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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Why Were Chemical Weapons Not Used In World War Ii?, Jeffrey W. Legro Jan 2000

Why Were Chemical Weapons Not Used In World War Ii?, Jeffrey W. Legro

Political Science Faculty Publications

Chemical warfare had played an important enough role in World War I that there was widespread expectation of its use in World War II. Certainly, Germany's army and its chemists had no qualms about adding poison gas to the Third Reich's arsenal. When war began, however, many of the latest chemical warfare agents were not available in deliverable form. The early successes of conventional-war making, combined with an increasing shortage of raw material, led Germany to deemphasize gas warfare even apart from the fear of Allied retaliation that significantly influenced at least the armed forces.


Property Rights And Political Development In Ethiopia And Eritrea 1941-74, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2000

Property Rights And Political Development In Ethiopia And Eritrea 1941-74, Sandra F. Joireman

Bookshelf

This book looks at the microfoundations of poverty in the developing world and in particular those present in property rights. The local institutions that govern land access are fundamental in affecting the distribution of wealth in a society. Property rights matter because they affect political development and economic growth. Development economists and policy makers often work on the assumption that property rights evolve from collective to more specified systems. The author has set out to test this theory by using the evidence available in the special cases of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Political scientists and economists working in land tenure and ...


Ngos, Ingos, Go-Ngos And Do-Ngos: Making Sense Of Non-Governmental Organizations, Sheila Carapico Jan 2000

Ngos, Ingos, Go-Ngos And Do-Ngos: Making Sense Of Non-Governmental Organizations, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

This issue of Middle East Report takes a critical look at "NGOs"--non-governmental organizations--in and beyond the Arab world. The topic is both trendy and controversial. Although they may see themselves as marginal actors, charities, advocacy groups and a range of other civic associations in the Middle East have also become agents of political, economic and social change, influencing the allocation of scarce resources in their own societies and the images national regimes project abroad. In recent years, NGOs have been depicted as saviors of failed economies in some circles while reviled as stooges of Western imperialism in others.


Passports And Passages: Tests Of Yemeni Women's Citizenship Rights, Sheila Carapico, Anna Wuerth Jan 2000

Passports And Passages: Tests Of Yemeni Women's Citizenship Rights, Sheila Carapico, Anna Wuerth

Political Science Faculty Publications

Rights and legal status are often tested at the margins. Questions are less likely to arise about how general principles apply under ordinary circumstances than about how specific articles of particular laws speak to unusual situations. The test of legal status comes through case law in the form of judgments about claims made in the context of specific, even peculiar, fact sequences. Rights are affirmed or asserted on behalf of social groups when courts or tribunals find that they have been violated in individual cases. So it is, too, with citizen rights for Yemeni women. Under ordinary circumstances the daughters ...


Good Fences Make Good Neighbors, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2000

Good Fences Make Good Neighbors, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

A ceasefire in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea is only the beginning of the process of conflict resolution that must occur for peace to take hold. The border war is the result of long standing distrust and animosity between these two countries. Therefore the possibility of the conflict erupting into violence again is high unless serious internal and international effort is put into the demarcation of the border and the acceptance of that demarcated border as fair.


The Ethiopian Prospective Case, Sandra F. Joireman, Thomas S, Szayna Jan 2000

The Ethiopian Prospective Case, Sandra F. Joireman, Thomas S, Szayna

Political Science Faculty Publications

This chapter applies the "process" model for anticipating the incidence of ethnic conflict to the potential case of the emergence of ethnically based violence in Ethiopia. Therefore, in contrast to the two case studies presented previously, this case entails the use of the model to consider prospectively the likelihood of an ethnic mobilization turning violent. The chapter examines the case of Ethiopia from the perspective of what an intelligence analyst might conclude were she to use the "process" model. In essence, we look at the potential ethnic mobilization of the Amhara against the Tigray-dominated Ethiopian state structures in an attempt ...


Ethiopia And Eritrea: Border War, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2000

Ethiopia And Eritrea: Border War, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

The war between Ethiopia and Eritrea—two of the poorest countries in the world—began in 1998. Eritrea was once part of the Ethiopian empire, but it was colonized by Italy from 1869 to 1941. Following Italy's defeat in World War II, the United Nations determined that Eritrea would become part of Ethiopia, though Eritrea would maintain a great deal of autonomy. In 1961 Ethiopia removed Eritrea's independence, and Eritrea became just another Ethiopian province. In 1991 following a revolution in Ethiopia, Eritrea gained its independence. However, the borders between Ethiopia and Eritrea had never been clearly marked ...