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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

A Systematic Analysis Of The Deracialization Concept, Byron D. Orey, Boris E. Ricks Dec 2007

A Systematic Analysis Of The Deracialization Concept, Byron D. Orey, Boris E. Ricks

Faculty Publications: Political Science

The concept of deracialization gained notoriety following elections held in November of 1989. During these elections, a number of African-American candidates captured victories in majority-white electoral jurisdictions, leading McConnick to coin this Election Day as "Black Tuesday." Among those elected on "Black Tuesday" include: L. Douglas Wilder as governor of Virginia, David Dinkins as mayor of New York City, Norman Rice as mayor of Seattle and Chester Jenkins, mayor of Durham, North Carolina. In this article we systematically examine the deracialization construct/strategy and the potentially damaging impact that such a strategy might pose on the black community.


Accounting For “Racism”: Responses To Political Predicaments In Two States, Byron D. Orey, L. Marvin Overby, Barbara J. Walkosz, Kimberly R. Walker Sep 2007

Accounting For “Racism”: Responses To Political Predicaments In Two States, Byron D. Orey, L. Marvin Overby, Barbara J. Walkosz, Kimberly R. Walker

Faculty Publications: Political Science

How do people explain their behavior in socially unacceptable political situations? Exploring this question will give us insight into how the public responds to and frames collective decisions regarding controversial topics. We analyze accounts of the outcomes of racially sensitive statewide referenda in two states to understand the public responses to such political predicaments. Distinguishing four broad categories of these accounts—denials, justifications, excuses, and confessions—we find some clear-cut differences in their use between proponents and opponents of the ballot measures. These results have implications for political thought and dialogue regarding politically-sensitive issues and other heated policy issues. We ...


African-American Committee Chairs In U.S. State Legislatures, Byron D. Orey, L. Marvin Overby, Christopher W. Larimer Sep 2007

African-American Committee Chairs In U.S. State Legislatures, Byron D. Orey, L. Marvin Overby, Christopher W. Larimer

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In this article, we explore whether African-American state legislators have been able to translate election to office into positions of power, particularly as committee chairs. Methods. We cull data from all state legislative chambers that contained a black legislator during two time periods, 1989 and 1999. In doing so, we compare the observed numbers of African-American chairs with their expected numbers. We also examine each state’s percentage of black chairs using multiple regression to determine what factors—political, partisan, institutional, cultural— influence the selection of black committee chairs. Results. Overall, our descriptive analysis reveals that blacks are underrepresented as ...


Ganging Up Against The Courts: Congressional Curtailment Of Judicial Review, 1988-2004, Benjamin J. Keele Sep 2007

Ganging Up Against The Courts: Congressional Curtailment Of Judicial Review, 1988-2004, Benjamin J. Keele

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

The Constitution grants Congress the power to regulate the jurisdiction of the federal courts. Congress has sought to exercise this power throughout its history, especially when the courts have issued a decision or series of decisions that are very unpopular. The precise nature of Congress' authority in this area is controversial and scholars have proposed many criteria and theories to delineate the legislative and judicial branches' respective powers. This study, examining the number of times Congress has categorically denied the courts' jurisdiction over a defined set of cases between 1988 and 2004, finds that Congress has denied jurisdiction 166 times ...


Background And Legal Issues Related To Stem Cell Research, Jon O. Shimabukuro Jan 2007

Background And Legal Issues Related To Stem Cell Research, Jon O. Shimabukuro

Congressional Research Service Reports

In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for ...


Land Exchanges: Bureau Of Land Management Process And Issues, Carol Hardy Vincent Jan 2007

Land Exchanges: Bureau Of Land Management Process And Issues, Carol Hardy Vincent

Congressional Research Service Reports

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) typically completes dozens of exchanges a year to acquire and dispose of land. The land exchange process generally has five phases: development of an exchange proposal, feasibility evaluation, processing and documentation (including appraisal), decision analysis and approval, and title transfer. Land exchanges have been controversial periodically, with concerns regarding the benefits to the public, determinations of market value, and contradictions in policies and procedures. In response, BLM has implemented changes to the appraisal and exchange processes. There remains a difference of opinion on the usefulness of land exchanges.


Climate Change: Science And Policy Implications, Jane A. Leggett Jan 2007

Climate Change: Science And Policy Implications, Jane A. Leggett

Congressional Research Service Reports

Almost all scientists agree that the Earth’s climate is changing, having warmed by 0.6 to 0.9° Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° Fahrenheit) since the Industrial Revolution. Science indicates that the Earth’s global average temperature is now approaching, or possibly has passed, the warmest experienced since human civilizations began to flourish about 12,000 years ago. During the 20th Century, some areas became wetter while others experienced more drought. Most climate scientists conclude that humans have induced a large part of the climate change since the 1970s. Although natural forces such as solar irradiance and volcanoes ...


Fuel Ethanol: Background And Public Policy Issues, Brent D. Yacobucci Jan 2007

Fuel Ethanol: Background And Public Policy Issues, Brent D. Yacobucci

Congressional Research Service Reports

Ethanol plays a key role in policy discussions about energy, agriculture, taxes, and the environment. In the United States it is mostly made from corn; in other countries it is often made from cane sugar. Fuel ethanol is generally blended in gasoline to reduce emissions, increase octane, and extend gasoline stocks. Recent high oil and gasoline prices have led to increased interest in alternatives to petroleum fuels for transportation. Further, concerns over climate change have raised interest in developing fuels with lower fuel-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions.

Supporters of ethanol argue that its use can lead to lower emissions of toxic and ...


