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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

State Of The Union Address, Alison Howard Nov 2007

State Of The Union Address, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

The Encyclopedia of Political Communication discusses the major theoretical approaches to the field, including direct and limited effects theories, agenda-setting theories, sociological theories, framing and priming theories, and other past and present conceptualizations. With nearly 600 entries, this resource pays considerable attention to important political messages such as political speeches, televised political advertising, political posters and print advertising, televised political debates, and Internet sites. The audiences for political communications are also central, necessitating concentration on citizen reactions to political messages, how the general public and voters in democratic systems respond to political messages, and the effects of all types of ...


The Unequal Representation Of Latinos And Whites, Brian Newman, John D. Griffin Oct 2007

The Unequal Representation Of Latinos And Whites, Brian Newman, John D. Griffin

Brian Newman

We compare the ideological proximity of Latinos and whites to their Members of Congress (MCs), demonstrating the degree to which Latinos are underrepresented compared to whites. We show how this representation gap varies with group differences in electoral turnout and income, district ethnic composition, and MCs' ethnicity and party affiliation. We find that Latinos' unequal representation is not simply a function of the group's numerical minority status. Concentrating Latinos in congressional districts does not necessarily translate into more equal representation. However, several factors can enhance the equality of Latinos' representation-participation in elections and representation by both Latinos and Democrats.


Electoral Mandates In American Politics, Lawrence J. Grossback, David A. M. Peterson, James A. Stimson Sep 2007

Electoral Mandates In American Politics, Lawrence J. Grossback, David A. M. Peterson, James A. Stimson

David A. M. Peterson

Political science has not come to terms with the idea of electoral mandates. The discipline's view is a hodgepodge of competing claims. In this article we review the empirical issues about mandates asking whether or not mandates occur and with what effect. We observe evidence of mandates as social constructions, as dialogues in the Washington community and in the press which serves it.We find that these dialogues accurately reflect election results – consensus emerges from actual sweeping election victories and not from mere strategic attempts to claim policy mandates. We find that Congress is highly responsive to the consensus ...


Chief Legislators And Pet Projects: The Rhetoric And Outcome Of Americorps And Faith Based Initiatives, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Aug 2007

Chief Legislators And Pet Projects: The Rhetoric And Outcome Of Americorps And Faith Based Initiatives, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

In a system of shared powers, a chief legislator's ability to accomplish his goals is limited. One of the tools he has at his disposal is the power of rhetoric. Presidents enter office with many policy goals that, if successful, not only shape public policy, but also can aid their re-election and their desire to secure a positive legacy. Often times, one policy in particular, a pet project will be personally important to a president and will ultimately be placed on the agenda because of the attention given to it by the president. When Bill Clinton campaigned for office ...


Policy-Making Rhetoric And Youth Issues In The 2004 Presidential Campaign, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Apr 2007

Policy-Making Rhetoric And Youth Issues In The 2004 Presidential Campaign, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Campaigns make strategic decisions about appealing to various electoral groups. In 2004, both presidential campaigns did choose to appeal to those younger than 30 with their policy-making rhetoric. The authors find, however, that Bush and Kerry approached this demographic differently. Bush did not single out young adults to the extent Kerry did. Instead, Bush chose to treat young voters more as a part of the general electorate than a distinct group, appealing to their self-interest. Kerry was more attentive, directly targeting young citizens by focusing on issues of higher education and especially seeking to appeal to service-oriented young adults.


Term Limits And Party Loyalty, Tom Campbell, Cameron Doolittle Apr 2007

Term Limits And Party Loyalty, Tom Campbell, Cameron Doolittle

Tom Campbell

No abstract provided.


Political Control For China’S State-Owned Enterprises: Lessons From America’S Experience With Hybrid Organizations, Jonathan Koppell Mar 2007

Political Control For China’S State-Owned Enterprises: Lessons From America’S Experience With Hybrid Organizations, Jonathan Koppell

Jonathan GS Koppell

China’s reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is intended to liberate the companies from bureaucratic control that hinders their management. Discussions of SOE reform, however, downplay the policy consequences. Can SOEs be “free” to succeed economically while some political control is maintained? Surprisingly, American experience with hybrid organizations—government-created companies that straddle the line between public and private—offers some precedent for managing the balance between political control and enterprise independence. Three strategies are derived for China. First, welfare functions must be stripped from SOEs and replaced by policy objectives compatible with commercial purposes. Second, reducing financial dependence on SOEs ...


