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2007

Selected Works

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Articles 1 - 30 of 211

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Subadditivity And The Unpacking Effect In Political Opinions, Renan Levine Dec 2007

Subadditivity And The Unpacking Effect In Political Opinions, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

To explain subadditivity in judgments of probabilities, support theory (Tversky and Koehler 1994) emphasizes the increased availability of information about component events. This paper demonstrates that similar processes occur in responses to public opinion questions. When a broad description of a policy is “unpacked” into more specific component policies, support for the component policies exceeds support for the original, broad policy. This effect is especially strong when one or more of the unpacked policies make information available to the decision-maker that was not accessible when the broad description was provided. This behavior violates Luce’s (1959) axiom of independence of ...


Offensive Realism And Central & Eastern Europe After The Cold War, Dylan Kissane Dec 2007

Offensive Realism And Central & Eastern Europe After The Cold War, Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

At the end of the Cold War, John Mearsheimer published the article, “Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War”. The widely-cited piece included four predictions for the post-Cold War European geopolitical landscape founded on the theory of offensive realism, the realpolitik approach that Mearsheimer had established and developed over more than a decade of scholarship. However, the emergence of a post-Cold War and pan-continental peace suggests that something was wrong with Mearsheimer’s predictions and, by implication, the theory that informed them. This article argues that Mearsheimer’s mistake was to rely on a theory that ...


Impuestos Y Justicia Distributiva. Una Revisión Normativa De La Propuesta De Murphy Y Nagel, Cristian Pérez Muñoz Dec 2007

Impuestos Y Justicia Distributiva. Una Revisión Normativa De La Propuesta De Murphy Y Nagel, Cristian Pérez Muñoz

Cristian Pérez Muñoz

Recently, Liam Murphy and Thomas Nagel have presented an interesting and controversial proposal to evaluate normatively a tax system (Murphy y Nagel 2001, 2002; Murphy 2005a, 2005b). Basically, they argue that a tax scheme will be just only if it finds its place in a just set of economic and legal institutions. In this work I analyze their proposal. Firstly, I review and present their main ideas. Secondly, I examine some institutional consequences that would suppose the application of their proposal in order to choose a specific tax system. Fundamentally, in this section I evaluate the proposal of Negative Income ...


The Role Of Religious Values In Politics, Darrin P. Dixon Dec 2007

The Role Of Religious Values In Politics, Darrin P. Dixon

Darrin P Dixon

No abstract provided.


To Cross Or Not To Cross? Subjectivization And The Absent State In Cyprus, Olga Demetriou Dec 2007

To Cross Or Not To Cross? Subjectivization And The Absent State In Cyprus, Olga Demetriou

Olga Demetriou

This article is an ethnographic exploration of the process through which citizens come to conceptualize their identities as political subjects in rapidly changing contexts. The focus of the article is the lifting, in 2003, of a ban on crossing between the northern and southern parts of the island of Cyprus, which had been instituted in 1974. The article examines how this new political change affected state rhetoric, and concentrates on the reactions of Greek-Cypriot citizens to this shift. These data are related to the wider discussion on the political theory of subjectivity and the concept of ‘event’, where, it is ...


Lessons For Democratic Transitions: Case Studies From Asia, Tom Ginsburg Dec 2007

Lessons For Democratic Transitions: Case Studies From Asia, Tom Ginsburg

Tom Ginsburg

In an era when democratization is stalled or in retreat in many parts of the world, it is important to highlight the successful democratic experience of East and Southeast Asia in recent decades. Five consolidated democracies have emerged since the mid-1980s; only Thailand has seen some backsliding with the 2006 coup. The Asian cases provide insights into several major debates in the democratization literature, including the relative importance of culture, history, economic structure, and the optimal sequencing of political and economic reform. This article reviews these issues, with particular attention to the role of outside powers in underpinning democratization. Ultimately ...


Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride Dec 2007

Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride

Cillian McBride

No abstract provided.


Disability Rights In Ireland: Chronicle Of A Missed Opportunity, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Judy Walsh Dec 2007

Disability Rights In Ireland: Chronicle Of A Missed Opportunity, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Judy Walsh

Jurgen De Wispelaere

This article critically examines the Disability Act 2005 which regulates access to public services for disabled people in Ireland. We examine the competing conceptions of disability rights advanced by the government and the disability sector during the debate on the legislation and offer an interpretation of disability rights as the justiciable right to challenge. The Disability Act 2005 is then evaluated in light of the proposed framework. We outline a number of ways in which the absence of a justiciable right to challenge fails to safeguard the dignity, empowerment and participation of disabled people. We contend that, despite protestations to ...


Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Shane O'Neill Dec 2007

Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Shane O'Neill

Jurgen De Wispelaere

This is the introduction to a special issue of Irish Political Studies on "Recognition, Equality, Democracy", to appear in December 2007 as a journal and sometime in 2008 as an edited collection published by Taylor & Francis.


Ecosystem-Based Management Of Terrestrial And Coastal Water Resources: Can Rapanos Teach Us Anything About The Future Of Integrated Water Management, Chad J. Mcguire Nov 2007

Ecosystem-Based Management Of Terrestrial And Coastal Water Resources: Can Rapanos Teach Us Anything About The Future Of Integrated Water Management, Chad J. Mcguire

Chad J McGuire

The purpose of this article is to describe aspects of the Rapanos decision, focusing on the Kennedy concurrence, and then suggesting its connection to the ongoing policy debate regarding coastal resource management, and how it may offer a sign of the judicial will to accept an expanding federal role over centralized water management, regardless of spatial location.


Princípios-Tópicos De Hermenêutica Constitucional, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2007

Princípios-Tópicos De Hermenêutica Constitucional, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Houve tempo em que a Constituição servia para poisar ou charuto ou tirar um argumento político, como ironicamente afirmaria o grande escritor oitocentista Eça de Queiroz. Hoje a Constituição é a norma das normas. Daí há consequências hermenêuticas. Ao contrário das teorias que importam interpretação tradicional e, por vezes, em grande medida ultrapassada, para o Direito Constitucional, a tendência actual é a inversa: dada a supremacia da Constituição, deve ser a metodologia constitucional a exportar hermenêutica para o todo do Direito. Para isso, começamos neste artigo com grandes princípios de hermenêutica intra-constitucional. Depois se passará à exportação.


Do Polls Limit Wishful Thinking?, Valery Kisilevsky, Renan Levine Nov 2007

Do Polls Limit Wishful Thinking?, Valery Kisilevsky, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

Previous studies of election predictions have emphasized the effect wishful thinking has on predictions. Wishful thinking was evident in predictions made by partisan respondents to the 2006 Israel Election Study, but does not fully explain the observed variation even when controlling for levels of knowledge and political engagement. To test whether this wishful thinking is the result of a failure to recall the latest polls accurately, or an inability to use this information, we showed some people the latest polls before they make their predictions using a concurrent internet survey-experiment. Others were asked to recall each party’s polling numbers ...


State Of The Union Address, Alison Howard Nov 2007

State Of The Union Address, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

The Encyclopedia of Political Communication discusses the major theoretical approaches to the field, including direct and limited effects theories, agenda-setting theories, sociological theories, framing and priming theories, and other past and present conceptualizations. With nearly 600 entries, this resource pays considerable attention to important political messages such as political speeches, televised political advertising, political posters and print advertising, televised political debates, and Internet sites. The audiences for political communications are also central, necessitating concentration on citizen reactions to political messages, how the general public and voters in democratic systems respond to political messages, and the effects of all types of ...


Presentation On The Arab Economies In A Changing World, Marcus Noland, Howard Pack Nov 2007

Presentation On The Arab Economies In A Changing World, Marcus Noland, Howard Pack

Marcus Noland

No abstract provided.


Monetary Darwinism: The Political Economy Of Monetary Relations, Giulio M. Gallarotti Nov 2007

Monetary Darwinism: The Political Economy Of Monetary Relations, Giulio M. Gallarotti

Giulio M Gallarotti

No abstract provided.


Corruption, Governance And Political Instability In Nigeria, Omololu Toluwanimi Omololu Nov 2007

Corruption, Governance And Political Instability In Nigeria, Omololu Toluwanimi Omololu

Omololu Michael FAGBADEBO

The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and a cyclical legitimacy crisis. Consequently, national development is retarded, and the political environment uncertain. The country’s authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically - differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political gladiators constantly manipulated the people and the political processes to advance their own selfish agenda, the society remained pauperized, and the people wallowed in abject poverty. This invariably led to weak legitimacy, as the citizens lacked faith in their political ...


Fringe Candidates Can Change Perceptions Of Centrist Candidates, Renan Levine Nov 2007

Fringe Candidates Can Change Perceptions Of Centrist Candidates, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

Two experiments demonstrate that adding an extreme third candidate to the choice set causes perceptions of the nearest candidate to appear more centrist. This change in perceptions is large enough to cause this candidate to appear closer to many voters. causal mechanism driving the shift in perceptions is attributed to information about the range of possible values provided by the extreme candidate. This is consistent with “range effects” identified by Parducci (1965) and used to explain behavior in a wide variety of other contexts. In politics, range effects may help a major party candidate win the median voter when an ...


