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Latin American History

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

New England Slave Trader: The Case Of Charles Tyng, Paul J. Michaels Jun 2019

New England Slave Trader: The Case Of Charles Tyng, Paul J. Michaels

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Charles Tyng has been heralded as an American hero after the posthumous publication of his memoir, Before the Wind: The Memoir of an American Sea Captain, 1808-1833, in 1999. Recent research involving British Treasury report books from the nineteenth century suggest otherwise – that Tyng actively promoted and was engaged in the illicit trade of African captives. A Boston Brahmin, Tyng applied the lessons of his time at sea with Perkins & Company, the opium trading firm, to his occupation as an agent of notorious slave trading firms in Havana. This paper uses as evidence records of the captures of several vessels ...


Unintended Consequences: U.S. Interference In El Salvador, The Salvadoran Diaspora, And The Role Of Activist Community Organizations In Establishing A Salvadoran-American Community In Los Angeles, Blake Bergstrom May 2019

Unintended Consequences: U.S. Interference In El Salvador, The Salvadoran Diaspora, And The Role Of Activist Community Organizations In Establishing A Salvadoran-American Community In Los Angeles, Blake Bergstrom

Masters Theses

The U.S. intervention in El Salvador had a number of unintended consequences, some negative and some positive, that still have a great impact on the U.S., El Salvador, and the international community as a whole today. Although the focus of the mass media is on the negative unintended consequences, the positive really outweigh the negative. These so-called unintended consequences began with a massive increase in immigration to escape the violent human rights violations and political persecutions of El Salvador’s Civil War. This migration to the U.S. in the 1980s is referred to as the Salvadoran Diaspora ...


Mexico: Neoliberalism, Popular Grievances, And The Rise Of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Irving Cortes-Martinez Apr 2019

Mexico: Neoliberalism, Popular Grievances, And The Rise Of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Irving Cortes-Martinez

Honors Theses

Andrés Manuel López Obrador, commonly referred to as AMLO, has become Mexico’s first leftist president in over seven decades. He has promised to get rid of Mexico’s problems through a peaceful but radical transformation, while placing the needs of the people first. For the past three decades, the nation’s political and economic systems have failed to create positive results. Mexico currently faces mass inequality and poverty, corruption and impunity, and insecurity and organized crime. Through his political activism and most importantly, his political narrative, AMLO has become a popular actor and is seen as the president who ...


Remembering An Invasion: The Panama Intervention In America’S Political Memory, Dave Nagaji Dec 2018

Remembering An Invasion: The Panama Intervention In America’S Political Memory, Dave Nagaji

Senior Theses

In December of 1989, the United States launched Operation Just Cause, a military invasion of the country of Panama, capturing Manuel Noriega and overthrowing his government. This research project examines how Colin Powell, Richard Cheney, James Baker, and George H.W. Bush presented Operation Just Cause in their memoirs. It attempts to determine how these senior leaders’ depictions of this invasion incorporated it into the Bush administration’s overall foreign-policy strategy. The research finds that their general approach was to present the Panama intervention as an isolated incident which had no intentional link to other major events at the time ...


Punishing Assemblages: A Queer, Decolonizing Theory Of The American Prison, Liam Hopkins Jan 2018

Punishing Assemblages: A Queer, Decolonizing Theory Of The American Prison, Liam Hopkins

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


What Does It Mean To Belong In San Antonio? How The Battle Of The Alamo And The Cart Wars Shaped What It Means To Be American Through The Institutionalization Of Discrimination And Violence Toward Those Of Mexican Descent, Madison Endesha Sharp-Johnson Jan 2018

What Does It Mean To Belong In San Antonio? How The Battle Of The Alamo And The Cart Wars Shaped What It Means To Be American Through The Institutionalization Of Discrimination And Violence Toward Those Of Mexican Descent, Madison Endesha Sharp-Johnson

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Evangelizing Neoliberalism Through Megachurches In Latin America And The United States, William O. Collazo Jan 2018

Evangelizing Neoliberalism Through Megachurches In Latin America And The United States, William O. Collazo

Dissertations and Theses

The most prominent and influential feature of worldwide Evangelicalism, is the megachurch. In Latin America megachurches have proliferated and grown in political influence when they first came into contact with neoliberalism during Pinochet's dictatorship in Chile. As Latin America's poor first migrated out of rural areas into Latin American cities, then north, to the United States, they have brought with them their religion. Increasingly, this religion is Protestant, evangelical, and for many, it is Pentecostalism. Misunderstood by the early literature on Pentecostalism, is the strain of neoliberalism that has become infused in the religion's most powerful institution ...


