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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 227

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Indeterminacy And Society By Russell Hardin, Daniel R. Sabia Dec 2006

Indeterminacy And Society By Russell Hardin, Daniel R. Sabia

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Corruption And Democratic Performance, Levente Littvay Dec 2006

Corruption And Democratic Performance, Levente Littvay

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This dissertation introduces new quantitative methods to comparative politics. These include an approximately unbiased missing data treatment, a first order autoregressive multilevel model for the analysis of cross-sectional longitudinal data, approaches for the separation of cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor effects to identify aggregation bias and a model for the empirical analysis of causal direction. Methods are demonstrated on a model replicating past research on the causes of corruption adding democratic performance as a predictor, than a new model of democratic performance is developed to test Warren’s theoretical propositions that corruption is by nature undemocratic, and finally the causal direction ...


Civic Responsibility And Patterns Of Voluntary Participation Around The World, Mary Alice Haddad Dec 2006

Civic Responsibility And Patterns Of Voluntary Participation Around The World, Mary Alice Haddad

Division II Faculty Publications

This article seeks to explain why different types of volunteer organizations are prevalent in different countries. It hypothesizes that patterns of volunteer participation are a function of citizen attitudes toward governmental and individual responsibility for caring for society. Those countries (e.g., Japan)—where citizens think that governments should be responsible for dealing with social problems—will tend to have higher participation in embedded volunteer organizations, such as parent-teacher associations. Those countries (e.g., the United States)—where citizens think that individuals should take responsibility for dealing with social problems—will tend to have more participation in nonembedded, organizations, such ...


Crush The Sunnis, James Kurth Nov 2006

Crush The Sunnis, James Kurth

Political Science Faculty Works

The article argues that Iraq's Sunni population must be made to pay for the murderous years of the Baathist regime and should be left stateless and bereft of power. The author proposes giving the Shiites southern Iraq in its entirety and Kurds Kurdistan. He acknowledges that Shiites may become puppets of Iran, but not for long. This arrangement would have the added benefit of preserving America's oil supplies in the Middle East.


Deracialization Or Racialization: The Making Of A Black Mayor In Jackson, Mississippi, Byron D. Orey Nov 2006

Deracialization Or Racialization: The Making Of A Black Mayor In Jackson, Mississippi, Byron D. Orey

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In 1997, Harvey Johnson made history by becoming the first black to be elected as mayor of Jackson, Mississippi. Four years prior, Johnson failed to make the Democratic primary runoffs. The following research question is addressed: what explains Johnson’s victory in 1997, when compared to his defeat in 1993? In answering this question, I rely heavily on elite-level interviewing and newspaper accounts. I also examine the black and white vote for Johnson, using aggregate-level election and census data. Gary King’s Ecological Inference technique is used to examine these data. Based on the findings, I conclude that Johnson ran ...


Enacting Technology In Networked Governance: Developmental Processes Of Cross-Agency Arrangements, Jane E. Fountain Nov 2006

Enacting Technology In Networked Governance: Developmental Processes Of Cross-Agency Arrangements, Jane E. Fountain

National Center for Digital Government

This paper discusses the technology enactment framework, an analytical framework to guide exploration and examination of information-based change in governments.1 The original technology enactment framework is extended in this paper to delineate the distinctive roles played by key actors in technology enactment. I then examine institutional change in government by drawing from current initiatives in the U.S. federal government to build cross-agency relationships and systems. The U.S. government is one of the first central states to undertake not only back office integration within the government but also integration of systems and processes across agencies. For this reason ...


From Opposition To Accommodation: How Rockefeller Foundation Grants Redefined Relations Between Political Theory And Social Science In The 1950s, Emily Hauptmann Nov 2006

From Opposition To Accommodation: How Rockefeller Foundation Grants Redefined Relations Between Political Theory And Social Science In The 1950s, Emily Hauptmann

Political Science Faculty Publications

I n this essay, I rely primarily on unpublished documents from the Rockefeller Foundation Archives as well as the annual reports of the Ford Foundation and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) to show that rather than being in a torpor, political theory in the 1950s was a large and eclectic field, marked by contest and rapid change. I focus on the Rockefeller Foundation’s policy making for its program in Legal and Political Philosophy (LAPP), the largest grant program for political theory in the 1950s, both to see how the Foundation justified the creation of the program and how ...