Review Of Jillian Schwedler’S 'Faith In Moderation', Anthony Chase Oct 2007

Review Of Jillian Schwedler’S 'Faith In Moderation', Anthony Chase

Anthony Chase

No abstract provided.


Fanning The Flames: Religious Media Consumption And American Politics, Brian Newman, Mark Smith Oct 2007

Fanning The Flames: Religious Media Consumption And American Politics, Brian Newman, Mark Smith

Brian Newman

Both religion and mass media are politically important in the United States. However, little is known about the political role of religious media. Religious media might be politically influential because they help translate religion into political thinking and because their consumers are likely to internalize the political cues these media provide. We find that almost a quarter of the public claims to have relied on religious media when making voting decisions in 2000. Religious media users felt significantly closer to George W. Bush and Pat Buchanan and farther away from Al Gore and were more likely to vote for Bush ...


El Yo Político. Concepciones Del Yo, La Política Y La Autonomía En La Teoría Política Contemporánea, Emma Norman Oct 2007

El Yo Político. Concepciones Del Yo, La Política Y La Autonomía En La Teoría Política Contemporánea, Emma Norman

Emma R. Norman

LA AUTORA EXPLORA CÓMO LOS CONCEPTOS DEL "YO" Y LA "POLÍTICA" HAN SIDO CONCEPTUALIZADOS EN DISTINTAS ÁREAS DE LA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA CONTEMPORÁNEA. SU ARGUMENTO CENTRAL ES QUE AMBOS CONCEPTOS ESTÁN INELUDIBLEMENTE CONECTADOS Y QUE TAL INTERCONEXIÓN NO HA SIDO PLENAMENTE RECONOCIDA EN LOS DEBATES LIBERAL COMUNITARISTA, POSTESTRUCTURALISTA Y DE DEMOCRACIA DELIBERATIVA. LA AUTORA DEFIENDE UNA CONCEPCIÓN POSLIBERAL DEL YO QUE RECONOCE UNA CONEXIÓN CERCANA Y QUE ES ENSANCHADA, CON "LO POLÍTICO". BASÁNDOSE EN LA CRÍTICA DE LA POLÍTICA LIBERAL DE CARL SCHMITT Y EN LAS PERSPECTIVAS SINGULARES DE HAMRNH ARENDT, NORMAN DESARROLLA UNA VISIÓN POSARENDTIANA MODERADAMENTE AGONÍSTICA. ESTA VISIÓN DE ...


The Unequal Representation Of Latinos And Whites, Brian Newman, John D. Griffin Oct 2007

The Unequal Representation Of Latinos And Whites, Brian Newman, John D. Griffin

Brian Newman

We compare the ideological proximity of Latinos and whites to their Members of Congress (MCs), demonstrating the degree to which Latinos are underrepresented compared to whites. We show how this representation gap varies with group differences in electoral turnout and income, district ethnic composition, and MCs' ethnicity and party affiliation. We find that Latinos' unequal representation is not simply a function of the group's numerical minority status. Concentrating Latinos in congressional districts does not necessarily translate into more equal representation. However, several factors can enhance the equality of Latinos' representation-participation in elections and representation by both Latinos and Democrats.


Public Election Funding, Competition, And Candidate Gender, Timothy Werner, Kenneth R. Mayer Oct 2007

Public Election Funding, Competition, And Candidate Gender, Timothy Werner, Kenneth R. Mayer

Kenneth R Mayer

We analyze the effects of gender and competition on the decision to accept or decline public election funds, in Maine and Arizona since 2000.


Report On The Resolution Of Outstanding Property Claims Between Cuba & The United States, Michael J. Kelly, Patrick J. Borchers, Erika Moreno, Richard C. Witmer, James S. Wunsch, Arthur B. Pearlstein Oct 2007

Report On The Resolution Of Outstanding Property Claims Between Cuba & The United States, Michael J. Kelly, Patrick J. Borchers, Erika Moreno, Richard C. Witmer, James S. Wunsch, Arthur B. Pearlstein

Michael J. Kelly

This commissioned report to USAID outlines two models for resolution of property claims between Cuba and the United States: (1) a bilateral tribunal that will apply international law for the claims of those who were U.S. nationals at the time of the taking, and (2) a special claims court within the Cuban judiciary that will apply Cuban law based on the Spanish Civil Code for the claims of those who were Cuban nationals at the time of the taking. The report includes a complete audit of FCSC files for American claimants, an extensive review of the property claims systems ...


