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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

From Opposition To Accommodation: How Rockefeller Foundation Grants Redefined Relations Between Political Theory And Social Science In The 1950s, Emily Hauptmann Nov 2006

From Opposition To Accommodation: How Rockefeller Foundation Grants Redefined Relations Between Political Theory And Social Science In The 1950s, Emily Hauptmann

Political Science Faculty Publications

I n this essay, I rely primarily on unpublished documents from the Rockefeller Foundation Archives as well as the annual reports of the Ford Foundation and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) to show that rather than being in a torpor, political theory in the 1950s was a large and eclectic field, marked by contest and rapid change. I focus on the Rockefeller Foundation’s policy making for its program in Legal and Political Philosophy (LAPP), the largest grant program for political theory in the 1950s, both to see how the Foundation justified the creation of the program and how ...


Casualties, Polls, And The Iraq War, Jason Reifler, Christopher Gelpi Oct 2006

Casualties, Polls, And The Iraq War, Jason Reifler, Christopher Gelpi

Political Science Faculty Publications

In their article “Success Matters: Casualty Sensitivity and the War in Iraq,” Christopher Gelpi, Peter Feaver, and Jason Reifler attempt to flush out the relationship between public opinion and the use of force as it pertains to the Iraq war.1 The authors promote the following proposition: “Our thesis is that expectations of future success are the key determinants of public casualty tolerance. That is, the U.S. public can accept that the war is not yet won and will involve continued and even mounting costs, provided that events thus far are not convincing it that eventual success is impossible ...


Parties And Patronage: A Comparative Analysis Of The Indian Case, Charles Robert Hankla Aug 2006

Parties And Patronage: A Comparative Analysis Of The Indian Case, Charles Robert Hankla

Political Science Faculty Publications

What political factors influence the allocation of economic patronage in democracies? Answering this question is vital to improving our knowledge of how states and markets interact. In this paper, I argue that changing levels of party centralization can drive important changes in the allocation of state largess. When governing parties are centralized, national party leaders will control sources of patronage, targeting benefits to particularly influential regions and industries. By contrast, when governing parties are decentralized, influential sub-national party leaders will advocate for their constituents, allocating patronage evenly through a national logroll. I find evidence for these relationships by comparing India ...


India: Grassroots Hiv/Aids Activism Growing, Manju Parikh Aug 2006

India: Grassroots Hiv/Aids Activism Growing, Manju Parikh

Political Science Faculty Publications

In the last ten years, we have seen frequent news reports on the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus in the Indian subcontinent, each one stressing the dire economic and social consequences if urgent attention is not paid to the problem. Although the Indian government has responded by adopting many policies and by establishing an organization — the National Aids Control Organization (NACO) — to deal specifically with HIV awareness, treatment for HIV infected individuals, and prevention of further spread of HIV/AIDS, many critics do not find these measures adequate.

The campaign to create awareness and check the spread of AIDS ...


Women And Welfare: The Politics Of Coping With New Social Risks In Chile And Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble Jun 2006

Women And Welfare: The Politics Of Coping With New Social Risks In Chile And Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble

Political Science Faculty Publications

Women make up a disproportionate share of the world’s poor, and Latin America is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless, very few studies of social policy in the region have investigated why the gendered character of welfare provision varies across countries. This article addresses that question through a comparative historical analysis of Chile and Uruguay and concludes that variation in the gendered nature of each state’s social policy regime resulted from a two-step process. In the first stage, female labor force participation, the mobilizing capacity of women, and policy legacies differentiated the two countries, placing Chile on a ...


Why Politicians Like Electoral Institutions: Self-Interest, Values, Or Ideology?, Todd Donovan, Shaun Bowler, Jeffrey A. Karp May 2006

Why Politicians Like Electoral Institutions: Self-Interest, Values, Or Ideology?, Todd Donovan, Shaun Bowler, Jeffrey A. Karp

Political Science Faculty Publications

We examine whether MPs and candidates for parliament are motivated by electoral self-interest, values, ideology, or all of these when evaluating proposals for changing electoral institutions. Using survey data from four countries (Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, and New Zealand), we find that candidates who won election are less supportive of proposals to change institutions, while those who lost elections are more supportive of institutional changes. Winning candidates share preferences for institutions that are independent of whether they are affiliated with a governing or opposition party. This self-interest effect is attenuated by ideology and attitudes about democracy. Pure self-interest, then, is ...


