Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

2009

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 128

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Media Gender Bias In The 1984 And 2008 Vice Presidential Elections, Katherine Shaunesi Reeves Dec 2009

Media Gender Bias In The 1984 And 2008 Vice Presidential Elections, Katherine Shaunesi Reeves

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Media coverage in political campaigns helps shape public opinion and can be a factor in people determining how to vote. Thus, bias evident in the coverage of political candidates should be a concern for a society which values fair elections. In the 2008 general election, for the first time in 24 years, a woman was on a major party ticket. The treatment of female candidates historically has been sexist. To understand the media coverage of Sarah Palin I chose to look at editorials in The New York Times. I compared her editorial references to Joe Biden’s in The Times ...


Ethnic Voting And Representation: Minority Russians In Post-Soviet States, Holley E Hansen Dec 2009

Ethnic Voting And Representation: Minority Russians In Post-Soviet States, Holley E Hansen

Theses and Dissertations

What factors motivate members of minority groups to vote based on an ethnic attachment? What motivates candidates and political parties to make appeals to specific ethnic groups? I argue that ethnic voting is more likely to emerge when individual socialization experiences and dissatisfaction increase the salience of ethnic identity, contextual factors serve to politicize this salient identity, and the mobilization potential of the ethnic group is high, making it more likely that an ethnic-based appeal will be successful. I test this theory with a combination of regional-level large-N statistical comparisons, case studies, and individual-level survey data.

I primarily examine party ...


The Nurturing Hypothesis: Residence In A Progressive Environment And Its Impact On Political Engagement Among Latinos And Asian Americans In The United States, Hoi Ok Jeong Dec 2009

The Nurturing Hypothesis: Residence In A Progressive Environment And Its Impact On Political Engagement Among Latinos And Asian Americans In The United States, Hoi Ok Jeong

Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation examines how an environment containing politically favorable policies influences political engagement of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States. The threat hypothesis claims that living in a threatening environment provokes a sense of anxiety, which leads to active engagement in politics. The assumption underlying the hypothesis is that living in a non-threatening, or favorable, environment, conversely, will not motivate individuals to be engaged in politics. The dissertation aims to investigate this untested assumption: How does a favorable environment influence individuals' political involvement? I examine this question using two separate survey data-sets for Latinos and Asian Americans, combined ...


An Investigation Into The Use Of Geospatial Technologies As Part Of Disaster Management Efforts Related To The Asian Tsunami Of 2004, Robert William Redding Jr. Dec 2009

An Investigation Into The Use Of Geospatial Technologies As Part Of Disaster Management Efforts Related To The Asian Tsunami Of 2004, Robert William Redding Jr.

Dissertations

On the 26th of December, 2004, a tsunami impacted the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, immediately killing over two hundred and eighty thousand people, displacing another million people, and initially causing at least US$10 billion in damage. The response by the international community was swift and massive. Disaster decision-makers who led their organization's responses to the tsunami used geospatial information to support their decision-making efforts with mixed success. When describing their use of geospatial technologies during the response, a select set of disaster decision-makers provided information about how they used geospatial information, they described what worked and what ...


The Politics And Consequences Of Stakeholder Participation In International Development Evaluation, Anne Cullen Dec 2009

The Politics And Consequences Of Stakeholder Participation In International Development Evaluation, Anne Cullen

Dissertations

Participatory approaches to evaluation have long been vogue in the international development evaluation community. However, despite their widespread use, there is a dearth of research on the impact of stakeholder participation in international development evaluations. Although proponents of participatory approaches to international development evaluation assert many advantages of their use, the evidence to support these claims is largely anecdotal. Similarly, critics of participatory approaches do not have empirical data on which to base their assertions. Further confusing the matter are multiple and conflicting definitions of stakeholder and participation. Some interpret stakeholders to mean funders while others view stakeholders as those ...


Important Or Impotent? Radical Right Political Parties And Public Policy In Germany And Austria, Marcella J. Myers Dec 2009

Important Or Impotent? Radical Right Political Parties And Public Policy In Germany And Austria, Marcella J. Myers

Dissertations

Across Western Europe throughout the 1990s radical right political parties emerged and gained some electoral success. Since that time, particularly in the face of the popularity of the National Front in France and the Freedom Party in Austria, many studies have been conducted examining the voting behavior, party membership and ideologies of these parties, and what the parties mean to democratic governments. Largely unexamined are the effects of radical right political parties on public policy. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of radical right parties on public policy by using a most similar, case study research design, relying heavily ...