The Dialectics Of The Community: Mexican Production Of Death, Blanca Judith Martinez May 2017

The Dialectics Of The Community: Mexican Production Of Death, Blanca Judith Martinez

Theses and Dissertations

This work attempts to provide a discussion of the current waves of violence present in the northern border of Mexico. The country became a neoliberal state during the late 1980s and the early 1990s. The external debt and the historical corruption of the Mexican government placed Mexico in a vulnerable stage leaving its sovereignty with a fissure before the eyes of international circles of power. The adoption of a neoliberal economic system has impacted all the social tissue. The euphoric discourse of advancement and opportunity was spread by ideological apparatus, and people in constant need accepted positively the system. The ...


The Music And Politics Of Willy Chirino, Nancy N. Balcziunas Jan 2017

The Music And Politics Of Willy Chirino, Nancy N. Balcziunas

University Honors Program Theses

Cuban musician and singer Willy Chirino, the self-proclaimed inventor of the “Miami Sound,” was sent to the United States as a teenager in the 1960s under Operation Pedro Pan to escape the influence of Fidel Castro's communist regime. Throughout his career, he has used his music to spread a personal and political agenda; his rejection of communism and the Castro regime can be seen through his song lyrics, humanitarian efforts, and direct engagement in the world of politics.


Linguistic Imperialism And Volunteer English Teaching: A Neo-Colonial Practice?, Sarah K. Hamburg Jan 2017

Linguistic Imperialism And Volunteer English Teaching: A Neo-Colonial Practice?, Sarah K. Hamburg

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Colonial era tactics of oppression may seem obsolete; however, the United States continues to exploit the same peripheral nations that it, and other world superpowers, have dominated for centuries. In Latin America, the influence of the American hegemony penetrates every aspect of life. Unable to escape the grip of the capitalist system, Latin America has become culturally subservient to the United States, whose supremacy has, over time, led to the extinction and endangerment of hundreds of indigenous languages and cultures. Through years of exposure to American mass culture (i.e. television, music, media, and consumer products), and an unyielding economically ...


Partisanship In Mexico: Influence Of Violence And State Spending, Christopher White Jan 2017

Partisanship In Mexico: Influence Of Violence And State Spending, Christopher White

CMC Senior Theses

This paper serves to further investigate factors influencing partisanship in Mexican politics with a focus on state spending and drug violence. With state spending, this paper builds on prior literature about political effects of federal social spending (Handelman 1997, Domínguez and Chappell 2004, Díaz-Cayeros 2009) to propose a similar theory regarding state social spending. The proposed panel data model for national elections between 2000 and 2012 finds that for diputados elections, a thousand-peso increase in state spending had a statistically significant influence on party voting – boosting PRI candidates (typically incumbents) by 0.66% and hurting both PAN and PRD candidates ...


Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez Dec 2016

Emigration, Repatriation And The Reality Of Returned Youth In El Salvador, Isabel C. Duarte Vasquez

Master's Theses

According to US Customs and Border Protection, over 59 thousand unaccompanied minors from the Northern Triangle (Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador) have been detained at the US border, of those 59 thousand, 17 thousand are from El Salvador. El Salvador is home to some of the most dangerous and ruthless gangs of the twenty-first century. Their ruthlessness comes from 1980s guerrilla warfare experience. In addition, El Salvador serves as a transshipment point for illicit substances from South America into Mexico. These dynamics fuel the homicide rate of the region as local gang members must protect their territory by any means ...


