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2008

American Politics

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Articles 61 - 80 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics (Stem) Education: Background, Federal Policy, And Legislative Action, Jeffrey J. Kuenzi Jan 2008

Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics (Stem) Education: Background, Federal Policy, And Legislative Action, Jeffrey J. Kuenzi

Congressional Research Service Reports

There is growing concern that the United States is not preparing a sufficient number of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). A large majority of secondary school students fail to reach proficiency in math and science, and many are taught by teachers lacking adequate subject matter knowledge.

When compared to other nations, the math and science achievement of U.S. pupils and the rate of STEM degree attainment appear inconsistent with a nation considered the world leader in scientific innovation. In a recent international assessment of 15-year-old students, the U.S. ranked ...


The Wild And Scenic Rivers Act And Federal Water Rights, Cynthia Brougher Jan 2008

The Wild And Scenic Rivers Act And Federal Water Rights, Cynthia Brougher

Congressional Research Service Reports

During the 1960s, support grew for the idea that the development of our nation’s rivers needed to be balanced by protecting certain rivers that possessed outstanding undeveloped qualities. This sentiment culminated in the enactment of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Rivers may be designated for protection under the act by Congress or nominated for inclusion by a Governor and approved by the Secretary of the Interior. The act addresses the protection of the water flows of designated rivers, both expressly and by implication. This report examines the purposes, language, and legislative history of the act in ...


Wilderness: Overview And Statistics, Ross W. Gorte Jan 2008

Wilderness: Overview And Statistics, Ross W. Gorte

Congressional Research Service Reports

Congress enacted the Wilderness Act in 1964. This Act created the National Wilderness Preservation System, reserved to Congress the authority to designate wilderness areas, and directed the Secretaries of Agriculture and of the Interior to review certain lands for their wilderness potential. The Act also designated 54 wilderness areas with 9 million acres of federal land. Congress began expanding the Wilderness System in 1968, and today, there are 708 wilderness areas, totaling more than 107 million acres, in 44 states. Numerous bills to designate additional areas and to expand existing ones are introduced and considered in every Congress.

The Wilderness ...


Active Military Sonar And Marine Mammals: Events And References, Eugene H. Buck, Kori Clavert Jan 2008

Active Military Sonar And Marine Mammals: Events And References, Eugene H. Buck, Kori Clavert

Congressional Research Service Reports

The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. Some peacetime use of military sonar has been regulated under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and other statutes due to concerns that active military sonars are operated at frequencies used by some cetaceans (i.e., whales, porpoises, and dolphins), and their highintensity sound pulses may travel long distances in the ocean. There is also concern that sonar transmissions of sufficiently high intensity might physically damage the ...


Alternative Fuels And Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues In Congress, Brent D. Yacobucci Jan 2008

Alternative Fuels And Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues In Congress, Brent D. Yacobucci

Congressional Research Service Reports

Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers — especially economics — currently prevent the widespread use of these fuels and technologies. Because of these barriers, and the potential benefits, there is continued congressional interest in providing incentives and other support for their development and commercialization.

In the 110th Congress, alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles have received a good deal of attention, especially in discussions over U.S. energy security. In his January 24, 2007, State of the ...


Science And Technology Policymaking: A Primer, Deborah D. Stine Jan 2008

Science And Technology Policymaking: A Primer, Deborah D. Stine

Congressional Research Service Reports

Scientific and technical knowledge and guidance influences not just policy related to science and technology, but also many of today’s public policies as policymakers seek knowledge to enhance the quality of their decisions. Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nation’s response to societal challenges, and the education of Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Science and engineering research and innovations are intricately linked to societal needs and the nation’s economy in ...


Energy And Water Development: Fy2009 Appropriations, Carl E. Behrens Jan 2008

Energy And Water Development: Fy2009 Appropriations, Carl E. Behrens

Congressional Research Service Reports

The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies.

In considering the FY2009 budget, both the House and the Senate Appropriations Committees voted to report out an Energy and Water Development appropriations bill. However, neither bill reached the floor in either house. On September 24, 2008, the House passed H.R. 2638, the Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Appropriations Act, 2009, which continued appropriations for Energy and ...


Soil And Water Conservation: An Overview, Tadlock Cowan, Renée Johnson Jan 2008

Soil And Water Conservation: An Overview, Tadlock Cowan, Renée Johnson

Congressional Research Service Reports

Soil and water conservation topics are prominent in discussions of policy options for the next farm bill, which the 110th Congress is considering. Major conservation topics include where to set overall funding levels and levels for each program; what should be the priorities for the conservation effort; and deciding whether any existing programs or activities should be modified or eliminated and whether new programs or activities should be added to the effort. Addressing these topics often pits supporters of commodity programs and the traditional farm program benefits against those who would like to see an expanded conservation effort.

The House ...


2008: Public Response Submissions Jan 2008

2008: Public Response Submissions

CACTUS--Citizens' Assembly for Critical Thinking About the United States

Is it time to change the way we elect the President?

Does the electoral college work?

Is it democratic?

Should there be a direct popular vote for the president?

Are "faithless electors" an accident waiting to happen?


2008: Assembly's Recommendation Jan 2008

2008: Assembly's Recommendation

CACTUS--Citizens' Assembly for Critical Thinking About the United States

The members of EKU's first CACTUS (Citizen's Assembly for Critical Thinking about the United States, POL 301) have carefully deliberated about the issue for electing the President and concluded that our current Electoral College is not the best electoral system for the United States.


