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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Corruption And Democratic Performance, Levente Littvay Dec 2006

Corruption And Democratic Performance, Levente Littvay

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This dissertation introduces new quantitative methods to comparative politics. These include an approximately unbiased missing data treatment, a first order autoregressive multilevel model for the analysis of cross-sectional longitudinal data, approaches for the separation of cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor effects to identify aggregation bias and a model for the empirical analysis of causal direction. Methods are demonstrated on a model replicating past research on the causes of corruption adding democratic performance as a predictor, than a new model of democratic performance is developed to test Warren’s theoretical propositions that corruption is by nature undemocratic, and finally the causal direction ...


Deracialization Or Racialization: The Making Of A Black Mayor In Jackson, Mississippi, Byron D. Orey Nov 2006

Deracialization Or Racialization: The Making Of A Black Mayor In Jackson, Mississippi, Byron D. Orey

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In 1997, Harvey Johnson made history by becoming the first black to be elected as mayor of Jackson, Mississippi. Four years prior, Johnson failed to make the Democratic primary runoffs. The following research question is addressed: what explains Johnson’s victory in 1997, when compared to his defeat in 1993? In answering this question, I rely heavily on elite-level interviewing and newspaper accounts. I also examine the black and white vote for Johnson, using aggregate-level election and census data. Gary King’s Ecological Inference technique is used to examine these data. Based on the findings, I conclude that Johnson ran ...


Ecological Analysis Of A System Of Organized Interests, Paul E. Johnson Oct 2006

Ecological Analysis Of A System Of Organized Interests, Paul E. Johnson

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

This is a report on a long-term research project about the evolution of system of political organizations. An agent-based computer simulation model is developed with the aim of exploring the inter-connection between tools and concepts from the field of political science with the emerging field of complex systems analysis and the simulation of ecological processes. In political science, we can draw on the exchange theory of interest group formation as well as research on the so-called “ecology of organizations.” Many of the individual level premises that are implicit in the political models are made explicit by considering the interest group ...


The Political Consequences Of Perceived Threat And Felt Insecurity, Leonie Huddy, Stanley Feldman, Christopher Weber Oct 2006

The Political Consequences Of Perceived Threat And Felt Insecurity, Leonie Huddy, Stanley Feldman, Christopher Weber

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

We draw on data from a national RDD telephone sample of 1549 adult Americans conducted between October 15, 2001 and March 2, 2002 to explore the impact of a need for security on support for national security policies in the aftermath of the 911 terrorist attacks. In past research, an external threat has been assumed to have uniform impact on an affected population, a claim that has met with growing research scrutiny. We advance research on threat through an examination of the political effects of individual differences in one’s ability to feel secure in the aftermath of terrorism, exploring ...


Effects Of "In-Your-Face" Television Discourse On Perceptions Of A Legitimate Opposition, Diana C. Mutz Oct 2006

Effects Of "In-Your-Face" Television Discourse On Perceptions Of A Legitimate Opposition, Diana C. Mutz

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

How do Americans acquire the impression that their political foes have some understandable basis for their views, and thus represent a legitimate opposition? How do they come to believe that reasonable people may disagree on any given political controversy? Given that few people talk regularly to those of opposing perspectives, some theorize that mass media, and television in particular, serve as an important source of exposure to the rationales for oppositional views. A series of experimental studies suggests that television does, indeed, have the capacity to encourage greater awareness of oppositional perspectives. However, common characteristics of televised political discourse cause ...


Empathy And Collective Action In The Prisoner's Dilemma, John A. Sautter Oct 2006

Empathy And Collective Action In The Prisoner's Dilemma, John A. Sautter

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Economists guided by evolutionary psychology have theorized that in an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma reciprocal behavior is a product of evolutionary design, where individuals are guided by an innate sense of fairness for equal outcomes. Empathy as a pro-social emotion could be a key to understanding the psychological underpinnings of why and who tends to cooperate in a collective act. In short, why are some individuals more prone to participate in collective-action? The hypothesis that a pro-social psychological disposition stemming from self-reported empathy will lead to grouporiented behavior in an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game is tested. Results suggest that ...