Old News: A Historical Analysis Of Criticism Of Venezuela's Press Freedom, Emilee Lamb May 2016

Old News: A Historical Analysis Of Criticism Of Venezuela's Press Freedom, Emilee Lamb

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Importance Of Strong Governmental Institutions In Military Subordination: Mexico And Argentina, A Comparative Study, Eli Landman Jan 2016

The Importance Of Strong Governmental Institutions In Military Subordination: Mexico And Argentina, A Comparative Study, Eli Landman

CMC Senior Theses

This paper examines the history of civil military relations in Mexico and Argentina in an attempt to understand why Mexico was able to subordinate its military following the fall of the Porfírian military regime, while Argentina experienced decades of military intervention into the civilian sphere. It argues that strong governmental and political institutions in Mexico were the key to subordinating the Mexican military to civilian control, while patterns of populist political movements in Argentina hampered the formation of strong governmental institutions that would have enabled the subordination of the military to civilian control.


Elusive Peace, Security, And Justice In Post-Conflict Guatemala: An Exploration Of Transitional Justice And The International Commission Against Impunity In Guatemala (Cicig), Daniel W. Schloss Aug 2015

Elusive Peace, Security, And Justice In Post-Conflict Guatemala: An Exploration Of Transitional Justice And The International Commission Against Impunity In Guatemala (Cicig), Daniel W. Schloss

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Guatemala has, until today, struggled to achieve security and justice following the end of nearly half a century of civil war in 1996. One specific institution, the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), has been implemented to rectify many of the Guatemalan state’s difficulties in establishing and maintaining the rule of law. In this thesis, I look to better explain CICIG’s role in Guatemala relative to security and justice in a post-conflict setting: I define CICIG as an institution potentially capable of building societal trust, and I explain how the inclusion of procedural justice within transitional justice ...


The Case Of Charles Horman Revisited: Complication And Conflict Within Declassification, Jacob Jose May 2015

The Case Of Charles Horman Revisited: Complication And Conflict Within Declassification, Jacob Jose

Undergraduate Honors Theses

On September 11, 1973, a military junta led by General Augusto Pinochet seized power in Chile, overthrowing the government of socialist president Salvador Allende. In the days that followed, agents of the Chilean junta rounded up, detained, imprisoned, and in many cases executed those perceived to be sympathetic to the former government. In the first two weeks following the coup, the Central Intelligence Agency estimated that the military government executed nearly 2,000 people. One victim of this repression was a U.S. citizen, Charles Horman, a journalist and filmmaker who, along with his wife, had settled in Chile in ...


Mara Salvatrucha (Ms-13): The Imminent Threat Inside Our Borders And Throughout The Continent, Mary Kathryn (Katy) Barlean Jun 2014

Mara Salvatrucha (Ms-13): The Imminent Threat Inside Our Borders And Throughout The Continent, Mary Kathryn (Katy) Barlean

Honors Senior Theses/Projects

For the past decade, citizens, governments, and scholars alike have expressed ongoing concerns about the increasing rates of violent crimes committed by drug traffickers, organized criminal groups, and gangs within the United States and Central America. The gang Mara Salvatrucha, familiarly known as MS-13, arguably presents the largest threat to national and regional security. The gang’s relatively recent emergence, growth, and expansion has raised serious concern. The criminal group is responsible for a multitude of crimes that directly threaten the welfare of citizens and state security from the suburbs of Washington D.C. to slums in Central American. This ...


Memory, Truth And Justice: A Contextualisation Of The Uses Of Photographs Of The Victims Of State Terrorism In Argentina, 1972-2012: Communicating An Intersection Of Art, Politics And History, Richard Askam Jan 2014

Memory, Truth And Justice: A Contextualisation Of The Uses Of Photographs Of The Victims Of State Terrorism In Argentina, 1972-2012: Communicating An Intersection Of Art, Politics And History, Richard Askam

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Photographs of the victims of Argentine state terrorism from 1972 to 1983, and most prominently those of the detained-disappeared victims of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional dictatorship (1976-1983), have had a significant role in elucidating the demands of human rights activists since the aftermath of the Trelew Massacre in 1972. In this thesis I examine the role of photographs of victims of state terrorism in the construction of unofficial, or counter, narratives critical of those produced by two dictatorships and by elected democratic administrations in the demand for truth and justice, and in the construction of social memory. I discuss ...


