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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 92

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Subadditivity And The Unpacking Effect In Political Opinions, Renan Levine Dec 2007

Subadditivity And The Unpacking Effect In Political Opinions, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

To explain subadditivity in judgments of probabilities, support theory (Tversky and Koehler 1994) emphasizes the increased availability of information about component events. This paper demonstrates that similar processes occur in responses to public opinion questions. When a broad description of a policy is “unpacked” into more specific component policies, support for the component policies exceeds support for the original, broad policy. This effect is especially strong when one or more of the unpacked policies make information available to the decision-maker that was not accessible when the broad description was provided. This behavior violates Luce’s (1959) axiom of independence of ...


Offensive Realism And Central & Eastern Europe After The Cold War, Dylan Kissane Dec 2007

Offensive Realism And Central & Eastern Europe After The Cold War, Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

At the end of the Cold War, John Mearsheimer published the article, “Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War”. The widely-cited piece included four predictions for the post-Cold War European geopolitical landscape founded on the theory of offensive realism, the realpolitik approach that Mearsheimer had established and developed over more than a decade of scholarship. However, the emergence of a post-Cold War and pan-continental peace suggests that something was wrong with Mearsheimer’s predictions and, by implication, the theory that informed them. This article argues that Mearsheimer’s mistake was to rely on a theory that ...


Impuestos Y Justicia Distributiva. Una Revisión Normativa De La Propuesta De Murphy Y Nagel, Cristian Pérez Muñoz Dec 2007

Impuestos Y Justicia Distributiva. Una Revisión Normativa De La Propuesta De Murphy Y Nagel, Cristian Pérez Muñoz

Cristian Pérez Muñoz

Recently, Liam Murphy and Thomas Nagel have presented an interesting and controversial proposal to evaluate normatively a tax system (Murphy y Nagel 2001, 2002; Murphy 2005a, 2005b). Basically, they argue that a tax scheme will be just only if it finds its place in a just set of economic and legal institutions. In this work I analyze their proposal. Firstly, I review and present their main ideas. Secondly, I examine some institutional consequences that would suppose the application of their proposal in order to choose a specific tax system. Fundamentally, in this section I evaluate the proposal of Negative Income ...


The Role Of Religious Values In Politics, Darrin P. Dixon Dec 2007

The Role Of Religious Values In Politics, Darrin P. Dixon

Darrin P Dixon

No abstract provided.


To Cross Or Not To Cross? Subjectivization And The Absent State In Cyprus, Olga Demetriou Dec 2007

To Cross Or Not To Cross? Subjectivization And The Absent State In Cyprus, Olga Demetriou

Olga Demetriou

This article is an ethnographic exploration of the process through which citizens come to conceptualize their identities as political subjects in rapidly changing contexts. The focus of the article is the lifting, in 2003, of a ban on crossing between the northern and southern parts of the island of Cyprus, which had been instituted in 1974. The article examines how this new political change affected state rhetoric, and concentrates on the reactions of Greek-Cypriot citizens to this shift. These data are related to the wider discussion on the political theory of subjectivity and the concept of ‘event’, where, it is ...


Lessons For Democratic Transitions: Case Studies From Asia, Tom Ginsburg Dec 2007

Lessons For Democratic Transitions: Case Studies From Asia, Tom Ginsburg

Tom Ginsburg

In an era when democratization is stalled or in retreat in many parts of the world, it is important to highlight the successful democratic experience of East and Southeast Asia in recent decades. Five consolidated democracies have emerged since the mid-1980s; only Thailand has seen some backsliding with the 2006 coup. The Asian cases provide insights into several major debates in the democratization literature, including the relative importance of culture, history, economic structure, and the optimal sequencing of political and economic reform. This article reviews these issues, with particular attention to the role of outside powers in underpinning democratization. Ultimately ...


Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride Dec 2007

Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride

Cillian McBride

No abstract provided.


Disability Rights In Ireland: Chronicle Of A Missed Opportunity, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Judy Walsh Dec 2007

Disability Rights In Ireland: Chronicle Of A Missed Opportunity, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Judy Walsh

Jurgen De Wispelaere

This article critically examines the Disability Act 2005 which regulates access to public services for disabled people in Ireland. We examine the competing conceptions of disability rights advanced by the government and the disability sector during the debate on the legislation and offer an interpretation of disability rights as the justiciable right to challenge. The Disability Act 2005 is then evaluated in light of the proposed framework. We outline a number of ways in which the absence of a justiciable right to challenge fails to safeguard the dignity, empowerment and participation of disabled people. We contend that, despite protestations to ...


Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Shane O'Neill Dec 2007

Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Shane O'Neill

Jurgen De Wispelaere

This is the introduction to a special issue of Irish Political Studies on "Recognition, Equality, Democracy", to appear in December 2007 as a journal and sometime in 2008 as an edited collection published by Taylor & Francis.


Do Polls Limit Wishful Thinking?, Valery Kisilevsky, Renan Levine Nov 2007

Do Polls Limit Wishful Thinking?, Valery Kisilevsky, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

Previous studies of election predictions have emphasized the effect wishful thinking has on predictions. Wishful thinking was evident in predictions made by partisan respondents to the 2006 Israel Election Study, but does not fully explain the observed variation even when controlling for levels of knowledge and political engagement. To test whether this wishful thinking is the result of a failure to recall the latest polls accurately, or an inability to use this information, we showed some people the latest polls before they make their predictions using a concurrent internet survey-experiment. Others were asked to recall each party’s polling numbers ...


Corruption, Governance And Political Instability In Nigeria, Omololu Toluwanimi Omololu Nov 2007

Corruption, Governance And Political Instability In Nigeria, Omololu Toluwanimi Omololu

Omololu Michael FAGBADEBO

The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and a cyclical legitimacy crisis. Consequently, national development is retarded, and the political environment uncertain. The country’s authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically - differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political gladiators constantly manipulated the people and the political processes to advance their own selfish agenda, the society remained pauperized, and the people wallowed in abject poverty. This invariably led to weak legitimacy, as the citizens lacked faith in their political ...


Fringe Candidates Can Change Perceptions Of Centrist Candidates, Renan Levine Nov 2007

Fringe Candidates Can Change Perceptions Of Centrist Candidates, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

Two experiments demonstrate that adding an extreme third candidate to the choice set causes perceptions of the nearest candidate to appear more centrist. This change in perceptions is large enough to cause this candidate to appear closer to many voters. causal mechanism driving the shift in perceptions is attributed to information about the range of possible values provided by the extreme candidate. This is consistent with “range effects” identified by Parducci (1965) and used to explain behavior in a wide variety of other contexts. In politics, range effects may help a major party candidate win the median voter when an ...


Public Election Funding, Competition, And Candidate Gender, Timothy Werner, Kenneth R. Mayer Oct 2007

Public Election Funding, Competition, And Candidate Gender, Timothy Werner, Kenneth R. Mayer

Kenneth R Mayer

We analyze the effects of gender and competition on the decision to accept or decline public election funds, in Maine and Arizona since 2000.


Report On The Resolution Of Outstanding Property Claims Between Cuba & The United States, Michael J. Kelly, Patrick J. Borchers, Erika Moreno, Richard C. Witmer, James S. Wunsch, Arthur B. Pearlstein Oct 2007

Report On The Resolution Of Outstanding Property Claims Between Cuba & The United States, Michael J. Kelly, Patrick J. Borchers, Erika Moreno, Richard C. Witmer, James S. Wunsch, Arthur B. Pearlstein

Michael J. Kelly

This commissioned report to USAID outlines two models for resolution of property claims between Cuba and the United States: (1) a bilateral tribunal that will apply international law for the claims of those who were U.S. nationals at the time of the taking, and (2) a special claims court within the Cuban judiciary that will apply Cuban law based on the Spanish Civil Code for the claims of those who were Cuban nationals at the time of the taking. The report includes a complete audit of FCSC files for American claimants, an extensive review of the property claims systems ...


A Chaotic Theory Of International Relations? The Possibility For Theoretical Revolution In International Politics, Dylan Kissane Sep 2007

A Chaotic Theory Of International Relations? The Possibility For Theoretical Revolution In International Politics, Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

In describing the nature of the international system contemporary international relations theorists frequently divide themselves into two groups: neorealists and neoliberalists. The neorealists emphasise an anarchical structure, drawing implications from this anarchy to explain the order and disorder that greets the analyst of international affairs. Conversely, neoliberalists favour an explanation that focuses on the interdependence of international actors. Yet the international system of the twenty-first century is not one that can be so simply described as either ‘anarchical’ or ‘interdependent’. Instead, the features of the system can best be described in terms reminiscent of other systems from the biological and ...