Review Of One House: The Unicameral's Progressive Vision For Nebraska By Charlyne Berens, James B. Johnson Apr 2006

Review Of One House: The Unicameral's Progressive Vision For Nebraska By Charlyne Berens, James B. Johnson

Political Science Faculty Publications

This is a book that needed to be written-a valuable, though flawed, addition to the literature on Nebraska's unique legislative body. It is the first addition to research on the Nebraska Legislature in some time and presents a new approach to the subject: has the Unicameral lived up to the promises of its founders? The answer is, by and large, yes.


Foreign Policy And The Electoral Connection, John Aldrich, Christopher Gelpi, Peter D. Feaver, Jason Reifler, Kristin Thompson Sharp Mar 2006

Foreign Policy And The Electoral Connection, John Aldrich, Christopher Gelpi, Peter D. Feaver, Jason Reifler, Kristin Thompson Sharp

Political Science Faculty Publications

Public opinion is central to representation, democratic accountability, and decision making. Yet, the public was long believed to be relatively uninterested in foreign affairs, absent an immediate threat to safety and welfare. It had become conventional to say that "voting ends at water's edge." We start the examination of the scholarly understanding of the role of foreign affairs in public opinion and voting at that low point of view. Much subsequent development saw an increasing degree of holding and using of attitudes and beliefs about foreign affairs among the public. Moving in parallel with developments in political psychology, theoretical ...


Political Context And The Turnout Of New Women Voters After Suffrage, Kevin Corder, Christina Wolbrecht Feb 2006

Political Context And The Turnout Of New Women Voters After Suffrage, Kevin Corder, Christina Wolbrecht

Political Science Faculty Publications

Many observers expected new women voters to respond to their political context in distinctive ways. Some scholars anticipated that newly-enfranchised women—lacking political interest and experience—would be volatile and highly responsive to context. Others expected political isolation and norms proscribing political activity would insulate women from political stimuli.We test these competing predictions with a Bayesian approach to ecological inference and a unique set of aggregate data.We find that the responsiveness of women’s turnout is strikingly similar to that of men. However, the lesser impact of electoral competition, and the greater effect of electoral laws and prior ...


Globalization, Migration Health, And Educational Preparation For Transnational Medical Encounters, Peter Koehn Jan 2006

Globalization, Migration Health, And Educational Preparation For Transnational Medical Encounters, Peter Koehn

Political Science Faculty Publications

Unprecedented migration, a core dimension of contemporary globalization, challenges population health. In a world of increasing human mobility, many health outcomes are shaped by transnational interactions among care providers and care recipients who meet in settings where nationality/ ethnic match is not an option. This review article explores the value of transnational competence (TC) education as preparation for ethnically and socially discordant clinical encounters. The relevance of TC's five core skill domains (analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional) for migration health and the medical-school curriculum is elaborated. A pedagogical approach that prepares for the transnational health-care consultation is presented ...


Legislative-Judicial Relations On Contested Issues: Taxes And Same-Sex Marriage, Michele Demary Jan 2006

Legislative-Judicial Relations On Contested Issues: Taxes And Same-Sex Marriage, Michele Demary

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Party Linkages And Economic Policy: An Examination Of Indira Gandhi’S India, Charles R. Hankla Jan 2006

Party Linkages And Economic Policy: An Examination Of Indira Gandhi’S India, Charles R. Hankla

Political Science Faculty Publications

We know from observation that some democracies intervene deeply in their domestic economies while others adopt a more laissez faire approach. Can we explain these differences solely with ideology, or are other political influences also at work? I argue in this paper that elected leaders sometimes opt for hefty economic regulation purely to generate sources of patronage that can be used to maintain their political positions. Leaders are most tempted to take this approach, I contend, when their political parties are not stably linked to sources of electoral support. Unstably linked governing parties will tend to have very short time ...