Building Women’S Solidarity To Advance Women’S Rights In Bolivia, Luzdary Hammad Dec 2013

Building Women’S Solidarity To Advance Women’S Rights In Bolivia, Luzdary Hammad

Master's Theses

This paper takes a historical look at the deep-seated ethnic and class divisions between women in Bolivia. It also examines the cultural challenges that help explain the status of women in Bolivia and the obstacles women face to become politically active. It provides the theories of decolonization and depatriachalization as practical ways Bolivia can move past their colonial and patriarchal history. It also looks into what feminism means overall in Latin America and what strategies Latin American women have used to make change for women. It then provides a political history of Bolivia from 1994 to the present giving the ...


Who We Are: Incarcerated Students And The New Prison Literature, 1995-2010, Reilly Hannah N. Lorastein May 2013

Who We Are: Incarcerated Students And The New Prison Literature, 1995-2010, Reilly Hannah N. Lorastein

Honors Projects

This project focuses on American prison writings from the late 1990s to the 2000s. Much has been written about American prison intellectuals such as Malcolm X, George Jackson, Eldridge Cleaver, and Angela Davis, who wrote as active participants in black and brown freedom movements in the United States. However the new prison literature that has emerged over the past two decades through higher education programs within prisons has received little to no attention. This study provides a more nuanced view of the steadily growing silent population in the United States through close readings of Openline, an inter-disciplinary journal featuring poetry ...


American Propaganda, Popular Media, And The Fall Of Jacobo Arbenz, Zachary Carl Fisher May 2012

American Propaganda, Popular Media, And The Fall Of Jacobo Arbenz, Zachary Carl Fisher

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In June 1954, President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman of Guatemala resigned in the face of a coup led by Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas. While the United States publicly denied involvement, the coup was in fact the culmination of a plan called PBSUCCESS (CIA codeword), led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Although PBSUCCESS lived up to its namesake, it was aided (both intentionally and unintentionally) by various U.S. media outlets. For the duration of Arbenz Guzman's regime, he and his country had been the subject of U.S. suspicions of undue Communist and Soviet influence. A general anti-Communist attitude ...


Commitment Beyond Morality: American Complicity In The Massacre At El Mozote, El Salvador, 1981, Dustin Hill Jan 2011

Commitment Beyond Morality: American Complicity In The Massacre At El Mozote, El Salvador, 1981, Dustin Hill

Online Theses and Dissertations

In order to highlight the complicity of the American government, this thesis will discuss in depth the most important massacre perpetrated by the Salvadoran military. While the American government maintained publicly that respect for human rights was one of the main goals of its mission in El Salvador, the six billion dollars of aid and American actions in the region belied another reality. This examination argues that it is clear that the massacre at El Mozote in late 1981 was the direct result of U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Although the Americans kept themselves insulated to provide for plausible deniability ...


Short Term Strategies For Long Term Power: The Rise And Potential Fall Of Hugo Chávez, Linden E.S. Schult Jan 2010

Short Term Strategies For Long Term Power: The Rise And Potential Fall Of Hugo Chávez, Linden E.S. Schult

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores the route to power of Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez and the methods by which he has remained in power throughout his presidency. Also, it explores the potential for Chávez to lose power, given the current economic and political situation in Venezuela. The importance of the oil industry, Chávez's suppression of the opposition and control of the media, and constitutional changes and reforms are all discussed as keys to Chávez's continuance in power.


Nicaragua's Survival: Choices In A Neoliberal World, Stanley G. Hash Jr. Apr 2006

Nicaragua's Survival: Choices In A Neoliberal World, Stanley G. Hash Jr.

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

In January 1990 the Nicaraguan electorate chose to abandon the failing Sandinista Revolution in favor of the economic neoliberal rubric. However, since 1990 Nicaragua's economy has been stagnant. Today it is one of the four poorest states in Latin America having been one of the wealthiest before 1975.

The purpose of this work is to explain Nicaragua's poor performance since 1990. The hypothesis is that domestic independent variables are central to recovery and are the underlying causes of Nicaragua's failure to fully recover.

The abuses of the Somozas' ancien régime before the 1979 revolution are well documented ...


