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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw May 2019

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Human sex trafficking is an ongoing global rights violation formally recognized since 2000 through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Using ecological and trauma-informed lenses, this qualitative, retrospective study used participant-centered methods to explore identity, sexuality, relationships, and factors that facilitate/ hindered community reintegration for 15 adult female survivors. Interview transcripts, Photovoice captioned images, and focus groups were analyzed using multi-level conceptual and thematic coding. Participants identified with all aspects of complex trauma, including: dissociation, self-perception/identity, relations with others and systems of meaning. Key themes included losing and regaining power, shame, and ...


Security With Solvency: Retrenchment And Strategic Reorientation, Travis E. Robison Jan 2019

Security With Solvency: Retrenchment And Strategic Reorientation, Travis E. Robison

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What explains the variation in retrenchment outcomes when great power leaders attempt this course of action in response to relative decline? I argue that retrenchment fails when a great power is unable to extricate itself from existing commitments and, therefore, is unable to free resources to address more critical security challenges. In broad terms, a great power might extricate itself in one of three ways: by handing off responsibility to a like-minded ally, through rapprochement with a rival, or by abandoning a commitment regardless of the consequences. I use primary and secondary sources to conduct in-depth historical analysis and structured ...


States And Group Rights: Legal Pluralism And The Decentralization Of Judicial Power, Emma Hayward Jan 2019

States And Group Rights: Legal Pluralism And The Decentralization Of Judicial Power, Emma Hayward

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

When do states decentralize judicial power to ethnic and religious minority groups? This dissertation presents a theory to explain why states are willing to undertake significant transfers of power by lending their support to ascriptive, group-based law. It begins with a literature review of scholarship in comparative politics and public law, both of which argue, for different reasons, that because the judiciary is vital to the state’s coercive apparatus, property rights regime, and governing functions, we should not expect states to decentralize judicial power. Yet over half of the world’s states choose to officially engage with legal pluralism ...


Great Power, Arms, And Alliances, Keith Lambert Carter Jan 2019

Great Power, Arms, And Alliances, Keith Lambert Carter

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

After a low point in the early 2000s, the global arms trade is experiencing a resurgence. Powerful states such as the United States, Russia, France, Germany, and China account for the vast majority of the total exported arms but trading weapons technology seems inherently risky. It increases the proliferation rate of technology and creates vulnerability if a trading partner defects from an alliance. Given the risk, why do great powers trade their weapons? The results show a positive linear relationship between great power competition and the volume of arms trade globally. Positive relationships were also found for alliances, domestic regime ...


Information And International Conflict, Christopher Liu Jan 2019

Information And International Conflict, Christopher Liu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Information plays a critical role in theories of interstate behavior. This dissertation examines the question: how does domestic politics structure and condition the role of information in international conflict?

In the first essay, I test an observable implication of audience cost theory by exploiting elections as a way to identify variation in the costliness of interstate signaling, under the assumption that election-year threats are more costly than threats made in non-election years. I find evidence consistent with audience cost theory in the behavior of democratic targets, but fail to find similar results for targeted autocracies. The findings overall suggest variation ...


The Political Economy Of Amazon Deforestation: Subnational Development And The Uneven Reach Of The Colombian State, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo Jan 2019

The Political Economy Of Amazon Deforestation: Subnational Development And The Uneven Reach Of The Colombian State, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The recent peace process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) has prompted radical changes in the country’s Amazon region. A decrease in violence has been accompanied by an increase in deforestation, suggesting that good things do not always come together. My dissertation studies the political economy of Amazon deforestation through a cross-disciplinary analysis linking studies of modern state formation with tropical deforestation. As such, it offers an empirically grounded explanation for differential levels of deforestation in the Colombian Amazon. Employing a mixed-methods research strategy, I reviewed historical archives on regional development, interviewed more ...