International Security Institutions: Rules, Tools, Schools, Or Fools?, John S. Duffield Jan 2006

International Security Institutions: Rules, Tools, Schools, Or Fools?, John S. Duffield

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Party Strength And International Trade: A Cross National Analysis, Charles Robert Hankla Jan 2006

Party Strength And International Trade: A Cross National Analysis, Charles Robert Hankla

Political Science Faculty Publications

We know from observation that some democracies intervene deeply in their domestic economies while others adopt a more laissez faire approach. Can we explain these differences solely with ideology, or are other political influences also at work? I argue in this paper that elected leaders sometimes opt for hefty economic regulation purely to generate sources of patronage that can be used to maintain their political positions. Leaders are most tempted to take this approach, I contend, when their political parties are not stably linked to sources of electoral support. Unstably linked governing parties will tend to have very short time ...


A View From The Top: International Politics, Norms And The Worldwide Growth Of Ngos, Kim D. Reimann Jan 2006

A View From The Top: International Politics, Norms And The Worldwide Growth Of Ngos, Kim D. Reimann

Political Science Faculty Publications

This article provides a "top-down" explanation for the rapid growth of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the postwar period, focusing on two aspects of political globalization. First, I argue that international political opportunities in the form of funding and political access have expanded enormously in the postwar period and provided a structural environment highly conducive to NGO growth. Secondly, I present a norm-based argument and trace the rise of a pro-NGO norm in the 1980s and 1990s among donor states and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), which has actively promoted the spread of NGOs to non-Western countries. The article ends with a brief ...


Success Matters: Casualty Sensitivity And The War In Iraq", Jason Reifler, Christopher Gelpi, Peter Feaver Jan 2006

Success Matters: Casualty Sensitivity And The War In Iraq", Jason Reifler, Christopher Gelpi, Peter Feaver

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this article, we argue that the public will tolerate significant numbers of U.S. combat casualties under certain circumstances. To be sure, the public is not indifferent to the human costs of American foreign policy, but casualties have not by themselves driven public attitudes toward the Iraq war, and mounting casualties have not always produced a reduction in public support. The Iraq case suggests that under the right conditions, the public will continue to support military operations even when they come with a relatively high human cost. Our core argument is that the U.S. public’s tolerance for ...


No Quick Fix: Foreign Aid And State Performance In Yemen, Sheila Carapico Jan 2006

No Quick Fix: Foreign Aid And State Performance In Yemen, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

few of the world's poorest countries better exemplify American interests in government performance than Yemen. Long overshadowed by its oilrich Persian Gulf neighbors, Yemen gained attention as both an occasional target and a natural haven for militant regional paramilitary groups (including but not limited to al Qaeda). Headlines were made at a time when development analysts were already worried about ecological and economic stresses exacerbated by the strains of structural adjustment and critical water scarcity. In view of these circumstances, analysts began wondering if Yemen is an example of the combustible mix of poor governance and economic stagnation that ...


Killing Zone: What Can Be Done In Darfur?, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2006

Killing Zone: What Can Be Done In Darfur?, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Christians from all traditions and from across the political spectrum have been pressing President Bush to try to get more United Nations peacekeeping troops on the ground in Darfur to stop the unrelenting violence there. The National Council of Churches endorsed the UN resolution in August that called for sending UN troops. In October, Evangelicals for Darfur, a coalition of Christian leaders—including Richard Land of the Southern Baptist Convention and Jim Wallis of Sojourners—took out full-page ads in newspapers calling for President Bush to do more to address the crisis.


The Evolution Of The Common Law: Legal Development In Kenya And India, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2006

The Evolution Of The Common Law: Legal Development In Kenya And India, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Recent cross-national studies of the institutional prerequisites of economic growth have identified common law systems as superior to those of civil law. The assumption is that all common law systems share a similarity of structure and law which creates an environment facilitating investment and contract enforcement. Yet, due to its evolutionary nature, common law is not everywhere the same, nor is the historical development of the common law similar in all countries. This paper makes this point by examining the political development of common law in India and Kenya, in order to compare their legal institutions and histories. Both of ...