2008 Mandate: Is It Time To Change The Way We Elect The President? Jan 2008

2008 Mandate: Is It Time To Change The Way We Elect The President?

CACTUS--Citizens' Assembly for Critical Thinking About the United States

The 2008 Citizen's Assembly for Critical Thinking about the United States (CACTUS) must study models and proposals for electing the President of the United States and the Vice-President, and recommend whether the process, including the current "electoral college" method of electing these officials as described in the U.S. Constitution, Article II and Amendment XII, should be retained or another method should be adopted.


Electoral Poaching And Party Identification, Dan Kovenock, Brian Roberson Jan 2008

Electoral Poaching And Party Identification, Dan Kovenock, Brian Roberson

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

This article studies electoral competition in a model of redistributive politics with deterministic voting and heterogeneous voter loyalties to political parties. We construct a natural measure of `party strength' based on the sizes and intensities of a party's loyal voter segments and demonstrate how party behavior varies with the two parties' strengths. In equilibrium, parties target or `poach' a strict subset of the opposition party's loyal voters: offering those voters a high expected transfer, while `freezing out' the remainder with a zero transfer. The size of the subset of opposition voters frozen out and, consequently, the level of ...


The War On Terror And Contemporary U.S.-European Relations, James M. Mccormick Jan 2008

The War On Terror And Contemporary U.S.-European Relations, James M. Mccormick

Political Science Publications

The Bush Administration's "WAR ON TERROR" and its implications for U.S.European relations often evoke contradictory views among Americans. On the one hand, they can generate considerable apprehension since European views toward Americans generally-and President Bush in particularhas been caricatured in a number of unflattering ways. Recall, for example, the headline in the British tabloid, the Daily Mirror, immediately after the November 2004 presidential election: "How can 59,054,087 people be so DUMB?" On the other hand, those topics can evoke the considerable affection that Europeans have for the American people, if not always for their government ...


Evaluating Majority Party Leaders In Congress, Daniel Palazzolo Jan 2008

Evaluating Majority Party Leaders In Congress, Daniel Palazzolo

Political Science Faculty Publications

Evaluations of majority party leaders come from three main sources: political scientists, media analysts, and members of Congress. Political scientists are the theoreticians. They have defined concepts and developed theories for evaluating leadership style, strategy, and strength. Journalists are the watchdogs. They regularly evaluate leader performance in response to contemporary events. Members of Congress then serve as the judges and juries. They occasionally advise leaders on tactics and strategies, and they ultimately have the ability to sanction or reward leaders.


Hispanic Citizenship, Registration, And Voting Patterns: A Comparative Analysis Of The 2000 And 2004 Presidential Elections, Debora Upegui Jan 2008

Hispanic Citizenship, Registration, And Voting Patterns: A Comparative Analysis Of The 2000 And 2004 Presidential Elections, Debora Upegui

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction: This study examines citizenship, registration, and voting patterns among Latinos in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential Elections.

Methods: Data on Latinos and other racial/ethnic groups were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa. Cases in the dataset were weighted and analyzed to produce population estimates.

Results: There is no doubt that the Hispanic population in the United States has consistently grown in the last two decades and continues to be the largest growing minority group within the United States. According to the ...


Gerrymanders And Theories Of Law Making: A Study Of Legislative Redistricting In Illinois, Michael C. Herron, Alan E. Wiseman Jan 2008

Gerrymanders And Theories Of Law Making: A Study Of Legislative Redistricting In Illinois, Michael C. Herron, Alan E. Wiseman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Redistricting politics in Illinois provide a novel opportunity for testing competing theories of law making. With this in mind, we demonstrate that the post-2000 Census redistricters in Illinois, dominated by Democrats, strategically reshuffled district demographic profiles in an attempt to convert relatively liberal Republican districts to conservative Democratic districts in the state Senate while decreasing and increasing the ideological diversity of the Democrats and Republicans, respectively, in the House. Such reshufflings suggest that legislative politics in Illinois are conducted in a manner consistent with vote-buying theories of coalition formation.


Shareholder Primacy's Corporatist Origins: Adolf Berle And The Modern Corporation, William W. Bratton, Michael L. Wachter Jan 2008

Shareholder Primacy's Corporatist Origins: Adolf Berle And The Modern Corporation, William W. Bratton, Michael L. Wachter

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Administrative Law Agonistes, Mathew D. Mccubbins, Roger Noll, Barry R. Weingast, Daniel B. Rodriguez Jan 2008

Administrative Law Agonistes, Mathew D. Mccubbins, Roger Noll, Barry R. Weingast, Daniel B. Rodriguez

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The President’S Question Time: Power, Information, And The Executive Credibility Gap, Sudha Setty Jan 2008

The President’S Question Time: Power, Information, And The Executive Credibility Gap, Sudha Setty

Faculty Scholarship

The rule of law depends on a working separation of powers and transparency and accountability in government. If information is power, the ability of one branch of government to control information represents the ability to control federal legislation, policy, and decision-making. The Framers of the United States Constitution developed the Madisonian model of separated powers and functions, and a system of checks and balances to maintain those separations, with this in mind. History has shown a progressive shift of the power to control information toward the executive branch and away from the Legislature. Particularly when unified, one-party government precludes effective ...


The Transformation Of Generation X: Shifts In Religious And Political Self-Identification, 1990-2008, Barry A. Kosmin, Juhem Navarro-Rivera Jan 2008

The Transformation Of Generation X: Shifts In Religious And Political Self-Identification, 1990-2008, Barry A. Kosmin, Juhem Navarro-Rivera

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.