Judgments About Cooperators And Freeriders On A Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective, Michael E. Price Oct 2006

Judgments About Cooperators And Freeriders On A Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective, Michael E. Price

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Evolutionary biological theories of group cooperation predict that (1) group members will tend to judge cooperative co-members favorably, and freeriding co-members negatively and (2) members who themselves cooperate more frequently will be especially likely to make these social judgments. An experiment tested these predictions among Shuar hunter-horticulturalists. Subjects viewed depictions of pairs of workers who varied in the extent to which they had contributed to, and benefited from, a team project. Subjects were then asked to judge which worker deserved more respect, and which deserved more punishment. When judging between unequalcontributors, all subjects tended to favor more cooperative (i.e ...


Personality And Emtional Response: Strategic And Tactical Responses To Changing Political Circumstances, Jennifer Wolak, George E. Marcus Oct 2006

Personality And Emtional Response: Strategic And Tactical Responses To Changing Political Circumstances, Jennifer Wolak, George E. Marcus

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Emotions help people navigate political environments, differentiating familiar situations where standard operating procedures are suitable from unfamiliar terrain when more attention is needed. While previous research identifies consequences of emotion, we know less about what triggers affective response. In this paper, we investigate what role personality has in the operation of the systems of affective intelligence. Using experimental data as well as responses from the 2000 and 2004 American National Election Studies, we first consider whether personality affects the activation of emotional response. Next, we explore the degree to which citizen attitudes like openness to information and compromise are explained ...


Balancing Ambition And Gender Among Decision Makers, Christopher W. Larimer, Rebecca Hannagan, Kevin B. Smith Oct 2006

Balancing Ambition And Gender Among Decision Makers, Christopher W. Larimer, Rebecca Hannagan, Kevin B. Smith

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Survey research from political science indicates that people are quite suspicious of ambitious decision makers; that people who desire power are self-serving and not to be trusted. In this paper, we use an original laboratory experiment to test not only whether people prefer nonambitious decision makers, but also whether people will seek to balance ambitious decision makers with non-ambitious decision makers, allowing for interactions with gender. In the experiment, participants are told two decision makers will be dividing some valuable resource on their behalf. One decision maker (either high or low in ambition) is “appointed.” Participants vote from a slate ...


The Neural Basis Of Representative Democracy, John R. Alford, John R. Hibbing Oct 2006

The Neural Basis Of Representative Democracy, John R. Alford, John R. Hibbing

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

In politics specifically and society generally people often make decisions on behalf of others or experience the results of decisions made on their behalf. In exactly what manner is this important class of decisions different from traditional situations in which people make decisions on their own behalf? How are people’s behavioral and thinking patterns altered by shifting from personal to representational decision-making? Empirical social science research has provided little information on these questions, so in this paper, we draw on evolutionary theory and current knowledge of neuroanatomy to formulate a set of expectations regarding the differences between the decisions ...


The Genetic Basics Of Political Cooperation, James H. Fowler, Laura A. Baker, Christopher T. Dawes Oct 2006

The Genetic Basics Of Political Cooperation, James H. Fowler, Laura A. Baker, Christopher T. Dawes

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Cooperation has been a focus of intense interest in the biological and social sciences. Yet in spite of a tremendous effort to develop evolutionary models and laboratory experiments that explain the existence of cooperation in humans, relatively little effort has been invested in documenting the prevalence of largescale cooperation in well-mixed populations and the extent to which it may be the result of biological or social forces. In this article we study voter behaviour as a form of cooperation that bears close resemblance to theoretical models in which individuals in a large population make anonymous decisions about whether or not ...


The Neuroeconomics Of Trust, Paul J. Zak Oct 2006

The Neuroeconomics Of Trust, Paul J. Zak

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

A possible explanation for the substantial amount of “irrational” behavior observed in markets (and elsewhere) is that humans are a highly social species and to an extent value what other humans think of them. This behavior can be termed trustworthiness— cooperating when someone places trust in us. Indeed, we inculcate children nearly from birth to share and care about others. In economic nomenclature, reciprocating what others expect us to do may provide a utility flow itself (Frey ****). Loosely, it is possible that it “feels good” to fulfill others’ expectations in us. If such a cooperative instinct exists, it must be ...