¿Garantías Del Ingreso Para Garantizar El Trabajo?, Cristian Pérez Muñoz, José Luis Rey Sep 2007

¿Garantías Del Ingreso Para Garantizar El Trabajo?, Cristian Pérez Muñoz, José Luis Rey

Cristian Pérez Muñoz

In this paper we offer a normative evaluation about the Universal Basic Income proposal (UBI) face to the most important justifications of “guarantee job” and “right to work” proposals. Firstly, we present the main arguments that justify a UBI. secondly, we examine some of the most relevant reasons to believe that a UBI can be a desirable redistributive plan face to the current job guarantee policies. thirdly, we analyse the idea that an unconditional and universal income redistribution policy violates the reciprocity principle. in this sense, we argue that a redistributive policy like UBI is a better way to achieve ...


Political Obligation And Democratic Governance: A Case Of Nigeria, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp Sep 2007

Political Obligation And Democratic Governance: A Case Of Nigeria, Ozy B. Orluwene Jp

Dr Ozy B.Orluwene,JP

ABSTRACT This paper attempts to seek and examine a balance between the political obligation (rights of the governed and duties of government) in democratic governance. Political obligation is two sided, namely, obligation on the part of government and obligation on the part of governed. It has to do basically with such issues as necessity for law and government, organized society and obedience on the largest possible scale, as the utilitarian would say, “the purpose of government in organized society is to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number”. The citizens’ willing cooperation and obedience are demanded by the state ...


Law's Autonomy, Ashok Agrwaal Sep 2007

Law's Autonomy, Ashok Agrwaal

Ashok Agrwaal

Like entropy, autonomy exists. As such, the existence of autonomy does not need any law or laws, beyond itself and its nature. Autonomy can, therefore, be said to be an "original" state of human kind; or at least of the individual. Law, which is frequently seen as preserving/ maximising/ conferring autonomy is actually a device to usurp autonomy. The paper looks at a specific example of how the nation-state, the most powerful usurper of autonomies created till date, arrogates autonomy to itself, in the name of ‘public interest’. Needless to say, in the hands of the state, autonomy translates into ...


Message Or Messenger? The Limits Of Moral Leadership, Renan Levine, Laura B. Stephenson Sep 2007

Message Or Messenger? The Limits Of Moral Leadership, Renan Levine, Laura B. Stephenson

Renan Levine

Media coverage of policies sometimes includes quotes from opinion leaders, including clergy and politicians. In an experiment implemented on campuses in two countries, we test the impact of a religious leader and a political leader by seeing how opinions change when these leaders frame their comments using a material or ethical terms. We find that changing the identity of the messenger alters what considerations factor into our subjects’ deliberations about stem-cell research and government spending cuts to pay off the government debt. However, the efficacy of the leader does not depend on the content of the message. Instead, the messenger ...


Citizenship Deficits In Latin American Democracies, Maxwell A. Cameron Sep 2007

Citizenship Deficits In Latin American Democracies, Maxwell A. Cameron

Maxwell Cameron

There is little evidence of a crisis of electoral democracy in Latin America, yet many of the region’s democratic regimes are unstable. Recently, Latin American democracies have been threatened more by the unconstitutional and illegal actions of democratically elected leaders than by attempted military coups or systematic electoral fraud. The separation of powers is sometimes violated in subtle ways that do not necessarily interrupt electoral democracy. Such threats have been inadequately theorized in the literature. Theorizing the separation of powers could help the international community to monitor the progress or erosion of democracy in the Western Hemisphere. The proposed ...


Slovakia's Neoliberal Turn, Sharon Fisher, John A. Gould, Tim J. Haughton Sep 2007

Slovakia's Neoliberal Turn, Sharon Fisher, John A. Gould, Tim J. Haughton

John A Gould

Slovakia distinguished itself in the first half of this decade by launching a coherent set of economic reforms that limited government and transferred social and economic risk to individuals. We examine reforms in fiscal policy, pensions, the labour code, health care, investment, education and justice. While the surprise formation of a centre – right governing coalition in 2002 enabled Slovakia’s ‘neoliberal’ turn, a close network of neoliberal policy makers and advisors from civil society organisations used the opportunity to push forward a compelling explanation of Slovak economic problems and promote a clear institutional design for fixing them.


The Public Administration Case Against Participation Income, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Lindsay Stirton Sep 2007

The Public Administration Case Against Participation Income, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Lindsay Stirton

Jurgen De Wispelaere

Anthony Atkinson’s proposal for a participation income (PI) has been acclaimed as a workable compromise between the aspirations of unconditional basic income proposals and the political acceptability of the workfare model. This article argues that PI functions poorly in terms of a number of essential administrative tasks that any welfare scheme must perform. This leads to a trilemma of participation income, which suggests that PI can only retain its apparent ability to satisfy the requirements of universalist and client-activation approaches to welfare at the cost of imposing a substantial burden on administrators and welfare clients alike. Consequently, the main ...