"Keeping People" - The 2006 Quality Of Life Survey In Orleans And Jefferson Parishes, Susan Howell Nov 2006

"Keeping People" - The 2006 Quality Of Life Survey In Orleans And Jefferson Parishes, Susan Howell

Survey Research Center Publications

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of European Émigré Scholars On Comparative Politics 1925-1965, Gerhard Loewenberg Nov 2006

The Influence Of European Émigré Scholars On Comparative Politics 1925-1965, Gerhard Loewenberg

Department of Political Science Publications

Among European émigré intellectuals who came to the United States between 1925 and 1940, a small group of prolific, influential scholars who received appointments at major colleges and universities helped to restore the comparative approach to the study of political systems. That approach had been dominant in the early years of the discipline but had been lost during its Americanization in the first quarter of the twentieth century. The teaching and writing of these scholars contributed to the formulation of theoretical frameworks designed to facilitate cross-national comparison. When the purview of comparative politics expanded in the 1950s and 1960s to ...


The Duty To Obey The Law, David Lefkowitz Nov 2006

The Duty To Obey The Law, David Lefkowitz

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Under what conditions, if any, do those the law addresses have a moral duty or obligation to obey it simply because it is the law? In this essay, I identify five general approaches to carrying out this task, and offer a somewhat detailed discussion of one or two examples of each approach. The approaches studied are: relational-role approaches that appeal to the fact that an agent occupies the role of member in the political community; attempts to ground the duty to obey the law in individual consent or fair play; natural duty approaches; instrumental approaches; and philosophical anarchism, an approach ...


Limits To Power: Some Friendly Reminders (Book Review), Ron Mock Nov 2006

Limits To Power: Some Friendly Reminders (Book Review), Ron Mock

Faculty Publications - Department of History, Politics, and International Studies

No abstract provided.


The Cartel Party And The Rise Of The New Extreme Right, Riccardo Pelizzo Nov 2006

The Cartel Party And The Rise Of The New Extreme Right, Riccardo Pelizzo

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Card: Thank You Card, Bill And Grace Nelson Oct 2006

Card: Thank You Card, Bill And Grace Nelson

Saffy Collection - All Textual Materials

A card expressing thanks for support of Bill Nelson's Senate campaign. Bill Nelson for U.S. Senate. Date: November 2006. Box 15 Folder 22


Ecological Analysis Of A System Of Organized Interests, Paul E. Johnson Oct 2006

Ecological Analysis Of A System Of Organized Interests, Paul E. Johnson

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

This is a report on a long-term research project about the evolution of system of political organizations. An agent-based computer simulation model is developed with the aim of exploring the inter-connection between tools and concepts from the field of political science with the emerging field of complex systems analysis and the simulation of ecological processes. In political science, we can draw on the exchange theory of interest group formation as well as research on the so-called “ecology of organizations.” Many of the individual level premises that are implicit in the political models are made explicit by considering the interest group ...


The Political Consequences Of Perceived Threat And Felt Insecurity, Leonie Huddy, Stanley Feldman, Christopher Weber Oct 2006

The Political Consequences Of Perceived Threat And Felt Insecurity, Leonie Huddy, Stanley Feldman, Christopher Weber

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

We draw on data from a national RDD telephone sample of 1549 adult Americans conducted between October 15, 2001 and March 2, 2002 to explore the impact of a need for security on support for national security policies in the aftermath of the 911 terrorist attacks. In past research, an external threat has been assumed to have uniform impact on an affected population, a claim that has met with growing research scrutiny. We advance research on threat through an examination of the political effects of individual differences in one’s ability to feel secure in the aftermath of terrorism, exploring ...


Effects Of "In-Your-Face" Television Discourse On Perceptions Of A Legitimate Opposition, Diana C. Mutz Oct 2006

Effects Of "In-Your-Face" Television Discourse On Perceptions Of A Legitimate Opposition, Diana C. Mutz

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

How do Americans acquire the impression that their political foes have some understandable basis for their views, and thus represent a legitimate opposition? How do they come to believe that reasonable people may disagree on any given political controversy? Given that few people talk regularly to those of opposing perspectives, some theorize that mass media, and television in particular, serve as an important source of exposure to the rationales for oppositional views. A series of experimental studies suggests that television does, indeed, have the capacity to encourage greater awareness of oppositional perspectives. However, common characteristics of televised political discourse cause ...


Empathy And Collective Action In The Prisoner's Dilemma, John A. Sautter Oct 2006

Empathy And Collective Action In The Prisoner's Dilemma, John A. Sautter

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Economists guided by evolutionary psychology have theorized that in an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma reciprocal behavior is a product of evolutionary design, where individuals are guided by an innate sense of fairness for equal outcomes. Empathy as a pro-social emotion could be a key to understanding the psychological underpinnings of why and who tends to cooperate in a collective act. In short, why are some individuals more prone to participate in collective-action? The hypothesis that a pro-social psychological disposition stemming from self-reported empathy will lead to grouporiented behavior in an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game is tested. Results suggest that ...