Evolutionary Model Of Racial Attitude Formation Socially Shared And Idiosyncratic Racial Attitudes, Thomas Craemer Oct 2006

Evolutionary Model Of Racial Attitude Formation Socially Shared And Idiosyncratic Racial Attitudes, Thomas Craemer

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

A growing body of research in political science has uncovered evidence of a “split personality” among Americans when it comes to racial attitudes, whereby people express different attitudes in public than they personally hold. A common assumption is that people adjust their personal attitudes to conform to dominant social norms. At present, however, there is no theoretical model that could account for the emergence of racial norms that are at odds with people’s personal attitudes. This paper proposes a simple neural model of racial attitude formation that makes an important distinction between socially shared and idiosyncratic racial attitudes. Socially ...


Audience Effects On Moralistic Punishment, Robert Kurzban, Peter Descioli, Erin O'Brien Oct 2006

Audience Effects On Moralistic Punishment, Robert Kurzban, Peter Descioli, Erin O'Brien

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Punishment has been proposed as being central to two distinctively human phenomena: cooperation in groups and morality. Here we investigate moralistic punishment, a behavior designed to inflict costs on another individual in response to a perceived moral violation. There is currently no consensus on which evolutionary model best accounts for this phenomenon in humans. Models that turn on individuals’ cultivating reputations as moralistic punishers clearly predict that psychological systems should be designed to increase punishment in response to information that one’s decisions to punish will be known by others. We report two experiments in which we induce participants to ...


Genetic Configurations Of Political Phenomena: New Theories, New Methods, Ira H. Carmen Oct 2006

Genetic Configurations Of Political Phenomena: New Theories, New Methods, Ira H. Carmen

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Recent research by E.O. Wilson, James Q. Wilson, Simon, Alford-Hibbing, Carmen and others indicates that the competing social science paradigms of behavioralism and rational choice are in their last throes. Their salient weakness is insensitivity, bordering on ignorance, to politics as a biologically-orchestrated phenomenon. More specifically, political scientists know precious little about either genetics or evolutionary dynamics.

In this paper, I present a new theory--sociogenomics--to replace the shopworn conceptions of yesterday’s political science. I then demonstrate how social scientists can employ the tools of molecular biology to flesh out the genes coding for baseline political attitudes and behaviors ...


Testosterone, Cortisol, And Aggression In A Simulated Crisis Game, Rose Mcdermott Oct 2006

Testosterone, Cortisol, And Aggression In A Simulated Crisis Game, Rose Mcdermott

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

This study investigated the impact of testosterone and cortisol on aggression in a crisis simulation game. We found a significant relationship between level of testosterone and aggression. Men were much more likely to engage in aggressive action than women. They were more likely to lose their fights as well. In addition, we found a significant inverse relationship between cortisol level and aggression. We end with some speculation about why we did not find victory effects in this population.


When Can Politicians Scare Citizens Into Supporting Bad Policies? A Theory Of Incentives With Fear Based Content, Arthur Lupia, Jesse O. Mennng Oct 2006

When Can Politicians Scare Citizens Into Supporting Bad Policies? A Theory Of Incentives With Fear Based Content, Arthur Lupia, Jesse O. Mennng

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

Analysts make competing claims about when and how politicians can use fear to gain support for suboptimal policies. Using a model, we clarify how common attributes of fear affect politicians’ abilities to achieve self-serving outcomes that are bad for voters. In it, a politician provides information about a threat. His statement need not be true. How citizens respond differs from most game-theoretic models – we proceed from more dynamic (and realistic) assumptions about how citizens think. Our conclusions counter popular claims about how easily politicians use fear to manipulate citizens, yield different policy advice than does recent scholarship on counterterrorism, and ...


'Heroism' In Warfare, Oleg Smirnov, Holly Arrow, Doug Kennet, John Orbell Oct 2006

'Heroism' In Warfare, Oleg Smirnov, Holly Arrow, Doug Kennet, John Orbell

Hendricks Symposium--Department of Political Science

The willingness of people to risk their lives fighting on behalf of their nation (which we call heroism) is a background assumption in the study of war, thus of international relations, but also an evolutionary puzzle. We use two computer simulations to explore the possibility that heroism could have evolved as a domain specific form of altruism, selected through humans’ ancient past as a consequence of warfare. In the first, “altruism” is modeled as a generalized disposition that promotes both heroism and other, non-military, forms of group-benefiting behaviors—which we call communitarianism. In the second, heroism and communitarianism are modeled ...