Identity In The Wake Of The State: Local, National, And Supranational Dynamics Of The Syrian Conflict, Victoria Gilbert Jan 2019

Identity In The Wake Of The State: Local, National, And Supranational Dynamics Of The Syrian Conflict, Victoria Gilbert

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While much of the civil war literature considers the impact religious or ethnic identities have on the character or duration of conflict, scholars have failed to address why different identities become salient in territories outside the state’s control. Using subnational case studies from the Syrian conflict, I claim that we must consider the interests and character of those actors who strive to attain authority and build governing institutions in the absence of the state. I find that civilian actors are more likely to promote local identities, such as clan, tribal, or city-based identities. Armed groups, however, are more likely ...


Getting The Best Of Us: Multinational Corporate Networks And The Diffusion Of Skill-Selective Immigration Policies, Vivienne Born Jan 2019

Getting The Best Of Us: Multinational Corporate Networks And The Diffusion Of Skill-Selective Immigration Policies, Vivienne Born

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Populist backlash has emerged as an alarming trend shaping immigration policy across the developed world in recent years. At the same time, a less-sensationalized pattern has appeared in the form of policies designed to attract the highly skilled. In the face of so much anti-immigration sentiment, how can we understand this push for global talent? One possibility is that these seemingly divergent agenda are but two sides of the same coin. Policymakers and members of the business community point to labor shortages and a global war for talent as justifications for skill-selective policies. Yet some in the academic community contest ...


Punishment And Privilege: The Politics Of Class, Crime, And Corporations In America, Anthony Grasso Jan 2018

Punishment And Privilege: The Politics Of Class, Crime, And Corporations In America, Anthony Grasso

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

As the global leader in incarceration, America locks up its own citizens at a rate that dwarfs that of any other developed nation. Yet while racial minorities and the urban poor fill American prisons and jails for street crimes, the state has historically struggled to consistently prosecute corporate crime. Why does the American state lock people up for street crimes at extraordinary rates but demonstrate such a limited capacity to prosecute corporate crime? While most scholarship analyzes these questions separately, juxtaposing these phenomena illuminates how the carceral state’s divergent treatments of street crime and corporate crime share common and ...


Mothers, Daughters, Wives, And Widows: The Politics Of India's Social Programs For Women, 1985-2015, Prakirti Nangia Jan 2018

Mothers, Daughters, Wives, And Widows: The Politics Of India's Social Programs For Women, 1985-2015, Prakirti Nangia

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Why is social policy for women in the global south increasingly focused on women as mothers? While existing literature explains the rise of maternalist (mother-focused) social policy in 20th-century Europe and the United States, I show that it does not account for the newest wave of maternalist social policy, which is unfolding in developing countries around the world. Using India as a case study, I compare the surprising and divergent trajectories of two contemporaneous women’s programs to unearth the causes of growing maternalism in the global south. One of the programs, Janani Suraksha Yojana (Mother Protection Scheme, or JSY ...


Patrons And Personnel: The Determinants Of Military Recruitment Policies, Max Margulies Jan 2018

Patrons And Personnel: The Determinants Of Military Recruitment Policies, Max Margulies

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines why some states develop conscript militaries while others rely solely on volunteers. I argue that two variables determine what recruitment decisions states make when initially designing their military. First, either domestic or foreign policymakers can dominate the decision-making process. These actors often have different perceptions about the military’s most important goals and how to achieve them. When foreign powers view new states as sufficiently important enough to their interests, recruitment policies reflect their preferences, rather than those of domestic policymakers. Second, the threat perception of the actor making recruitment policies affects how they approach military design ...


Tying The Adversary's Hands: Provocation, Crisis Escalation, And Inadvertent War, Hyun-Binn Cho Jan 2018

Tying The Adversary's Hands: Provocation, Crisis Escalation, And Inadvertent War, Hyun-Binn Cho

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Recent tensions on the Korean peninsula and in the South China Sea have led to concerns that provocative actions, such as harsh rhetoric and low-level violence, might embroil the United States in an unwanted war. The international relations literature, however, does not offer a coherent theory of provocation and crisis escalation. Instead, scholars and policymakers rely on intuition or other mechanisms of escalation, such as those based on accidents, threat perception, or imperfect signaling to explain the dangers of provocation in crises. Drawing on recent insights in social psychology and the study of resolve, this dissertation advances a novel theory ...