Personality And Emtional Response: Strategic And Tactical Responses To Changing Political Circumstances, Jennifer Wolak, George E. Marcus Oct 2006

Personality And Emtional Response: Strategic And Tactical Responses To Changing Political Circumstances, Jennifer Wolak, George E. Marcus

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Emotions help people navigate political environments, differentiating familiar situations where standard operating procedures are suitable from unfamiliar terrain when more attention is needed. While previous research identifies consequences of emotion, we know less about what triggers affective response. In this paper, we investigate what role personality has in the operation of the systems of affective intelligence. Using experimental data as well as responses from the 2000 and 2004 American National Election Studies, we first consider whether personality affects the activation of emotional response. Next, we explore the degree to which citizen attitudes like openness to information and compromise are explained ...


The Neural Basis Of Representative Democracy, John R. Alford, John R. Hibbing Oct 2006

The Neural Basis Of Representative Democracy, John R. Alford, John R. Hibbing

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

In politics specifically and society generally people often make decisions on behalf of others or experience the results of decisions made on their behalf. In exactly what manner is this important class of decisions different from traditional situations in which people make decisions on their own behalf? How are people’s behavioral and thinking patterns altered by shifting from personal to representational decision-making? Empirical social science research has provided little information on these questions, so in this paper, we draw on evolutionary theory and current knowledge of neuroanatomy to formulate a set of expectations regarding the differences between the decisions ...


Judgments About Cooperators And Freeriders On A Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective, Michael E. Price Oct 2006

Judgments About Cooperators And Freeriders On A Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective, Michael E. Price

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Evolutionary biological theories of group cooperation predict that (1) group members will tend to judge cooperative co-members favorably, and freeriding co-members negatively and (2) members who themselves cooperate more frequently will be especially likely to make these social judgments. An experiment tested these predictions among Shuar hunter-horticulturalists. Subjects viewed depictions of pairs of workers who varied in the extent to which they had contributed to, and benefited from, a team project. Subjects were then asked to judge which worker deserved more respect, and which deserved more punishment. When judging between unequalcontributors, all subjects tended to favor more cooperative (i.e ...


Balancing Ambition And Gender Among Decision Makers, Christopher W. Larimer, Rebecca Hannagan, Kevin B. Smith Oct 2006

Balancing Ambition And Gender Among Decision Makers, Christopher W. Larimer, Rebecca Hannagan, Kevin B. Smith

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Survey research from political science indicates that people are quite suspicious of ambitious decision makers; that people who desire power are self-serving and not to be trusted. In this paper, we use an original laboratory experiment to test not only whether people prefer nonambitious decision makers, but also whether people will seek to balance ambitious decision makers with non-ambitious decision makers, allowing for interactions with gender. In the experiment, participants are told two decision makers will be dividing some valuable resource on their behalf. One decision maker (either high or low in ambition) is “appointed.” Participants vote from a slate ...


The Genetic Basics Of Political Cooperation, James H. Fowler, Laura A. Baker, Christopher T. Dawes Oct 2006

The Genetic Basics Of Political Cooperation, James H. Fowler, Laura A. Baker, Christopher T. Dawes

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Cooperation has been a focus of intense interest in the biological and social sciences. Yet in spite of a tremendous effort to develop evolutionary models and laboratory experiments that explain the existence of cooperation in humans, relatively little effort has been invested in documenting the prevalence of largescale cooperation in well-mixed populations and the extent to which it may be the result of biological or social forces. In this article we study voter behaviour as a form of cooperation that bears close resemblance to theoretical models in which individuals in a large population make anonymous decisions about whether or not ...


The Neuroeconomics Of Trust, Paul J. Zak Oct 2006

The Neuroeconomics Of Trust, Paul J. Zak

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

A possible explanation for the substantial amount of “irrational” behavior observed in markets (and elsewhere) is that humans are a highly social species and to an extent value what other humans think of them. This behavior can be termed trustworthiness— cooperating when someone places trust in us. Indeed, we inculcate children nearly from birth to share and care about others. In economic nomenclature, reciprocating what others expect us to do may provide a utility flow itself (Frey ****). Loosely, it is possible that it “feels good” to fulfill others’ expectations in us. If such a cooperative instinct exists, it must be ...