Las Politicas Del Cobre: A Study Of The Anaconda Company's Involvement In Chilean Politics 1969-1973, Rebecca Ellis Apr 2003

Las Politicas Del Cobre: A Study Of The Anaconda Company's Involvement In Chilean Politics 1969-1973, Rebecca Ellis

History Undergraduate Theses

On September 4, 1970, Salvador Allende, leader of the Marxist political party Unidad Popular, was elected president. This sent tremors through the United States government and through the foreign business community in Chile. For the U.S. government the election meant the presence of a second, freely elected, leftist government in the western hemisphere. For the international corporations operating in Chile it meant the probable nationalization of their Chilean property, a policy promoted by the new president during Chile’s election campaign. Allende promised to give back to the people of Chile the foreign owned industries, especially the industry of ...


United States' Foreign Policy During The Haitian Revolution: A Story Of Continuity, Power Politics, And The Lure Of Empire In The Early Republic, Jeffrey B. Nickel Jan 2001

United States' Foreign Policy During The Haitian Revolution: A Story Of Continuity, Power Politics, And The Lure Of Empire In The Early Republic, Jeffrey B. Nickel

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


A Model Of Managed Primary Commodities: Coffee And Colombia, Evan Hansen Apr 2000

A Model Of Managed Primary Commodities: Coffee And Colombia, Evan Hansen

Political Science and International Relations Undergraduate Theses

This study attempts to track the effects of coffee on the Colombian economy, and by doing so, it also hopes to analyze the Colombian efforts to lessen the effects of coffee on the national economy. By looking at the efforts by the Colombian government and other groups in Colombia, the reader then can see the beginnings of the serious coffee management in Colombia. The Colombians have always attempted to manage coffee, yet in the 1970s, their efforts to use coffee’s revenues to develop largely failed due to an unexpected fluctuation of prices. The coffee boom lasted from 1977 to ...


"For Those Who Have No Voice": The Historical Significance Of Chile's National Accord For Transition To Full Democracy (1985), Gwynne Cameron Apr 1999

"For Those Who Have No Voice": The Historical Significance Of Chile's National Accord For Transition To Full Democracy (1985), Gwynne Cameron

History Undergraduate Theses

Just as every Chilean will tell a different version of the story, every historian will interpret this period with a different perspective and methodology. With this in mind, I do not promise complete objectivity as I place the Pinochet years in a historical context. My personal involvement in the aftermath of the dictatorship will undoubtedly affect my interpretation of this complex period in Latin American history. As much as possible, however, I have attempted to represent the diverse perspectives of the Chilean people involved by relying heavily on taped interviews and personal observations recorded in my travel journals. In order ...


Institutions, Developmental Alliances, And Economic Development In Korea And Brazil (1950-1985), Charles Paul Winebarger Apr 1998

Institutions, Developmental Alliances, And Economic Development In Korea And Brazil (1950-1985), Charles Paul Winebarger

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This paper compares the development of Korea and Brazil, 1950-85. These newly industrialized countries developed at above-average rates among less developed countries. Korea developed more rapidly than Brazil. The paper contends that institutions, interest groups (especially firms) and the state, enter into developmental alliances. Alliances affect policies. Policies, then, affect development.

Findings reveal interesting trends in the 1950s' democracies of the cases. Both countries had semi-autonomous states, equivocally committed to industrialization. Industry was the growth point in each. Korea used local firms to industrialize; Brazil used foreign firms. In both cases, the state allied itself with firms. Policy mostly favored ...


The Dual Role Of The Roman Catholic Clergy In The Overthrow Of Somoza, Ronaldo Gallardo Apr 1996

The Dual Role Of The Roman Catholic Clergy In The Overthrow Of Somoza, Ronaldo Gallardo

Political Science and International Relations Undergraduate Theses

The Roman Catholic Church has been an integral part of the Hispanic world. The case of Nicaragua is no exception. Roman Catholic Missionaries arrived in Nicaragua simultaneously with the conquistadors. Since that time Nicaragua has dealt with civil war, revolutions, and political instability. The Catholic Church has sought to minister to the Nicaraguan people, regardless of the political stage. However, during the nineteen-sixties and seventies both Nicaragua and the Roman Catholic Church were experiencing revolutionary times. Nicaragua was dealing with the powerful Somoza regime, U. S. intervention, and a revival of the Sandino reform. The Catholic Church began to deal ...