Why Foreign Counterinsurgency Campaigns Fail, Donald Frederick Butler Dec 2009

Why Foreign Counterinsurgency Campaigns Fail, Donald Frederick Butler

Doctoral Dissertations

Why have foreign counterinsurgency operations had such low success rates since 1945? While operations of this type succeeded at the rate of 85.71% during the period of 1816-1945, they declined by 56.30 percentage points to just 29.49% during period of 1945-1997 (Sarkees, 2000: 123-144). This occurred even though foreign powers were often fighting in the same territories where they had previously been overwhelmingly victorious.

I argue that military defeats suffered by European states during the Second World War convinced the peoples of the developing world that colonial control could be successfully challenged. As guerrilla struggles emerged in ...


Democracy And The Environment In Latin America, Javier Albert Escamilla Dec 2009

Democracy And The Environment In Latin America, Javier Albert Escamilla

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examines the ability of democratic and non-democratic states alike to protect the environment. Democracy has long been an important concept in the study of politics and environmental protection is an increasingly important issue in world politics. Advocates of democracy claim democratic states are better able to protect the environment than non-democracies. In contrast there are those that argue democracy's emphasis on individual rights leads to excessive resource consumption. This thesis employs a mixed methods approach to determine if democratic countries protect the environment more than their non-democratic counterparts. In short democracies do protect the environment better than ...


Thou Shall Not Kill: Analyzing Democracy's Moderating Effect On Violent Religious Supremacy In Islam, Ariel Morgenstern Nov 2009

Thou Shall Not Kill: Analyzing Democracy's Moderating Effect On Violent Religious Supremacy In Islam, Ariel Morgenstern

Political Science Theses

This research examines the commonly explicated theory that democracy is a moderating force on the public’s support for terrorism. Specifically, I test the hypothesis that living in a democracy will decrease support for terror in Muslim populations. I analyze survey data on support for terrorism from the 2006 Pew Global Attitudes Survey, which has data from 10 nations. I use an ordered logistic regression model to test what determines support for terrorism. The results show that democracy negatively correlates with support for terror. Additionally, I find that opinions toward US policy in the region, including the ‘Global War on ...


The Kenyan Woman: Her Historical Relationship With The State, Rosalia Wanja Ngugi Nov 2009

The Kenyan Woman: Her Historical Relationship With The State, Rosalia Wanja Ngugi

Theses and Dissertations

The historical relationship between the Kenyan state and women provides lessons and insight as to how women in a colonized state relate to the government and the gains, or lack thereof, that exist. Kenyan women were critical in the nationalist movement that intensified in the 1950s, culminating in independence in 1963. Some women fought in the forests and others were information and food distributors. Many women played a role in furthering the nationalist movement. Independence promised fruits that few women received. Through a historical analysis and an understanding of two women's organizations in Kenya, Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organization and ...


International Arbitration: A Comparative Study Of The Aaa And Icc Rules, Igor M. Borba Oct 2009

International Arbitration: A Comparative Study Of The Aaa And Icc Rules, Igor M. Borba

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Arbitration has been used throughout history as an alternative dispute resolution method with great success. Today, arbitration is commonly used in international trade related disputes as one of the most common dispute resolution methods. In this thesis I will examine some of the most important international treaties and laws that regulate this dispute resolution method, such as the New York Convention, Uncitral Model Law, as well as the Federal Arbitration Act. The two main international arbitration institutions are the main focus of this thesis. The international arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association (AAA) and the International Chamber of Commerce ...


Formulating Older Driver Licensing Policy: An Evaluation Of Older Driver Crash History And Performance, Heather A. Rothenberg Sep 2009

Formulating Older Driver Licensing Policy: An Evaluation Of Older Driver Crash History And Performance, Heather A. Rothenberg

Open Access Dissertations

This research sought to understand the relationship between licensing policy and the opportunity for the development of a scientifically-based approach to identifying high risk older drivers based on prior driving history. This research focused on five tasks: 1) review of the literature, 2) compilation of information on licensing policy for use by decision-makers, 3) assessment of charges and payer source for older driver crashes using linked crash and hospital data , and 4) the development and 5) validation of an older driver crash prediction model. There is relatively little available in the way of information for policymakers regarding licensing, and there ...