Electoral Mandates In American Politics, Lawrence J. Grossback, David A. M. Peterson, James A. Stimson Sep 2007

Electoral Mandates In American Politics, Lawrence J. Grossback, David A. M. Peterson, James A. Stimson

David A. M. Peterson

Political science has not come to terms with the idea of electoral mandates. The discipline's view is a hodgepodge of competing claims. In this article we review the empirical issues about mandates asking whether or not mandates occur and with what effect. We observe evidence of mandates as social constructions, as dialogues in the Washington community and in the press which serves it.We find that these dialogues accurately reflect election results – consensus emerges from actual sweeping election victories and not from mere strategic attempts to claim policy mandates. We find that Congress is highly responsive to the consensus ...


A Chaotic Theory Of International Relations? The Possibility For Theoretical Revolution In International Politics, Dylan Kissane Sep 2007

A Chaotic Theory Of International Relations? The Possibility For Theoretical Revolution In International Politics, Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

In describing the nature of the international system contemporary international relations theorists frequently divide themselves into two groups: neorealists and neoliberalists. The neorealists emphasise an anarchical structure, drawing implications from this anarchy to explain the order and disorder that greets the analyst of international affairs. Conversely, neoliberalists favour an explanation that focuses on the interdependence of international actors. Yet the international system of the twenty-first century is not one that can be so simply described as either ‘anarchical’ or ‘interdependent’. Instead, the features of the system can best be described in terms reminiscent of other systems from the biological and ...


¿Garantías Del Ingreso Para Garantizar El Trabajo?, Cristian Pérez Muñoz, José Luis Rey Sep 2007

¿Garantías Del Ingreso Para Garantizar El Trabajo?, Cristian Pérez Muñoz, José Luis Rey

Cristian Pérez Muñoz

In this paper we offer a normative evaluation about the Universal Basic Income proposal (UBI) face to the most important justifications of “guarantee job” and “right to work” proposals. Firstly, we present the main arguments that justify a UBI. secondly, we examine some of the most relevant reasons to believe that a UBI can be a desirable redistributive plan face to the current job guarantee policies. thirdly, we analyse the idea that an unconditional and universal income redistribution policy violates the reciprocity principle. in this sense, we argue that a redistributive policy like UBI is a better way to achieve ...


Political Obligation And Democratic Governance: A Case Of Nigeria, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp Sep 2007

Political Obligation And Democratic Governance: A Case Of Nigeria, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp

Dr Ozy B.Orluwene,JP

ABSTRACT This paper attempts to seek and examine a balance between the political obligation (rights of the governed and duties of government) in democratic governance. Political obligation is two sided, namely, obligation on the part of government and obligation on the part of governed. It has to do basically with such issues as necessity for law and government, organized society and obedience on the largest possible scale, as the utilitarian would say, “the purpose of government in organized society is to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number”. The citizens’ willing cooperation and obedience are demanded by the state ...


Law's Autonomy, Ashok Agrwaal Sep 2007

Law's Autonomy, Ashok Agrwaal

Ashok Agrwaal

Like entropy, autonomy exists. As such, the existence of autonomy does not need any law or laws, beyond itself and its nature. Autonomy can, therefore, be said to be an "original" state of human kind; or at least of the individual. Law, which is frequently seen as preserving/ maximising/ conferring autonomy is actually a device to usurp autonomy. The paper looks at a specific example of how the nation-state, the most powerful usurper of autonomies created till date, arrogates autonomy to itself, in the name of ‘public interest’. Needless to say, in the hands of the state, autonomy translates into ...


Message Or Messenger? The Limits Of Moral Leadership, Renan Levine, Laura B. Stephenson Sep 2007

Message Or Messenger? The Limits Of Moral Leadership, Renan Levine, Laura B. Stephenson

Renan Levine

Media coverage of policies sometimes includes quotes from opinion leaders, including clergy and politicians. In an experiment implemented on campuses in two countries, we test the impact of a religious leader and a political leader by seeing how opinions change when these leaders frame their comments using a material or ethical terms. We find that changing the identity of the messenger alters what considerations factor into our subjects’ deliberations about stem-cell research and government spending cuts to pay off the government debt. However, the efficacy of the leader does not depend on the content of the message. Instead, the messenger ...


Citizenship Deficits In Latin American Democracies, Maxwell A. Cameron Sep 2007

Citizenship Deficits In Latin American Democracies, Maxwell A. Cameron

Maxwell Cameron

There is little evidence of a crisis of electoral democracy in Latin America, yet many of the region’s democratic regimes are unstable. Recently, Latin American democracies have been threatened more by the unconstitutional and illegal actions of democratically elected leaders than by attempted military coups or systematic electoral fraud. The separation of powers is sometimes violated in subtle ways that do not necessarily interrupt electoral democracy. Such threats have been inadequately theorized in the literature. Theorizing the separation of powers could help the international community to monitor the progress or erosion of democracy in the Western Hemisphere. The proposed ...