Utilitarianism And Beyond: Contemporary Analytical Political Theory, David Miller, Richard Dagger Jan 2006

Utilitarianism And Beyond: Contemporary Analytical Political Theory, David Miller, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this chapter we sketch a body of political thought that became predominant in the second half of the twentieth century among academic political philosophers, primarily in the English-speaking world, but increasingly elsewhere, too. To call this type of political thought ‘analytical’ may not be particularly revealing, but no other term better describes the movement in question. Sometimes ‘liberal political theory’ is used, and there is indeed a close connection between analytical theory and liberalism. But that label is in one way too broad and in another too narrow for this kind of political thinking: too broad because liberalism has ...


Complying With The Help America Vote Act (Hava): Variations Among The States, Daniel Palazzolo, Sarah F. Liebschutz Jan 2006

Complying With The Help America Vote Act (Hava): Variations Among The States, Daniel Palazzolo, Sarah F. Liebschutz

Political Science Faculty Publications

Our focus is on both the causes for the variations in state compliance with HAVA and the consequences of HAVA requirements for election administration, with particular emphasis on the experiences of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania in implementing HAVA. We identify administrative, political, and policy-related reasons for variations in HAVA compliance in each state. We also consider the effects of HAVA on state and local government interactions, funding decisions, and policy innovation. We begin by reviewing HAVA compliance requirements, describing how states responded to those requirements, and comparing New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania with the national norms for ...


Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile A Divided Nation? (Book Review), Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2006

Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile A Divided Nation? (Book Review), Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Anyone engaged in conflict resolution, whether interpersonal or international, would agree that the process must begin with truth telling. But can truth telling be more than a beginning? Can it create a political environment hospitable to both perpetrator and victim?


Hiv/Aids In Africa, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2006

Hiv/Aids In Africa, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

The response of the United States to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa is an example of the redefined nature of security threats that characterizes the post-September 11 period. Even the most ardent realists now accept that serious threats exist to US security apart from those brewing in organized states. Scholars and governments have been forced to adopt a greater sensitivity to the issues that underlie international violence and terrorism, such as a lack of political freedom, state failure, poverty, and HIV/AIDS, the topic addressed in this chapter as an indirect threat to US security interests in Africa.1


Freedom And Rights, Richard Dagger Jan 2006

Freedom And Rights, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

Liberalism, of course, is quite a capacious theory, with room for liberals to debate quite vigorously among themselves, as well as with others, the meaning and significance of freedom, rights and other concepts. It is also capacious enough to allow for a rethinking of these concepts at a time of pressing environmental problems. Such a rethmking, I shall argue, should lead us to conceive of freedom and rights less as barriers or shields that protect individuals against interference - as forms of independence - and more as matters of organic growth and connection, or interdependence. Indeed, we must conceive of freedom and ...


An Unholy Trinity: Aids, Poverty And Insecure Property Rights For Women In Africa, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2006

An Unholy Trinity: Aids, Poverty And Insecure Property Rights For Women In Africa, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Women in Africa have long had insecure rights to both moveable and immoveable property due to the coexistence of customary and statutory law, lack of clarity and poor enforcement of the formal rights to property that exist. Insecure property rights for women are most evident in the case of divorce or the death of a spouse when a woman loses access to land and household assets. This paper examines the issues of poverty, HIV/AIDS and property rights in the area where they intersect most vividly, women’s lives and livelihoods. The gendered nature of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in ...


Unraveling North Korea’S Preferences And Managing Its Nuclear Threat, Monti Narayan Datta Jan 2006

Unraveling North Korea’S Preferences And Managing Its Nuclear Threat, Monti Narayan Datta

Political Science Faculty Publications

Chief among US national security concerns is the North Korean nuclear threat. Led by its reclusive, enigmatic leader, Kim Jong Il, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the last bastions of communism, representing a strategic and ideological challenge for the United States in the post-9/11 era. So great is the perceived threat of the DPRK, that in his 2002 State of the Union address, President Bush proclaimed, “States like these, and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world. By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes ...


The 2001 Nevada Redistricting And Perpetuation Of The Status Quo, David F. Damore Jan 2006

The 2001 Nevada Redistricting And Perpetuation Of The Status Quo, David F. Damore

Political Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.