Race And Gender Matter: Refining Models Of Legislative Policy Making In State Legislatures, Byron D. Orey, Wendy Smooth, Kimberly S. Adams, Kisha Harris-Clark Aug 2006

Race And Gender Matter: Refining Models Of Legislative Policy Making In State Legislatures, Byron D. Orey, Wendy Smooth, Kimberly S. Adams, Kisha Harris-Clark

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In this article, we explore the degree to which African American state legislators have been able to translate election to office into substantive representation. We are particularly interested in the impact of race and gender on the likelihood of legislative bill submission and passage. While previous studies have focused on inter-group representation, our analysis examines intra-group representation by disaggregating race, gender, and party identification. By doing so, we are able to capture the intra-group variation between various groups such as black Democratic men and black Democratic women and white Democratic women and white Republican women. Using the case of Mississippi ...


Teaching And Researching "The Politics Of Race" In A Majority White Institution, Byron D. Orey Jan 2006

Teaching And Researching "The Politics Of Race" In A Majority White Institution, Byron D. Orey

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In this chapter, I outline some of the challenges faced by people of color who teach at traditional white institutions (TWIs). In addition, I offer proposed remedies to address such challenges. Given that the primary foci of Research I universities are research, teaching, and service (generally in that order), this chapter places special emphasis on these categories.

I first suggest that departments attempting to diversify their faculty consider hiring more than one person of color. While I was contemplating whether to accept my current job, I was contacted by a woman of color who told me that she had just ...


Manipulating Molecules: Federal Support For Nanotechnology Research, Michael E. Davey Jan 2006

Manipulating Molecules: Federal Support For Nanotechnology Research, Michael E. Davey

Congressional Research Service Reports

The Bush Administration has requested $1.277 billion for nanotechnology research for FY2007, $24 million less than the estimated $1.301billion appropriated level for FY2006. (See Table 1.) Nanotechnology is a newly emerging field of science where scientists and engineers are beginning to manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic levels in order to obtain materials and systems with significantly improved properties. Ten nanometers is equal to one-ten thousandths the diameter of a human hair. Proponents of this technology argue that nanotechnology will lead to a new industrial revolution in the 21st century. Scientists note that nanotechnology is still in ...


Space Exploration: Issues Concerning The “Vision For Space Exploration”, Marcia S. Smith Jan 2006

Space Exploration: Issues Concerning The “Vision For Space Exploration”, Marcia S. Smith

Congressional Research Service Reports

On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced new goals for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), directing the agency to focus on returning humans to the Moon by 2020, and eventually sending them to Mars and “worlds beyond.” The President invited other countries to join. Most of the funding for this “Vision for Space Exploration” is to be redirected from other NASA activities, including terminating the space shuttle program in 2010, and ending U.S. participation in the International Space Station by 2016. NASA released an implementation plan for the Vision on September 19, 2005, and estimated ...


Hubble Space Telescope: Should Nasa Proceed With A Servicing Mission?, Daniel Morgan Jan 2006

Hubble Space Telescope: Should Nasa Proceed With A Servicing Mission?, Daniel Morgan

Congressional Research Service Reports

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008 instead of 2010. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe announced that the space shuttle would no longer be used to service Hubble. He indicated that this decision was based primarily on safety concerns in the wake of the space shuttle Columbia accident in 2003. Many critics, however, saw it as the result of the new Vision for Space Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, which focuses NASA’s priorities ...