Constitutionalizing Health: Rights, Democracy And The Political Economy Of Health Policy, Matthew M. Kavanagh Jan 2017

Constitutionalizing Health: Rights, Democracy And The Political Economy Of Health Policy, Matthew M. Kavanagh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In recent decades there has been an increasing trend toward “constitutionalizing” health—identifying health as a right in national constitutions. Today more than half of written constitutions in the world contain such a right. Whether that is good, bad, or immaterial for the production of population health, however, is much debated. Does constitutionalization improve wellbeing or might it simply distract from or distort good health policy? This dissertation uses a nested analysis that pairs a large-N statistical analysis of 40 years of global health data with in-depth interviews with over 165 policymakers, activists, elected officials, lawyers, and judges in South ...


The Democratic Standard Of Care In Tort Law, Gregory Jay Hall Jan 2017

The Democratic Standard Of Care In Tort Law, Gregory Jay Hall

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Social life is inherently risky. Who should bear the costs of accidental harm? That issue has been traditionally addressed in tort legal doctrine under the concept of breach of the negligence standard of care. Trial courts provide juries with instructions that, put roughly, direct the jury to decide whether the defendant’s conduct fell below what a reasonably prudent person would have done if in the defendant’s circumstances. Without further judicial direction on that issue, the jury effectively has excessive discretion in rendering a verdict. Such discretion, opens the door for at least two kinds of potential injustice. Juries ...


American Reconstitution: How The States Stabilize American Constitutional Development, Robinson Woodward-Burns Jan 2017

American Reconstitution: How The States Stabilize American Constitutional Development, Robinson Woodward-Burns

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The American Constitution is exceptionally stable. Americans have proposed and ratified only one national constitution with only twenty-seven amendments. In contrast, the American states have proposed 354 constitutions, held 250 conventions, and ratified 146 constitutions with at least 5,900 amendments. Why is the federal Constitution so much more stable than the state constitutions? Many scholars cite the federal Constitution’s higher procedural barriers to revision. But this dissertation asserts that ongoing state constitutional revision resolves national constitutional controversies, preempting federal constitutional amendment and quieting national inter-branch conflict. The dissertation tests this claim in two ways. First, it compares all ...


Epicurean Justice And Law, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch Jan 2016

Epicurean Justice And Law, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation concerns a cluster of related issues surrounding the Epicurean conception of justice. First, I show that the Epicureans defend a sophisticated kind of social contract theory and maintain a kind of legal positivism, views that are widely held today and so are of continuing interest for contemporary readers. In doing so, I argue that thinking about justice and law forms an integral part of Epicurean philosophy (pace the standard view). Second, I take up some neglected issues regarding justice and so provide detailed accounts of the metaphysics of moral properties in Epicureanism as well as of Epicurean moral ...


Powerless In Movement: How Social Movements Influence, And Fail To Influence, American Politics And Policy, Matthew Mongiello Mongiello Jan 2016

Powerless In Movement: How Social Movements Influence, And Fail To Influence, American Politics And Policy, Matthew Mongiello Mongiello

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Much of the literature on social movements centers on cyclical theories of political opportunity. While such work lays an important foundation for understanding contentious politics, it fails to fully integrate movements as actors in the American political system and public policy process. As such, the ways movements exercise power in the American political system, and the ways that power is constrained, are often not clearly conceptualized. This dissertation argues that movements exercise political power in the US in three distinct but overlapping ways; pluralist interest group power, plebiscitary opinion power, and disruptive contentious power. Through public law and empirical analyses ...


The Slave South In The Far West: California, The Pacific, And Proslavery Visions Of Empire, Kevin Waite Jan 2016

The Slave South In The Far West: California, The Pacific, And Proslavery Visions Of Empire, Kevin Waite

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation rests on a relatively simple premise: America’s road to disunion ran west, and unless we account for the transcontinental and trans-Pacific ambitions of slaveholders, our understanding of the nation’s bloodiest conflict will remain incomplete. Whereas a number of important works have explored southern imperialism within the Atlantic Basin, surprisingly little has been written on the far western dimension of proslavery expansion. My work traces two interrelated initiatives – the southern campaign for a transcontinental railroad and the extension of a proslavery political order across the Far Southwest – in order to situate the struggle over slavery in a ...


Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak Jan 2016

Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The 1930s were dominated by an understanding that unemployment and inequality were primarily the result of structural failures of the market economy. However, the unraveling of New Deal liberalism throughout the 1940s and 1950s shifted ideological understandings of problems like unemployment, poverty and racial inequality to explanations focused on individual deficiencies. This development had dramatic consequences for federal education policy. Buttressed by a coalition of civil rights groups and educational organizations pushing for federal involvement in education, Democratic policymakers turned towards education as a cheaper and more effective replacement to earlier redistributive taxation and full employment policies. The success of ...


Making Autocrats Accountable: Interests, Priorities, And Cooperation For Regime Change, Başak Taraktaş Jan 2016

Making Autocrats Accountable: Interests, Priorities, And Cooperation For Regime Change, Başak Taraktaş

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In nearly all authoritarian regimes, democratization finds significant societal support and a number of organized opposition groups struggle for regime change. In some cases—such as in Iran in 1979— opposition groups are able to cooperate with one another and bring down authoritarianism. In others—such as the Assad regime in Syria—groups are not able to cooperate, and the ruler remains in place. Studies that apply cooperation theory on regimes predict that shared grievances about the current government and common interests in changing the existing regime foster cooperation among challengers. Yet, evidence suggests the contrary. This study examines the ...


Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra Jan 2016

Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What role do elections play during counterinsurgency wars? Prompted by the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, two broad empirical trends also underlay the posing of this research question. In the modern era, the number of electoral regimes in the international system has expanded dramatically. And in this same period, the fortunes of governments combatting asymmetric internal threats has reversed, with incumbents being defeated by their ‘weaker’ opponents one third of the time, and securing outright victory for themselves only to an equal extent. But while the grievances expounded by insurgents vary across conflicts, the inclusivity of access to the ...


The Politics Of Prison Reform: Juvenile Justice Policy In Texas, California And Pennsylvania, Sarah Cate Jan 2016

The Politics Of Prison Reform: Juvenile Justice Policy In Texas, California And Pennsylvania, Sarah Cate

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

At a moment when there is a great deal of enthusiasm for reforming the prison system in the United States, a number of states across the country have enacted legislation that aims to reduce the number of juveniles sent to state-run prisons. These new policies have focused on expanding community-based alternatives. The three state-level cases on Texas, California and Pennsylvania show that this strategy for reform entrenches punishment at the local level. As counties are given more responsibility to handle juvenile offenders they have contracted out services to the private-sector and invested in expanding jails and punitive conditions of probation ...


Interest Groups, Lobbying And Polarization In The United States, Alexander Russell Garlick Jan 2016

Interest Groups, Lobbying And Polarization In The United States, Alexander Russell Garlick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Most lobbying in the United States comes from business interests, but not all. Previous work has not paid sufficient attention to how non-business lobbying affects legislative behavior. Firms are more interested in particular goods than advocacy groups which pursue broad-based policy change. These citizen-based organizations often employ grassroots tactics and align with one of the major parties. Advocacy groups are also less likely to support maintaining the status quo.

This dissertation argues that interest group lobbyists perform two functions. First, these groups set the agenda by engaging in positive promotion of legislation. Second, advocacy organizations push legislators to vote along ...


Making Markets: The Political Causes And Consequences Of Private Education In India, Emmerich Davies Jan 2016

Making Markets: The Political Causes And Consequences Of Private Education In India, Emmerich Davies

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The two questions motivating this project are, first, why did India see such a rapid growth in private education since 1980? And, second, what are the effects of this growth on citizen-state relations? Approximately 35 percent of students attended a private school in 2012, nearly a doubling in private school enrollment since 2003. In 1987, Indian households spent an average of 10 Rupees (approximately 17 cents) out of pocket on education per year. That figure stood at 2,700 Rupees (approximately $45) per year in 2014.

To answer the first question, I rely on a variety of methods, including historical ...


China In The Media: Effects On American Opinion, Laura Ruth Silver Jan 2016

China In The Media: Effects On American Opinion, Laura Ruth Silver

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

I explore how the tone of media coverage affects opinions of foreign countries by

studying a particular case: the People’s Republic of China. I exploit the fact that recent

presidential campaigns have focused a great deal of attention on China. Indeed, before

the 2012 presidential election, media coverage of China was particularly high and largely negative due to campaign rhetoric about how China was stealing American jobs and ruining the U.S. economy.