The Cultural Approaches To Multiculturalism: Education Policy And Its Implications In Culture, Linda Margaret Broughton Aug 2007

The Cultural Approaches To Multiculturalism: Education Policy And Its Implications In Culture, Linda Margaret Broughton

Linda Margaret Broughton

The purpose of this discussion is to analyse three different European states in their approaches to education policy and culture. Each example of a national policy approach is considered separately, as an individual container (or thimble) with a distinct approach to policymaking and culture that is reflected through structure and content. At the same time, the discussion will analyse the comparative advantages of the separate systems in order to illustrate how one approach may address an issue that is problematic in another approach. The purpose of this discourse is to illustrate how a more comprehensive approach to culture in education ...


The End Of The Corsican Question?, Ivan Serrano Balaguer Jun 2007

The End Of The Corsican Question?, Ivan Serrano Balaguer

Ivan Serrano Balaguer

No abstract provided.


Why Are There So Many Parties? Understanding Changes In The Canadian Federal Party System, James Farney, Renan Levine Jun 2007

Why Are There So Many Parties? Understanding Changes In The Canadian Federal Party System, James Farney, Renan Levine

Renan Levine

At least three parties have contested every Canadian federal election since 1925. Yet, the existing comparative literature fails to explain why Canada has so many parties compared to other countries or recent changes in the party system. We can accommodate changes in the Canadian party system by focusing on the institutional incentives that lead to new, non-centrist, parties forming and attracting votes. These incentives exist both when the winner of an election is widely expected and when there is a chance of a minority government. These incentives are reinforced by voters’ lack of clarity over which two parties are competitive ...


A Woman's Work Is Never Done? Fundraising Perception And Effort Among Female State Legislative Candidates, Shannon Jenkins Jun 2007

A Woman's Work Is Never Done? Fundraising Perception And Effort Among Female State Legislative Candidates, Shannon Jenkins

Shannon Jenkins

The lack of female politicians has been attributed to a lack of female candidates for office. However, the reason why there are so few female candidates is not clear. The author examines whether differences in fund-raising perceptions and effort between female and male state legislative candidates contribute to the lack of female candidates. The results indicate that women do tend to be more concerned about fund-raising, as is evidenced by greater effort devoted to this campaign function as compared to their male counterparts. Women use more techniques and rely on more sources to secure funds for their campaigns. This suggests ...


Reason, Representation, And Participation, Cillian Mcbride Jun 2007

Reason, Representation, And Participation, Cillian Mcbride

Cillian McBride

No abstract provided.


When Environmentalists Collide: Understanding Conflicting Views And Values Of Environmentalists To Wind Energy, Brad Jessup Jun 2007

When Environmentalists Collide: Understanding Conflicting Views And Values Of Environmentalists To Wind Energy, Brad Jessup

Brad Jessup

No abstract provided.


The Bosnian Peace Process: The Power-Sharing Approach Revisited, Nikolaos Tzifakis Jun 2007

The Bosnian Peace Process: The Power-Sharing Approach Revisited, Nikolaos Tzifakis

Nikolaos Tzifakis

This article argues that the post-Dayton political organisation of Bosnia represents an exemplary illustration of the difficulties associated with the empirical application of the pluralist model of “consociational democracy”. The country’s political system has been predicated on the existence of consensus and the spirit of cooperation among the three ethnic groups without, however, offering any electoral or political incentives to their leaderships to cooperate. Also, the inclusion of several elements to the Dayton accords of a partition approach to conflict resolution has even encouraged the ethnic leaderships to maintain their nationalistic programs and their endeavours to exploit the aforementioned ...


The Dual Approach To The Exportation Of European Governance, Linda Margaret Broughton May 2007

The Dual Approach To The Exportation Of European Governance, Linda Margaret Broughton

Linda Margaret Broughton

The paper argues that this is the effective process by which the EU successfully exports European governance to the CEEC without overtly pressuring states. First, this paper will discuss the type of organisation of sovereignty (the model of federalism) in the EU in order to outline the peculiar institutional elements that enable the EU to export its model of governance in its expansion. EU expansion enhances statehood (understood both in terms of policy autonomy and governance capacity) in the applicant countries at the same time that it exports its own substantive form of governance. The paper will then explore the ...