of The 1994 Agreed Framework, Chase O. Davidson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The collapse of the 1994 Agreed Framework in early 2003 has had far reaching consequences for the diplomatic relationship of the United States and North Korea. In the following thesis, neoclassical realist theory is applied to the collapse of the Agreed Framework in an effort to gain insight on the importance of domestic level variables in the successful implementation of foreign policy. The thesis also provides a roadmap for American policy makers toward the successful construction of a lasting nuclear agreement between the United States and Democratic People's Republic of Korea.


Post-Cold War Japan-Rok Relations: A Pluralist Approach, Yong Ouk Cho Jan 2008

Post-Cold War Japan-Rok Relations: A Pluralist Approach, Yong Ouk Cho

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between Japan and the ROK has been volatile in the post-Cold War period. Accounting for why the Japanese-South Korean relationship has combined cooperation and conflict in unexpected ways is a challenging task for international relations theory. The variations of the Japan-ROK relations in the post-Cold War are accounted for if we selectively use and combine different IR theoretical perspectives. This leads us to favor a pluralist approach.


Hezbollah's Nasrallah: The "Great Man" Of The Levant, Nathan William Swanson Jan 2008

Hezbollah's Nasrallah: The "Great Man" Of The Levant, Nathan William Swanson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Since its founding in the early 1980s, Hezbollah has become a major political player in Middle East politics. Attempts at explaining the organization's behavior, however, has been largely limited to one theory---that the group's actions are driven by long-time allies and benefactors Iran and Syria. This thesis challenges this "proxy" view of Hezbollah and explores, under the "great men" theory, the influence of the organization's Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, a charismatic leader with celebrity status across the entire Arab world. This study finds that, while Iran and Syria were defining forces in Hezbollah's early ideologies and actions ...


Investment Protection In Extraordinary Times: The Interpretation And Application Of Non-Precluded Measures Provisions In Bilateral Investment Treaties, William W. Burke-White, Andreas Von Staden Jan 2008

Investment Protection In Extraordinary Times: The Interpretation And Application Of Non-Precluded Measures Provisions In Bilateral Investment Treaties, William W. Burke-White, Andreas Von Staden

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

When threatened by crises such as global terrorism, financial collapse, pandemic diseases, and natural disasters, states may resort to measures that harm the interests of foreign investors protected under the bilateral investment treaty (BIT) regime. Many such BITs, however, contain heretofore under-studied clauses that preclude liability for state actions taken in response to exceptional circumstances. These non-precluded measures (NPM) clauses effectively transfer the risk of and costs associated with state action in exceptional circumstances from the host-states of international investments to the investors. In two recent cases brought against Argentina in response to the Argentine financial crisis, ICSID tribunals have ...


Vote-Trading In International Institutions, Ofer Eldar Jan 2008

Vote-Trading In International Institutions, Ofer Eldar

Faculty Scholarship

There is evidence that countries trade votes among each other in international institutions on a wide range of issues, including the use of force, trade issues and elections of judges. Vote-trading has been criticized as being a form of corruption, undue influence and coercion. Contrary to common wisdom, however, I argue in this paper that the case for introducing policy measures against vote-trading cannot be made out on the basis of available evidence. This paper sets out an analytical framework for analyzing vote-trading in international institutions, focusing on three major contexts in which vote-trading may generate benefits and costs: (1 ...


The Domestic Influence Of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia And The Creation Of The State Court Of Bosnia & Herzegovina, William W. Burke-White Jan 2008

The Domestic Influence Of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia And The Creation Of The State Court Of Bosnia & Herzegovina, William W. Burke-White

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

International criminal tribunals are often criticized for having minimal influence on the states over which they exercise jurisdiction. This article argues that the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has had a far more positive impact on domestic governance in Bosnia & Herzegovina than previously assumed by both the academic and policy communities. The article develops a theoretical model to explain the impact of international criminal tribunals on domestic governance and tests that model against the ICTY¹s influence in Bosnia. More specifically, the article advances the claim that the nature of the tribunal¹s jurisdictional relationship with domestic judicial institutions and ...