Using a nationally representative, pre- and post- election panel, I explore how

these changes in media valence affect opinions of China. I use an original content ...


Before And After The Great Contentions: Explaining The Diffusion Of Crises With Machine Learning And Archives, Doga Kerestecioglu Jan 2016

Before And After The Great Contentions: Explaining The Diffusion Of Crises With Machine Learning And Archives, Doga Kerestecioglu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation presents three articles that study crises from a sociological perspective. The first two articles studies the effects of global trade networks on financial and political crises with the implantation of big data and supervised machine learning methods on a dataset for a sample of 70 countries for the years between 1962 and 2009. Using the institutional and network theories, the first article finds support that normative pressures lead countries to commit sovereign defaults. Countries are more likely to commit sovereign default if other structurally equivalent or role equivalent countries did so in the previous year. The second article ...


Death On The Move: Burial, Repatriation, And The Politics Of Belonging Among Muslims In Germany, Osman Bekir Balkan Jan 2016

Death On The Move: Burial, Repatriation, And The Politics Of Belonging Among Muslims In Germany, Osman Bekir Balkan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines what happens to migrant bodies after they die. It demonstrates that the governance of the dead is intimately linked to the construction of the nation and the enactment of sovereignty. Through a comparative study of the mortuary practices of ethno-religious minorities in Germany, it highlights the ways that death structures political membership and identity. By tracing the actors, networks, and institutions that determine the movement of dead bodies within and across international borders, it analyzes how relations between authority, territory, and populations are managed at a transnational level. The dissertation builds on extensive, multi-sited fieldwork conducted in ...


Politics As Sport: The Effects Of Partisan Media On Perceptions Of Electoral Integrity, Andrew Michael Daniller Jan 2016

Politics As Sport: The Effects Of Partisan Media On Perceptions Of Electoral Integrity, Andrew Michael Daniller

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Just as fans of two opposing teams watching the same game reach opposite conclusions about the quality of referees, citizens’ assessments of the legitimacy of their democratic institutions depend to a worrying degree upon the outcome, rather than the procedures, of an election. Citizens who voted for the losing side in an election are much less likely to believe that the process was fair than citizens who voted for the winner. However, little attention has been paid to partisan media’s potential to exacerbate this phenomenon. I hypothesized that like-minded media amplify the effects of winning and losing on perceptions ...


Revealing The Role Of Higher Education In A Diverse Democracy: A Theory Of College Student Political Identity Development, Demetri Lloyd Morgan Jan 2016

Revealing The Role Of Higher Education In A Diverse Democracy: A Theory Of College Student Political Identity Development, Demetri Lloyd Morgan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

REVEALING THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN A DIVERSE DEMOCRACY: A THEORY OF COLLEGE STUDENT

POLITICAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT

Demetri L. Morgan

J. Matthew Hartley

This dissertation sought to investigate how students make meaning of their curricular and cocurricular educational experiences while in college to better theorize how and why these experiences influence the development of their political identity. To date, research has shown that people who attend college are more likely to be civically and politically engaged compared to those who do not attend college. Yet few studies have sought to ascertain what about the totality of a person ...


The Real Silent Majority: Denver And The Realignment Of American Politics After The Sixties, Rachel Meira Guberman Jan 2015

The Real Silent Majority: Denver And The Realignment Of American Politics After The Sixties, Rachel Meira Guberman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

“The Real Silent Majority” offers a new assessment of late-twentieth century U.S. political realignment, overturning previous explanations focused on the supposed death of liberalism and rise of the New Right. Instead, it traces the emergence of a pragmatic, self-interested, and only weakly partisan “quality of life” politics in America’s metropolitan areas from the late-1960s onwards. A case study of Denver, Colorado, and its surrounding metropolitan region, my study is a political and spatial history that incorporates perspectives from cultural, intellectual, and policy history as well as the interdisciplinary fields of metropolitan and urban studies. In examining the new ...