The Advanced Technology Program, Wendy H. Schacht Jan 2007

The Advanced Technology Program, Wendy H. Schacht

Congressional Research Service Reports

The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a laboratory of the Department of Commerce, this activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. Since FY2000, the original Housepassed appropriation bills have not included funding for ATP. Many of the Administration’s budget requests have proposed termination of the program. However, ATP continues to be supported, although at levels ...


Science, Engineering, And Mathematics Education: Status And Issues, Christine M. Matthews Jan 2007

Science, Engineering, And Mathematics Education: Status And Issues, Christine M. Matthews

Congressional Research Service Reports

An important aspect of U.S. efforts to maintain and improve economic competitiveness is the existence of a capable scientific and technological workforce. A major concern of the 110th Congress may be regarding the future ability of the U.S. science and engineering base to generate the technological advances needed to maintain economic growth. Discussions have centered on the quality of science and mathematics education and training and on the scientific knowledge of those students entering other disciplines. Even students pursuing nonscientific and nonmathematical specialities are likely to require basic knowledge of scientific and technological applications for effective participation in ...


Pesticide Use And Water Quality: Are The Laws Complementary Or In Conflict?, Claudia Copeland Jan 2007

Pesticide Use And Water Quality: Are The Laws Complementary Or In Conflict?, Claudia Copeland

Congressional Research Service Reports

This report provides background on the emerging conflict over interpretation and implementation of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). For the more than 30 years since they were enacted, there has been little apparent conflict between them. But their relationship has recently been challenged in several arenas, including the federal courts and regulatory proceedings of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In this report, a brief discussion of the two laws is followed by a review of the major litigation of interest. EPA’s efforts to clarify its policy in this area, including ...


Stem Cell Research: Federal Research Funding And Oversight, Judith A. Johnson, Erin D. Williams Jan 2007

Stem Cell Research: Federal Research Funding And Oversight, Judith A. Johnson, Erin D. Williams

Congressional Research Service Reports

Embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into virtually any cell in the body, and they may have the potential to treat medical conditions such as diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. In August 2001, President Bush announced that for the first time, federal funds would be used to support research on human embryonic stem cells, but funding would be limited to “existing stem cell lines.” NIH has established a registry of 78 human embryonic stem cell lines that are eligible for use in federally funded research, but only 21 cell lines are currently available. Scientists are concerned about the ...


Regional Advocacy Networks And The Protocol On The Rights Of Women In Africa, Melinda Adams, Alice Kang Jan 2007

Regional Advocacy Networks And The Protocol On The Rights Of Women In Africa, Melinda Adams, Alice Kang

Faculty Publications: Political Science

While there has been a significant amount of research on transnational feminist activism at the global level, many feminist transnational advocacy networks are mobilizing within world regions. The lack of attention to the regional level has created a considerable imbalance in research on transnational activism. This article's first objective is to define regional advocacy networks (RANs) as a collection of individuals and organizations from the same world region working together toward a common goal. The article's second objective is to explore the conditions under which RANs are influential. We investigate conditions for RAN success through a case study ...


The Biology Of Political Behavior: An Introduction, John R. Hibbing, Kevin B. Smith Jan 2007

The Biology Of Political Behavior: An Introduction, John R. Hibbing, Kevin B. Smith

Faculty Publications: Political Science

A broad cross-section of the social sciences is increasingly turning to biology and evolutionary theory to help explain human behavior. Political science is a notable exception to this trend, even though there are sound conceptual reasons for expecting biological processes to play an important role in explaining political behavior. While agreeing with the conceptual arguments, the authors believe original empirical research is the most persuasive means of convincing political science to incorporate biology in explanations of political behavior. Techniques developed in neuroscience, behavioral genetics, agent-based simulation, experimental economics, and other fields offer exciting research opportunities to explore questions of central ...


Personal, Interpersonal, And Political Temperaments, John Alford, John R. Hibbing Jan 2007

Personal, Interpersonal, And Political Temperaments, John Alford, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Are political liberals generous? Are political conservatives conscientious? Are generous people personally agreeable? Research in behavioral genetics and elsewhere increasingly indicates a biological basis for the manner in which people behave in personal, interpersonal, and political situations, but this biological basis does not mean behavior in these three very different contexts is correlated. In this article, using an original data set obtained from nearly three hundred subjects, the authors are able to test for the degree to which personal, interpersonal, and political temperaments are related. As expected, the overall correlations are quite low. Standard personality traits do not predict political ...


National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment And Facility Construction, Christine M. Matthews Jan 2007

National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment And Facility Construction, Christine M. Matthews

Congressional Research Service Reports

The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports the acquisition and construction of major research facilities and equipment that are to extend the boundaries of science, engineering, and technology. The facilities include telescopes, earth simulators, astronomical observatories, and mobile research platforms. Currently, the NSF provides approximately $1.0 billion annually in support of facilities and other infrastructure projects. While the NSF does not directly design or operate research facilities, it does have final responsibility for oversight and management. Questions have been raised by many in the scientific community concerning the adequacy of ...


The National Institute Of Standards And Technology: An Overview, Wendy H. Schacht Jan 2007

The National Institute Of Standards And Technology: An Overview, Wendy H. Schacht

Congressional Research Service Reports

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. firms and provide the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce. Congressional debate has focused on the merits of NIST’s external R&D programs directed toward increased private sector commercialization, including the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). The level of funding for internal research efforts has also been scrutinized by Congress. FY2006 appropriations legislation provided $752 million for NIST, an increase of 8.2% over FY2005 (after mandated rescissions) and financed ATP ...