Evolutionary Model Of Racial Attitude Formation Socially Shared And Idiosyncratic Racial Attitudes, Thomas Craemer Oct 2006

Evolutionary Model Of Racial Attitude Formation Socially Shared And Idiosyncratic Racial Attitudes, Thomas Craemer

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

A growing body of research in political science has uncovered evidence of a “split personality” among Americans when it comes to racial attitudes, whereby people express different attitudes in public than they personally hold. A common assumption is that people adjust their personal attitudes to conform to dominant social norms. At present, however, there is no theoretical model that could account for the emergence of racial norms that are at odds with people’s personal attitudes. This paper proposes a simple neural model of racial attitude formation that makes an important distinction between socially shared and idiosyncratic racial attitudes. Socially ...


Audience Effects On Moralistic Punishment, Robert Kurzban, Peter Descioli, Erin O'Brien Oct 2006

Audience Effects On Moralistic Punishment, Robert Kurzban, Peter Descioli, Erin O'Brien

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Punishment has been proposed as being central to two distinctively human phenomena: cooperation in groups and morality. Here we investigate moralistic punishment, a behavior designed to inflict costs on another individual in response to a perceived moral violation. There is currently no consensus on which evolutionary model best accounts for this phenomenon in humans. Models that turn on individuals’ cultivating reputations as moralistic punishers clearly predict that psychological systems should be designed to increase punishment in response to information that one’s decisions to punish will be known by others. We report two experiments in which we induce participants to ...


Genetic Configurations Of Political Phenomena: New Theories, New Methods, Ira H. Carmen Oct 2006

Genetic Configurations Of Political Phenomena: New Theories, New Methods, Ira H. Carmen

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Recent research by E.O. Wilson, James Q. Wilson, Simon, Alford-Hibbing, Carmen and others indicates that the competing social science paradigms of behavioralism and rational choice are in their last throes. Their salient weakness is insensitivity, bordering on ignorance, to politics as a biologically-orchestrated phenomenon. More specifically, political scientists know precious little about either genetics or evolutionary dynamics.

In this paper, I present a new theory--sociogenomics--to replace the shopworn conceptions of yesterday’s political science. I then demonstrate how social scientists can employ the tools of molecular biology to flesh out the genes coding for baseline political attitudes and behaviors ...


When Can Politicians Scare Citizens Into Supporting Bad Policies? A Theory Of Incentives With Fear Based Content, Arthur Lupia, Jesse O. Mennng Oct 2006

When Can Politicians Scare Citizens Into Supporting Bad Policies? A Theory Of Incentives With Fear Based Content, Arthur Lupia, Jesse O. Mennng

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Analysts make competing claims about when and how politicians can use fear to gain support for suboptimal policies. Using a model, we clarify how common attributes of fear affect politicians’ abilities to achieve self-serving outcomes that are bad for voters. In it, a politician provides information about a threat. His statement need not be true. How citizens respond differs from most game-theoretic models – we proceed from more dynamic (and realistic) assumptions about how citizens think. Our conclusions counter popular claims about how easily politicians use fear to manipulate citizens, yield different policy advice than does recent scholarship on counterterrorism, and ...


'Heroism' In Warfare, Oleg Smirnov, Holly Arrow, Doug Kennet, John Orbell Oct 2006

'Heroism' In Warfare, Oleg Smirnov, Holly Arrow, Doug Kennet, John Orbell

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

The willingness of people to risk their lives fighting on behalf of their nation (which we call heroism) is a background assumption in the study of war, thus of international relations, but also an evolutionary puzzle. We use two computer simulations to explore the possibility that heroism could have evolved as a domain specific form of altruism, selected through humans’ ancient past as a consequence of warfare. In the first, “altruism” is modeled as a generalized disposition that promotes both heroism and other, non-military, forms of group-benefiting behaviors—which we call communitarianism. In the second, heroism and communitarianism are modeled ...


Testosterone, Cortisol, And Aggression In A Simulated Crisis Game, Rose Mcdermott Oct 2006

Testosterone, Cortisol, And Aggression In A Simulated Crisis Game, Rose Mcdermott

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

This study investigated the impact of testosterone and cortisol on aggression in a crisis simulation game. We found a significant relationship between level of testosterone and aggression. Men were much more likely to engage in aggressive action than women. They were more likely to lose their fights as well. In addition, we found a significant inverse relationship between cortisol level and aggression. We end with some speculation about why we did not find victory effects in this population.


Exploring Affect And Politics, Matthew J. Moore Oct 2006

Exploring Affect And Politics, Matthew J. Moore

Political Science

No abstract provided.