Representations Of 9-11 In Editorial Cartoons, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Mar 2007

Representations Of 9-11 In Editorial Cartoons, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Throughout American history editorial cartoons have exposed corruption, offered criticism of people in power, questioned and supported policies, and in general given the public another format assisting in the understanding of current events. The freedom to caricature politicians and visually comment on social and political issues has been a hallmark of the editorial cartoonist's profession. In the aftermath of the worldwide furor over Danish cartoonists' use of the Prophet Muhammad's image in early 2006, it is useful to ask whether certain images from the War on Terror have become taboo as a subject for American editorial cartoonists.


“Signals And Spillover: Brown V. Board Of Education And Other Social Movements, David S. Meyer Feb 2007

“Signals And Spillover: Brown V. Board Of Education And Other Social Movements, David S. Meyer

david s. meyer

No abstract provided.


“Those Who Cannot Learn From History Are Doomed To Repeat It"/"Los Que No Pueden Aprender De La Historia Son Condenados Para Repetirla.", Gil J. Villagran Jan 2007

“Those Who Cannot Learn From History Are Doomed To Repeat It"/"Los Que No Pueden Aprender De La Historia Son Condenados Para Repetirla.", Gil J. Villagran

Gil J. Villagran

The early 1900s Spanish philosopher, Harvard graduate and professor George Santayana wisely coined this often quoted proverb:  “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it,”  as he reflected on World War I,  the “war to end all wars;”  a war of choice whose peace treaty led to World War II just 21 years later with twice the deaths at 50 million.  Then came Korea, Vietnam, the killing fields of Cambodia, civil wars and death squads in Latin America, ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia, a frenzy of ethnic killing in Rwanda, and countless brutalities in countless locations ...


Iraq: The Betrayal Of Another Generation/Iraq: La Traicion De Otra Generacion, Gil J. Villagran Jan 2007

Iraq: The Betrayal Of Another Generation/Iraq: La Traicion De Otra Generacion, Gil J. Villagran

Gil J. Villagran

It's been said that the old men start the wars and the young men have to fight them.

Gil's perspective on the war in Iraq and its consequences.

In both English and Spanish.


Rethinking Madame President: Are We Ready For A Woman In The White House?, Lori Cox, Caroline Heldman Dec 2006

Rethinking Madame President: Are We Ready For A Woman In The White House?, Lori Cox, Caroline Heldman

Caroline Heldman

No abstract provided.


Challenges In Enhancing Responsiveness In Neighborhood Governance, Thomas Bryer, Terry Cooper Dec 2006

Challenges In Enhancing Responsiveness In Neighborhood Governance, Thomas Bryer, Terry Cooper

Thomas A Bryer

When numerous stakeholders, constituencies, and service requests are competing for limited city agency resources, administrators need to decide to whom and how to be responsive. A review of literature on bureaucratic responsiveness suggests five possible determining factors for agencies facing conflicting demands: (a) organizational culture, (b) organizational leadership, (c) organizational rules and structure, (d) dependency on a stakeholder making a demand, and (e) the extent of external control placed on the agency. Based on an action research study of City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils and departments, this article suggests areas for future research on these and other possible influences ...


William Robertson: Exemplar Of Politics And Public Management Rightly Understood, Terry Cooper, Thomas Bryer Dec 2006

William Robertson: Exemplar Of Politics And Public Management Rightly Understood, Terry Cooper, Thomas Bryer

Thomas A Bryer

William Robertson, director of the City of Los Angeles' Bureau of Street Services, is profiled here as an exemplary public administrator. The authors suggest that Robertson practices politics appropriately in his role in order to achieve great outcomes for his bureau, the citizens with whom he works, and the city as a whole. To adequately define the ways in which Robertson uses politics, Sherry Arnstein's "ladder of participation" is reconceptualized as a circle of participation in which Robertson uses multiple strategies of interaction with citizens, elected officials, employees, and peers. Lessons for public administrators are offered based on Robertson ...


Toward A Relevant Agenda For A Responsive Public Administration, Thomas Bryer Dec 2006

Toward A Relevant Agenda For A Responsive Public Administration, Thomas Bryer

Thomas A Bryer

The relevance of the concept "bureaucratic responsiveness" has been questioned in recent years. One reason for the questioned relevance is the apparent environmental changes that are occurring in public administration. Globalization and devolution have infiltrated the halls of bureaucracies. Public agencies are being asked to collaborate with actors in other sectors of society, including, and especially, citizens and citizen associations. In addition to these environmental changes, administrators are being confronted with potentially competing ethical obligations that make decisions regarding responsiveness challenging. This article uses these evolving environments and competing ethical obligations to formulate a set of six variants of bureaucratic ...