Institutional Conditionality And State Compliance: The Czech And Slovak Accession To Nato And The Eu, Eva Svobodova Jan 2008

Institutional Conditionality And State Compliance: The Czech And Slovak Accession To Nato And The Eu, Eva Svobodova

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation studies the interaction between international institutions and nation states. More specifically, it examines how the membership conditionality of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) was adopted by candidate states. It uses the Czech and Slovak accessions to NATO and the EU to argue that, in order to understand the external phenomenon of conditionality, we need to study its effects within states. Critical to this process is national leadership. National leaders determine whether and how conditionality is implemented. Furthermore, this dissertation asserts that successful compliance with NATO and EU conditionality is decisively determined by ...


Analysis Of The Republic Of Tajikistan's Draft Law 'About Freedom Of Conscience And Religious Unions', Robert Blitt, W. Durham Dec 2007

Analysis Of The Republic Of Tajikistan's Draft Law 'About Freedom Of Conscience And Religious Unions', Robert Blitt, W. Durham

Robert C. Blitt

This article, prepared at the request of the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ICNL), provides an article-by-article detailed legal analysis of key shortcomings in Tajikistan's draft law About Freedom of Conscience and Religious Unions. Based on their analysis, the authors provide recommendations for amendments directed at ensuring that the final draft law complies with Tajikistan's international and domestic human rights obligations.


How To Entrench A De Facto State Church In Russia: A Guide In Progress, Robert Blitt Dec 2007

How To Entrench A De Facto State Church In Russia: A Guide In Progress, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

The Russian Orthodox Church's (ROC) assertion of a constitutionally inappropriate role in affairs of state has severely compromised Russia's secular constitutional framework. This gradual but steady erosion of the barrier between church and state is evidenced by a series of contemporary developments that are inexorably linked to the Church's vision of its traditional place in Russian history. Disturbingly, each successive post-communist regime has further enabled this behavior, and there is no indication that the political transition from President Vladimir Putin to his hand-picked successor, Dmitry Medvedev, will change anything. This paper argues that the emerging pattern of ...


'Babushka Said Two Things - It Will Either Rain Or Snow; It Either Will Or Will Not': An Analysis Of The Provisions And Human Rights Implications Of Russia's New Law On Nongovernmental Organizations As Told Through Eleven Russian Proverbs, Robert Blitt Dec 2007

'Babushka Said Two Things - It Will Either Rain Or Snow; It Either Will Or Will Not': An Analysis Of The Provisions And Human Rights Implications Of Russia's New Law On Nongovernmental Organizations As Told Through Eleven Russian Proverbs, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

Longtime observers of Russia increasingly have called attention to and expressed profound concern for the direction the Russian Federation has taken in recent years. In advancing President Putin's vision of "dictatorship of law" and "managed democracy," the Russian government has retreated from key democratic reforms, undermining the transition away from Soviet rule and imperiling significant gains in fundamental human rights. It is against this backdrop that, in January 2006, President Putin ratified major amendments to the 1996 Law on Nonprofit Organizations, which regulates the creation, reorganization, activity, and liquidation of NGOs in Russia. Putin has claimed that the amendments ...


Comentario Del Artículo De Alfonso Herranz-Loncán "Railroad Impact In Backward Economies: Spain, 1850 - 1913", Javier Agudo Dec 2007

Comentario Del Artículo De Alfonso Herranz-Loncán "Railroad Impact In Backward Economies: Spain, 1850 - 1913", Javier Agudo

Javier Agudo

Herranz-Loncán concluye que el ferrocarril sí tuvo un importante impacto en la economía española, pero no superior al experimentado en otros países como, por ejemplo, Inglaterra. ¿Cómo se explica entonces que el ferrocarril tenga el mismo impacto en un país que no tenía apenas vías de comunicación alternativas que en Inglaterra, donde ya existía una extensa y densa red de canales? La respuesta es que el transporte por ferrocarril tenía una importancia muy reducida en el total del PIB español. La economía española era una economía atrasada, y una gran parte de ella permaneció ajena al ferrocarril hasta mucho más ...