City Marketing And Gated Communities: A Case Study Of Guaynabo, Puerto Rico, Carlos A. Suarez-Carrasquillo Sep 2009

City Marketing And Gated Communities: A Case Study Of Guaynabo, Puerto Rico, Carlos A. Suarez-Carrasquillo

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the dynamics of gated communities with attention to the municipality of Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. Despite the growing numbers of gated communities worldwide, research on this matter remains scarce. I argue that a “gated community consensus” has emerged in Puerto Rico. The hypothesis is that in Guaynabo, the municipality facilitates the emergence of gated communities in order to change the face of the city and reap an economic windfall. Interviews demonstrate the municipality’s commitment to facilitating the construction of new communities and lending support to older communities. Most of these gated communities respond to high end ...


United Nations Peacekeeping And Non-State Actors: A Theoretical And Empirical Analysis Of The Conditions Required For Cooperation, Gregory Hodgin Aug 2009

United Nations Peacekeeping And Non-State Actors: A Theoretical And Empirical Analysis Of The Conditions Required For Cooperation, Gregory Hodgin

Political Science Theses

This paper attempts to determine the theoretical requirements for a non-state actor to give peacekeepers to a Member state of the United Nations, who would in turn give those peacekeepers to the United Nations. The paper examines two case studies, specifically the contract between Blackwater and the United States Department of State and the SHIRBRIG series of treaties. The paper finds that there is some overlap between a Member state’s needs and a non-state actor’s needs and that there is a theoretical possibility of the donation stated above taking place.


Talking Us Into War: Problem Definition By Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson And George W. Bush, Barbara Ellen May Warner Aug 2009

Talking Us Into War: Problem Definition By Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson And George W. Bush, Barbara Ellen May Warner

Theses and Dissertations

How presidents talk us into war merges the study of problem definition in public policy with the study of rhetoric in communications. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research analyzes the key words used by two presidents, Lyndon B. Johnson and George W. Bush, to persuade us into escalating a war in Vietnam and engaging in a pre-emptive war in Iraq, respectively. The findings indicate that presidents repeat words that are patriotic, emotive, metaphorical, symbolic and religious, tapping into American themes of Manifest Destiny and even predicting dire outcomes if we do not accept their definitions of the dangers ...


An Assessment Of Democratic Policing In The Turkish National Police: Police Officials' Attitudes Toward Recent Police Reforms, Akin Karatay Aug 2009

An Assessment Of Democratic Policing In The Turkish National Police: Police Officials' Attitudes Toward Recent Police Reforms, Akin Karatay

Dissertations

This study defines democracy, describes democratic policing, analyzes the development of democratic policing principles in the developing country of Turkey and contends that democracy can be enduring only when the police embody democratic values. As Turkey transforms itself in order to become a member of the European Union, the process has fostered national, institutional, cultural and socioeconomic adaptations, all of which lead towards democracy. This process has influenced the Turkish National Police (TNP) as well. In theory, these efforts towards political democratization, legal reform and the adoption of European Union police policy guidelines should have a positive effect on Turkish ...


The Sword, The Purse And The Gavel: Institutional Influences On The Behavior Of Supreme Court Justices, Hemant Sharma Aug 2009

The Sword, The Purse And The Gavel: Institutional Influences On The Behavior Of Supreme Court Justices, Hemant Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

An inherent contradiction exists between two fundamental principles embedded in American political philosophy: the notion of "checks and balances" and the idea of an "independent judiciary." After all, a truly "independent" branch of government would be immune to the influences, or "checks," of external institutions. This dissertation addresses that juxtaposition through a two part analysis of Supreme Court decision-making.

The first part uses multivariate regression to illustrate that justices confirmed under conditions of divided government are more moderate in their voting behavior than justices confirmed under conditions of unified government. Ancillary findings also reveal that justices who receive more votes ...


International Finance Capital And African Development: 1980-2001, Kelly Harris Jul 2009

International Finance Capital And African Development: 1980-2001, Kelly Harris

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

This dissertation examines how the change in the international economy away from manufacturing to finance has affected African development. The dominance of financial liberalization is obvious to most observers; however, discourse on the development of African economies since 1980 generally focuses on the primary lending institutions (the IMF and World Bank). This dissertation is really an attempt to create a narrative about the rejection of alternative forms of development and subsequent implementation of rieoliberal policies. African countries rushing pell-mell to privatize, democratize, and implement all things neoliberal, crystallizes the sterile nature of alternatives to financial liberalization. Much of the discussion ...


