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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Politics Of Prison Reform: Juvenile Justice Policy In Texas, California And Pennsylvania, Sarah Cate Jan 2016

The Politics Of Prison Reform: Juvenile Justice Policy In Texas, California And Pennsylvania, Sarah Cate

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

At a moment when there is a great deal of enthusiasm for reforming the prison system in the United States, a number of states across the country have enacted legislation that aims to reduce the number of juveniles sent to state-run prisons. These new policies have focused on expanding community-based alternatives. The three state-level cases on Texas, California and Pennsylvania show that this strategy for reform entrenches punishment at the local level. As counties are given more responsibility to handle juvenile offenders they have contracted out services to the private-sector and invested in expanding jails and punitive conditions of probation ...


Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak Jan 2016

Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The 1930s were dominated by an understanding that unemployment and inequality were primarily the result of structural failures of the market economy. However, the unraveling of New Deal liberalism throughout the 1940s and 1950s shifted ideological understandings of problems like unemployment, poverty and racial inequality to explanations focused on individual deficiencies. This development had dramatic consequences for federal education policy. Buttressed by a coalition of civil rights groups and educational organizations pushing for federal involvement in education, Democratic policymakers turned towards education as a cheaper and more effective replacement to earlier redistributive taxation and full employment policies. The success of ...


Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra Jan 2016

Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What role do elections play during counterinsurgency wars? Prompted by the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, two broad empirical trends also underlay the posing of this research question. In the modern era, the number of electoral regimes in the international system has expanded dramatically. And in this same period, the fortunes of governments combatting asymmetric internal threats has reversed, with incumbents being defeated by their ‘weaker’ opponents one third of the time, and securing outright victory for themselves only to an equal extent. But while the grievances expounded by insurgents vary across conflicts, the inclusivity of access to the ...


Making Markets: The Political Causes And Consequences Of Private Education In India, Emmerich Davies Jan 2016

Making Markets: The Political Causes And Consequences Of Private Education In India, Emmerich Davies

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The two questions motivating this project are, first, why did India see such a rapid growth in private education since 1980? And, second, what are the effects of this growth on citizen-state relations? Approximately 35 percent of students attended a private school in 2012, nearly a doubling in private school enrollment since 2003. In 1987, Indian households spent an average of 10 Rupees (approximately 17 cents) out of pocket on education per year. That figure stood at 2,700 Rupees (approximately $45) per year in 2014.

To answer the first question, I rely on a variety of methods, including historical ...


Interest Groups, Lobbying And Polarization In The United States, Alexander Russell Garlick Jan 2016

Interest Groups, Lobbying And Polarization In The United States, Alexander Russell Garlick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Most lobbying in the United States comes from business interests, but not all. Previous work has not paid sufficient attention to how non-business lobbying affects legislative behavior. Firms are more interested in particular goods than advocacy groups which pursue broad-based policy change. These citizen-based organizations often employ grassroots tactics and align with one of the major parties. Advocacy groups are also less likely to support maintaining the status quo.

This dissertation argues that interest group lobbyists perform two functions. First, these groups set the agenda by engaging in positive promotion of legislation. Second, advocacy organizations push legislators to vote along ...


The Slave South In The Far West: California, The Pacific, And Proslavery Visions Of Empire, Kevin Waite Jan 2016

The Slave South In The Far West: California, The Pacific, And Proslavery Visions Of Empire, Kevin Waite

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation rests on a relatively simple premise: America’s road to disunion ran west, and unless we account for the transcontinental and trans-Pacific ambitions of slaveholders, our understanding of the nation’s bloodiest conflict will remain incomplete. Whereas a number of important works have explored southern imperialism within the Atlantic Basin, surprisingly little has been written on the far western dimension of proslavery expansion. My work traces two interrelated initiatives – the southern campaign for a transcontinental railroad and the extension of a proslavery political order across the Far Southwest – in order to situate the struggle over slavery in a ...