U.S. Military Space Programs: An Overview Of Appropriations And Current Issues, Patricia Moloney Figliola Jan 2006

U.S. Military Space Programs: An Overview Of Appropriations And Current Issues, Patricia Moloney Figliola

Congressional Research Service Reports

The 1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act specified that military space activities be conducted by the Department of Defense (DOD). DOD and the intelligence community manage a broad array of space activities, including launch vehicle development, communications satellites, navigation satellites (the Global Positioning System — GPS), early warning satellites to alert the United States to foreign missile launches, weather satellites, reconnaissance satellites, and developing capabilities to protect U.S. satellite systems and to deny the use of space to adversaries (called “space control” or “counterspace systems”). The 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War is dubbed by some as the first “space war” because ...


Stem Cell Research: State Initiatives, Judith A. Johnson, Erin D. Williams Jan 2006

Stem Cell Research: State Initiatives, Judith A. Johnson, Erin D. Williams

Congressional Research Service Reports

Embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into virtually any cell in the body. Stem cells are used by scientists to study the growth and differentiation of individual cells into tissues. This work may provide insights into the causes of birth defects, genetic abnormalities, and other disease states, as well as potential treatments. The research is controversial, in the opinion of some, because the stem cells are located within the embryo and the process of removing them destroys the embryo. Some have argued that stem cell research should be limited to adult stem cells obtained from tissues such as ...


Western Water Resource Issues, Betsy A. Cody, Pervaze A. Sheikh Jan 2006

Western Water Resource Issues, Betsy A. Cody, Pervaze A. Sheikh

Congressional Research Service Reports

For more than a century, the federal government has constructed water resource projects for a variety of purposes, including flood control, navigation, power generation, and irrigation. While most municipal and industrial water supplies have been built by non-federal entities, most of the large, federal water supply projects in the West, including Hoover and Grand Coulee dams, were constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation (Department of the Interior) to provide water for irrigation.

Growing populations and changing values have increased demands on water supplies and river systems, resulting in water use and management conflicts throughout the country, particularly in the West ...


Alternative Fuels And Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues In Congress, Brent D. Yacobucci Jan 2006

Alternative Fuels And Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues In Congress, Brent D. Yacobucci

Congressional Research Service Reports

Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers — especially economics — currently prevent the widespread use of these fuels and technologies. Because of these barriers, and the potential benefits, there is continued congressional interest in providing incentives and other support for their development and commercialization.

In the 109th Congress, alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles have received a good deal of attention, especially in the debate over omnibus energy legislation. High fuel prices, especially in response to hurricanes ...


U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, And Commercial, Marcia S. Smith Jan 2006

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, And Commercial, Marcia S. Smith

Congressional Research Service Reports

The 109th Congress is addressing a broad range of civilian, military, and commercial space issues.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducts the most visible space activities. For FY2006, NASA received $16.623 billion when adjusted for two rescissions and an augmentation for hurricane recovery. The FY2007 request is $16.792 billion.

The future of the U.S. human space flight program is dominating debate about NASA. The space shuttle returned to flight in July 2005 after a two and one-half year hiatus following the 2003 Columbia tragedy, but the next launch has been indefinitely postponed because of a ...


Human Cloning, Judith A. Johnson, Erin D. Williams Jan 2006

Human Cloning, Judith A. Johnson, Erin D. Williams

Congressional Research Service Reports

In December 2005, an investigation by Seoul National University, South Korea, found that scientist Hwang Woo Suk had fabricated results on deriving patientmatched stem cells from cloned embryos — a major setback for the field. In May 2005 Hwang had announced a significant advance in creating human embryos using cloning methods and in isolating human stem cells from cloned embryos. These developments have contributed to the debate in the 109th Congress on the moral and ethical implications of human cloning. Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos ...


The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues In Patent Policy And The Commercialization Of Technology, Wendy H. Schacht Jan 2006

The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues In Patent Policy And The Commercialization Of Technology, Wendy H. Schacht

Congressional Research Service Reports

Congressional interest in facilitating U.S. technological innovation led to the passage of P.L. 96-517, Amendments to the Patent and Trademark Act (commonly referred to as the Bayh-Dole Act after its two main sponsors). The act grants patent rights to inventions arising out of government- sponsored research and development (R&D) to certain types of entities with the expressed purpose of encouraging the commercialization of new technologies through cooperative ventures between and among the research community, small business, and industry.

Patents provide an economic incentive for companies to pursue further development and commercialization. Studies have shown that research funding ...