The Corruption Enigma: Understanding Success And Failure Of Corruption Reform Programs In Highly Corrupt Countries, Matthew T. Hall Jul 2009

The Corruption Enigma: Understanding Success And Failure Of Corruption Reform Programs In Highly Corrupt Countries, Matthew T. Hall

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

There exists a corruption enigma. Experts and analysts largely agree on the institutional reforms that constitute successful corruption reform programs—this is the 'Corruption Consensus.' Unfortunately, the well-designed and resourced reform programs created from this consensus and intended to improve national institutional capabilities rarely work. Yet the reform programs patterned on the Corruption Consensus continue on. Everyone agrees what to do in order to reform corruption but everyone also agrees that it will not work. This is the Corruption Enigma.

This dissertation employs a structured, focused analysis to determine the reasons for varying success levels between otherwise similar countries in ...


Multiple Frame Environments And Mediating Factors: Does Context Affect Opinion On Same-Sex Marriage And Civil Unions?, James Scott Krueger Jul 2009

Multiple Frame Environments And Mediating Factors: Does Context Affect Opinion On Same-Sex Marriage And Civil Unions?, James Scott Krueger

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the effects of issue frames and individual-level mediating factors on attitudes toward same-sex marriage and civil unions. It employs three survey experiments to test both competing and non-competing frame environments, an advance which will clarify the effect of these environments on public opinion. Prior literature on multiple frame environments has failed to reach consensus on the effects of multiple frame environments (MFEs) on public opinion, MFEs may: moderate subject opinion or facilitate stronger connections between subject core values and issue opinions.

Results indicate that frame effects vary with framing environment: subjects presented with two persuasive frames advocating ...


Iraq:- The Way Forward A Political Strategy To Win & End The War In Iraq, Krikor P. Mosses Derhagopian Jun 2009

Iraq:- The Way Forward A Political Strategy To Win & End The War In Iraq, Krikor P. Mosses Derhagopian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The challenges to stability, unity, and democracy in Iraq are typically characterized as factional (sectarian and ethnic) or as struggle against the presence of foreign troops. However, this assumption remains largely erroneous. The problems and challenges in Iraq are actually and overwhelmingly the result of power struggles, and the competition for resources by political elites, and dominant political factions.

The political and electoral system emplaced in Iraq incentivizes elites and political entities to undertake factional identities; in doing so, it promotes identity politics. The current system also fails to filter the contests for power through the electoral system. As such ...


Chinese Democracy: How Elite Thinking On China's Development And Change Influences Chinese Practice Of Democracy (1839--The Current Time), Rey-Ching Lu Jun 2009

Chinese Democracy: How Elite Thinking On China's Development And Change Influences Chinese Practice Of Democracy (1839--The Current Time), Rey-Ching Lu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Will China become a multiparty democracy? This is the research problem of this dissertation. My hypothesis is this: the greater the extent that Chinese elite thinking on development and change reconciles the tension between Chinese nationalism and collectivist, family-like ethics on the one hand, and the western democratic ideals based on each self-seeking individual’s subjectivity on the other hand, the greater the chance that China’s political development will lead to a multiparty democracy. The dissertation includes two parts: Chapters two to five are historical analyses, and chapters six to eight are the interviews. It is my assumption that ...


Transformation Of Rebel Movements Into Political Parties In Transitions From Civil Conflict: A Study Of Rebels' Decision-Making Amid Violence In El Salvador And Zimbabwe, Devin M. Finn Jun 2009

Transformation Of Rebel Movements Into Political Parties In Transitions From Civil Conflict: A Study Of Rebels' Decision-Making Amid Violence In El Salvador And Zimbabwe, Devin M. Finn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Efforts to understand modern intrastate conflict require examination of the varied interactions between states and non–state entities battling for control of government. A growing number of civil wars and separatist conflicts, particularly following the end of the Cold War, have been resolved peacefully through negotiated settlements in which rebels abandoned their arms and entered the political arena. While many scholars have studied revolution and democratization in depth, few have focused on explaining the transformation of rebel movements into political parties. Under what conditions do rebel movements engaged in armed conflict with states decide to negotiate, disarm and participate in ...