Comentario Del Artículo De Joan R. Rosés Y Blanca Sánchez-Alonso "Regional Wage Convergence In Spain 1850 - 1930", Javier Agudo Dec 2007

Comentario Del Artículo De Joan R. Rosés Y Blanca Sánchez-Alonso "Regional Wage Convergence In Spain 1850 - 1930", Javier Agudo

Javier Agudo

Entre los años 1850 y 1930, España experimentó una importante convergencia de los salarios en las distintas regiones, al nivel de otros países europeos, si bien hay que destacar el periodo excepcional de la I Guerra Mundial, en el que aumentaron las divergencias. Los movimientos migratorios no son una variable explicativa importante en el caso de España puesto que, exceptuando los años posteriores a la I Guerra Mundial, no fueron de suficiente entidad. Hay que buscar en la creación de un mercado nacional sin barreras la causa explicativa de la convergencia de los salarios.


The Changing Role Of The State In The British Economy Between 1914 And 1921, Javier Agudo Dec 2007

The Changing Role Of The State In The British Economy Between 1914 And 1921, Javier Agudo

Javier Agudo

The First World War represented the first high profile war that took place after the developed world had experienced the Industrial Revolution, and the international economic relations between countries had never been so strong. Based principally in the work by R. H. Tawney "The abolition of economic controls, 1918-1921" (Tawney; 1943), I am going to try to explain in this essay the role of the state during the conflict and how the Government reacted to the different problems that aroused in this period.


Comentario Del Artículo De Joan R. Rosés "Why Isn’T The Whole Of Spain Industrialized? New Economic Geography And Early Industrilalization, 1797-1910", Javier Agudo Dec 2007

Comentario Del Artículo De Joan R. Rosés "Why Isn’T The Whole Of Spain Industrialized? New Economic Geography And Early Industrilalization, 1797-1910", Javier Agudo

Javier Agudo

España se convirtió en un mercado plenamente integrado a la lo largo del siglo XIX. Rosés no tiene ninguna duda de este hecho. Por ello, las teorías de los historiadores que intentan explicar el desarrollo de las regiones como entidades separadas no tienen ninguna consistencia. Es a través de la nueva geografía económica como puede darse una respuesta coherente y completa a por qué no toda España está industrializada.


Human And Fundamental Rights And Duties In Portuguese Constitution. Some Reflections, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2007

Human And Fundamental Rights And Duties In Portuguese Constitution. Some Reflections, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

The Portuguese Constitution (1976) came after a period of 48 years of authoritarianism and a closed society, in which some happy few enjoyed great privileges while the great majority of people were charged with heavy duties So, by a very understandable "law of human nature", the constituent law givers could not reasonably impose constitutionally many obligations, in an autonomous way. As rights and duties are the twin sides of the same coin, the juridical formulation under the sign of rights also implies obligations, related to those same rights. This is kinder and more pleasant to do by a liberating Constitution...


El Derecho Natural, Historia E Ideologia, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2007

El Derecho Natural, Historia E Ideologia, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Intentemos retomar algunos hilos sueltos de discursos dispersos y con una nueva mirada analítica, procuremos ver una realidad sutil y huidiza: ese derecho natural que parece silencioso en nuestros días, y más silencioso aún en los discursos psitacistas: tanto en los pomposos como en los pseudo-rigurosos.


Princípio Republicano E Virtudes Republicanas, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2007

Princípio Republicano E Virtudes Republicanas, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

O presente artigo procura unir traços de aparente heterodoxia, recuperando, porém, paradigmas e tópicos que não são novos. Com efeito, nem as virtudes, nem a república, nem sequer a felicidade são novidades. O que talvez seja novo (new again) é o espírito de buscar outra vez as raízes, as fontes, para um intento de renovação do ambiente juspolítico. Somos naturalmente favorável a uma Constituição principial e valorativa, como a nossa. Mas parece-nos que há nela lugar a Virtudes (que já existem nela), e que a descoberta das Virtudes nas Constituições, e, logo, no Direito, é, afinal, um ovo de Colombo ...


Da Constituição Antiga À Constituição Moderna. República E Virtude, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2007

Da Constituição Antiga À Constituição Moderna. República E Virtude, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Virtude e República necessariamente têm de levar-nos à Antiguidade: desde logo porque a primeira “começa” com a helénica "areté". Logo, é preciso ir, antes de mais, à Grécia Antiga, e especialmente ao legado ateniense. “Directly or indirectly, Athenian democracy as an extraordinary experiment in social history thus stimulates our own thinking about crucial issues of our own democracy and society, incomparably more complex though they are. The point is precisely that the ancients help us focus on the essentials" - como afirma Kurt A. Raaflaub.