Blaming Bush: A Functional Analysis Of Political Cartoons, Stephanie Kelley-Romano, V Westgate Dec 2006

Blaming Bush: A Functional Analysis Of Political Cartoons, Stephanie Kelley-Romano, V Westgate

Stephanie Kelley-Romano

No abstract provided.


Collaborative Design Of Citizen Engagement In City And County Comprehensive Planning: A Simulation, Thomas Bryer Dec 2006

Collaborative Design Of Citizen Engagement In City And County Comprehensive Planning: A Simulation, Thomas Bryer

Thomas A Bryer

The Secretary of the Florida Department of Community Affairs has called a special meeting. Invited are an elected official, two public managers, a citizen activist, a business representative, and a facilitator. The Secretary's charge to them is to create an alternative proposal for engaging citizens in comprehensive planning. The purpose of this simulation is to allow students to experience a collaborative problem solving process, as well as to explore the challenges of public managers collaborating with the public. In addition, the simulation can be used to teach facilitation skills.


Negotiating Bureaucratic Responsiveness In Collaboration With Citizens: Findings From Action Research In Los Angeles, Thomas Bryer Dec 2006

Negotiating Bureaucratic Responsiveness In Collaboration With Citizens: Findings From Action Research In Los Angeles, Thomas Bryer

Thomas A Bryer

The Collaborative Learning Project conducted an action research program in the City of Los Angeles between 2003 and 2006, in which researchers facilitated a collaborative process between recently created neighborhood councils and city departments of council choosing. In two cases conducted, the patterns of administrative responsiveness to the neighborhood councils differed substantially. This dissertation asks: How can we explain the patterns of administrator responsiveness observed in each of two cases of collaboration between administrators and neighborhood council representatives? To answer the question, an exploratory assessment of each case was conducted from multiple emergent perspectives using an inductive analysis. Data from ...


Legislative/Judicial Interaction: Do Court Ideologies Constrain Legislative Action?, Elizabeth Stiles, Lauren Bowen Dec 2006

Legislative/Judicial Interaction: Do Court Ideologies Constrain Legislative Action?, Elizabeth Stiles, Lauren Bowen

Elizabeth A. Stiles

The article presents a study which examines whether the anticipated actions of the courts to interpret, expand, or retract legislative meaning discourages or prevents policy making by legislatures. It suggests that state legislatures are significantly less likely to pass legislation when state supreme courts are ideological. It concludes that there is evidence that judiciaries exercise preemptive suppressive powers upon legislation.


Strategic Party Government: Party Influence In Congress, 1789-2000.”, Matthew J. Lebo, Adam J. Mcglynn, Gregory Koger Dec 2006

Strategic Party Government: Party Influence In Congress, 1789-2000.”, Matthew J. Lebo, Adam J. Mcglynn, Gregory Koger

Gregory Koger

Why does the influence of Congressional parties fluctuate over time Building on prevailing answers, we develop a model, Strategic Party Government, which highlights the electoral motives of legislative parties and the strategic interaction between parties. We test this theory using the entire range of House and Senate party behavior from 1789 to 2000 and find that the strategic behavior of parties complements members' preferences as an explanation for variation in party influence. Specifically, the strongest predictors of one party's voting unity are the unity of the opposing party and the difference between the parties in the preceding year. Moreover ...


Same Policy Area, Different Politics: How The Characteristics Of Policy Tools Alter The Determinants Of Early Childhood Policymaking, Elizabeth Rigby Dec 2006

Same Policy Area, Different Politics: How The Characteristics Of Policy Tools Alter The Determinants Of Early Childhood Policymaking, Elizabeth Rigby

Elizabeth Rigby

This article tests a theory of how key characteristics of a policy tool under debate magnify the importance of particular elements of the policymaking context in U.S. states. In particular, it is expected that state use of more visible policy tools will depend on the economic context in the state, whereas state use of more coercive policy tools will vary with the ideological and partisan context in the state. These hypotheses are tested in a policy area for which states employ a range of distinct policy tools—early childhood education policy. Pooling data from all 50 states at four ...


Filibuster Reform In The Senate, 1913-17, Gregory Koger Dec 2006

Filibuster Reform In The Senate, 1913-17, Gregory Koger

Gregory Koger

This chapter explains the adoption of the Senate's first cloture rule in 1917, specifically why the Senate adopted a supermajority (2/3) rule and why this event occurred in 1917.


Post-Deportation Human Rights Law: Aspiration, Oxymoron Or Necessity?, Daniel Kanstroom Dec 2006

Post-Deportation Human Rights Law: Aspiration, Oxymoron Or Necessity?, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

No abstract provided.