Memory For Political Messages: The Role Of Inhibition And Prior Attitudes, Shannon Peterson Callahan Jun 2009

Memory For Political Messages: The Role Of Inhibition And Prior Attitudes, Shannon Peterson Callahan

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a phenomenon wherein repeatedly accessing a portion of information causes decreases in memory for related information that is not practiced (Anderson, Bjork, Bjork, 1994). This study applied the retrieval practice paradigm commonly used in cognitive research to persuasive political statements in order to understand the cognitive implications that selective exposure to political messages may have. This study had a mixed design, with retrieval practice agreement (proattitudinal or counterattitudinal), attitude extremity (neutral, moderate, extreme), gender, and practiced issue (affirmative action or gun control) as between subject variables and item practice status (retrieval practiced, non-practiced/shared stance ...


Degrees Of Institutionalization: Family Planning Policies And Programs In Senegal, 1980-2005, Yazmine Michelle Watts Jun 2009

Degrees Of Institutionalization: Family Planning Policies And Programs In Senegal, 1980-2005, Yazmine Michelle Watts

Dissertations

Senegal's population growth rate of 2.7% is greater than double that of the world average of 1.16%. The Government of Senegal acknowledges the population problem and has made efforts to address this issue. For over the past two decades the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has served as the predominant donor in Senegal's health sector and has been a strong supporter of Senegal's family planning program. The evolution of family planning in Senegal cannot be understood without considering the roles of culture, religion, decentralization and funding in the institutionalization process. This research addresses ...


The Bush Administration’S Torture Policy: Outright Disregard For The Rule Of Law And Human Rights, Lyndsay Wehrum Jun 2009

The Bush Administration’S Torture Policy: Outright Disregard For The Rule Of Law And Human Rights, Lyndsay Wehrum

Honors Theses

September 11, 2001 was an infamous day in American history that shocked not only the U.S. but also the World; it generated turmoil and distress for the economy, security, citizen’s lives, and U.S. power. The Bush administration’s response was a “war on terror” which involved a complete manipulation and disregard for national and international laws and the essential authorization of torture at U.S. controlled foreign detention centers. These policies spread by moving down the “chain of command” and into the hands of guards and interrogators that abused, humiliated, and in some cases killed detainees in ...


The Role And Growth Of Celebritization In Presidential Campaign Coverage, Johnathan Bradford Long Jun 2009

The Role And Growth Of Celebritization In Presidential Campaign Coverage, Johnathan Bradford Long

Honors Theses

The thesis covers the growing role of entertainment and celebrity-style news in the domain of hard presidential campaign television news coverage. Having done prior research on such entertainment news outlets as E! News, Entertainment Tonight, Access Hollywood, among others, I found that I was seeing the same treatment of celebrities as hard news programs were giving to presidential candidates. In light of this thought, the study covers what has been written about the evolution of presidential campaigns and the integration of celebrity news elements into campaigns. This study also performs a media analysis on the network news programs in order ...


Modern Sophistry: On The "Economization" Of Higher Education, Michael Mcshane May 2009

Modern Sophistry: On The "Economization" Of Higher Education, Michael Mcshane

Honors Theses

The best way for one to begin approaching political philosophy is to do just that, not as a theorist or philosopher, but as a student who examines the various works of theorists in general and sees what is gainful in each of them. It is a thing said to be pleasant – to gain from those who possess knowledge that exceeds one's own. The theorists themselves are taxed with a kind of work that would not appear to the student pleasurable in the slightest, and he might be better off conceding the great labors and accolades that come with this ...


The Apology Of Sidney: Explaining Martyrdom, Michael Marinaccio May 2009

The Apology Of Sidney: Explaining Martyrdom, Michael Marinaccio

Honors Theses

The treatment of important figures throughout history has always played favor to the victor by nature and consequently only been offered thorough significance given the eventual passage of time and publicity. If queried of philosophy and its basic influence on the modern world, laymen would probably have the ability to conjure up the name of Socrates, one of the more prominent, noteworthy philosophers in history.


Sodade: Diasproric Cape Verdeans And Development In Their Homeland, Terza Alice Silva Lima-Neves May 2009

Sodade: Diasproric Cape Verdeans And Development In Their Homeland, Terza Alice Silva Lima-Neves

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

This study addresses the questions of what factors impact diasporas' involvement in the development of their homeland and how diasporas demonstrate their support for that development by analyzing the Cape Verdean diaspora in the United States and its relationship with the homeland, Cape Verde. I contend that diasporas maintain different levels of engagement with their homeland. This connection changes over time, based on conditions in the host country and the homeland, thus affecting the level of intensity of diasporas' engagement with the homeland. The research findings complicate how we conceptualize political mobilization and community organizing. They incorporate informal social and ...