Powerless In Movement: How Social Movements Influence, And Fail To Influence, American Politics And Policy, Matthew Mongiello Mongiello Jan 2016

Powerless In Movement: How Social Movements Influence, And Fail To Influence, American Politics And Policy, Matthew Mongiello Mongiello

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Much of the literature on social movements centers on cyclical theories of political opportunity. While such work lays an important foundation for understanding contentious politics, it fails to fully integrate movements as actors in the American political system and public policy process. As such, the ways movements exercise power in the American political system, and the ways that power is constrained, are often not clearly conceptualized. This dissertation argues that movements exercise political power in the US in three distinct but overlapping ways; pluralist interest group power, plebiscitary opinion power, and disruptive contentious power. Through public law and empirical analyses ...


Politics As Sport: The Effects Of Partisan Media On Perceptions Of Electoral Integrity, Andrew Michael Daniller Jan 2016

Politics As Sport: The Effects Of Partisan Media On Perceptions Of Electoral Integrity, Andrew Michael Daniller

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Just as fans of two opposing teams watching the same game reach opposite conclusions about the quality of referees, citizens’ assessments of the legitimacy of their democratic institutions depend to a worrying degree upon the outcome, rather than the procedures, of an election. Citizens who voted for the losing side in an election are much less likely to believe that the process was fair than citizens who voted for the winner. However, little attention has been paid to partisan media’s potential to exacerbate this phenomenon. I hypothesized that like-minded media amplify the effects of winning and losing on perceptions ...


Epicurean Justice And Law, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch Jan 2016

Epicurean Justice And Law, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation concerns a cluster of related issues surrounding the Epicurean conception of justice. First, I show that the Epicureans defend a sophisticated kind of social contract theory and maintain a kind of legal positivism, views that are widely held today and so are of continuing interest for contemporary readers. In doing so, I argue that thinking about justice and law forms an integral part of Epicurean philosophy (pace the standard view). Second, I take up some neglected issues regarding justice and so provide detailed accounts of the metaphysics of moral properties in Epicureanism as well as of Epicurean moral ...


Making Autocrats Accountable: Interests, Priorities, And Cooperation For Regime Change, Başak Taraktaş Jan 2016

Making Autocrats Accountable: Interests, Priorities, And Cooperation For Regime Change, Başak Taraktaş

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In nearly all authoritarian regimes, democratization finds significant societal support and a number of organized opposition groups struggle for regime change. In some cases—such as in Iran in 1979— opposition groups are able to cooperate with one another and bring down authoritarianism. In others—such as the Assad regime in Syria—groups are not able to cooperate, and the ruler remains in place. Studies that apply cooperation theory on regimes predict that shared grievances about the current government and common interests in changing the existing regime foster cooperation among challengers. Yet, evidence suggests the contrary. This study examines the ...


Revealing The Role Of Higher Education In A Diverse Democracy: A Theory Of College Student Political Identity Development, Demetri Lloyd Morgan Jan 2016

Revealing The Role Of Higher Education In A Diverse Democracy: A Theory Of College Student Political Identity Development, Demetri Lloyd Morgan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

REVEALING THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN A DIVERSE DEMOCRACY: A THEORY OF COLLEGE STUDENT

POLITICAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT

Demetri L. Morgan

J. Matthew Hartley

This dissertation sought to investigate how students make meaning of their curricular and cocurricular educational experiences while in college to better theorize how and why these experiences influence the development of their political identity. To date, research has shown that people who attend college are more likely to be civically and politically engaged compared to those who do not attend college. Yet few studies have sought to ascertain what about the totality of a person ...


China In The Media: Effects On American Opinion, Laura Ruth Silver Jan 2016

China In The Media: Effects On American Opinion, Laura Ruth Silver

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

I explore how the tone of media coverage affects opinions of foreign countries by

studying a particular case: the People’s Republic of China. I exploit the fact that recent

presidential campaigns have focused a great deal of attention on China. Indeed, before

the 2012 presidential election, media coverage of China was particularly high and largely negative due to campaign rhetoric about how China was stealing American jobs and ruining the U.S. economy.

Using a nationally representative, pre- and post- election panel, I explore how

these changes in media valence affect opinions of China. I use an original content ...