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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Military Influence On Middle Eastern Democratization Following The Arab Spring, Andrew Fleming Jan 2021

Military Influence On Middle Eastern Democratization Following The Arab Spring, Andrew Fleming

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Despite experiencing countless wars, sectarian extremism, imperialism, and authoritarian rule, very few events have impacted the Middle East more significantly than the Arab Spring. Starting in 2010, the Arab Spring marked a turning point in which the people of numerous Arabic states collectively gathered to protest and combat the oppressive regimes that had controlled the region for decades. The Spring was indicative of the strong, recurring ambitions for revolution and regime change across the Middle East, presenting the Arab nations with an opportunity to reform their states from within. For some Middle Eastern states, the Arab Spring served as a ...


The Past And The Present: Two Paradigms Of The Sino-African Investment, Emma Weirich Jun 2020

The Past And The Present: Two Paradigms Of The Sino-African Investment, Emma Weirich

International Political Economy Theses

Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has obvious economic and political connections between the recipient and donor countries. Such investment can benefit both sides and carry certain costs to both, whether through global scrutiny or domestic struggles. This these seeks to add to the ongoing discussion of China's OFDI to Africa by comparing China's investment during its socialist period (1949-1976) and its post-socialist era (1977 – present). This comparison reveals that China's foreign policy has transitioned from a socialist paradigm to a capitalist one in the last seven decades, which brought significant changes in its OFDI policies and practice ...


Un Trust Funds As Agent To Fulfill The Norm Adapting And Diffusing Functions, Mikiko Sawanishi Jun 2020

Un Trust Funds As Agent To Fulfill The Norm Adapting And Diffusing Functions, Mikiko Sawanishi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis focuses on existing large-scale general trust funds at the United Nations (UN) Secretariat, as one example of the important transformations of the UN. They were created around the 1990s amid a paradigm shift in international relations after the end of the Cold War. They function as autonomous entities to carry out specific mandates to tackle emerging global issues in responding to the requests of a limited number of UN member states that provide voluntary contributions of significant sum. The thesis explores answers to the questions of why such general trust funds were created within the UN Secretariat, and ...


The Guinea-Bissau Constitutional Reform Debate, Watson Aila Gomes Jun 2020

The Guinea-Bissau Constitutional Reform Debate, Watson Aila Gomes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The enactment of law is not to be confused with the rule of law, and simply having a constitution does not guarantee political order. In Guinea-Bissau there have been calls to write a new constitution, but whether that helps Guinea-Bissau become a more stable country is questionable. Currently, there is a gap in the research of social science, history and political science examining how the processes of instability have unfolded in Guinea-Bissau. Few studies attempt to examine the correlation between a country’s stability and its constitution. A paradoxical situation exists in many countries in Africa where the political system ...


Who Governs The Sea? An Analysis Of The Regime Complex In International Shipping, Brent Landon Jun 2020

Who Governs The Sea? An Analysis Of The Regime Complex In International Shipping, Brent Landon

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In many respects, international shipping represents the physical embodiment of globalization. It ties states together via the exchange of raw materials and finished goods in ways that inspire important questions about power distributions, trade, growth, global governance, jurisdiction, policy coordination, sovereignty, and regimes. Although shipping is a space that can be used to illustrate many International Relations ideas, it has been understudied in International Relations. This thesis argues that the international shipping regime complex produces suboptimal outcomes because it has inefficient and peculiar design features. Specifically, it locates the responsibility to enforce rules in states that lack the ability to ...


Social Contract Theory And Transitional Justice: A Philosophical Approach To A Problem Of Global Importance, Brendan Moriarty Jun 2020

Social Contract Theory And Transitional Justice: A Philosophical Approach To A Problem Of Global Importance, Brendan Moriarty

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis, I seek to bring together two areas of scholarly work to see how each can inform the other: social contract theory and transitional justice. The social contract, as it exists and as it was theorized about by Rousseau, was born from the world-historic forces that spread capitalism across the globe, stirring up nationalism everywhere it went. In its wake, there was vast inequality and new legal regimes which protected the hoarded wealth of the capitalist class by enshrining the right of private property along with life and liberty. To examine the intricacies of transitional justice and its ...


An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller Jun 2020

An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper will analyze women’s participation in terrorism under groups like al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. It will research the use of violence within terrorist organizations, perpetrated by female participants. What leads women to join groups like the Islamic State? There will be an analysis of the factors that attract women to joining terrorist organizations, in addition to the practices of recruitment that aid in their radicalization. There is a misconception that women who join the Islamic State lack education, which is seen as the sole reasoning for their radicalization or involvement. In reality, several reasons exist leading to ...


Investigating The Impacts Of Usaid In Honduras: Narratives From The Honduran People, Bentley Cornett May 2020

Investigating The Impacts Of Usaid In Honduras: Narratives From The Honduran People, Bentley Cornett

Master's Theses

The funds provided by the US Agency for International Development to Honduras may not be providing the humanitarian assistance that many Americans anticipate it to. In fact, in numerous instances that are outlined in this article, monetary aid distribution to governmental agencies in Honduras has proven to be one of the many factors that are counterproductive to the country’s development. The aim of this study is to expand knowledge on the impact of USAID allocation to Honduras and highlight its links to migration. In order to effectively present this research, I ground my argument within the “counter-storytelling” (Solórzano ...


Hinduism As A Political Weapon: Gender Socialization And Disempowerment Of Women In India, Aindrila Haldar May 2020

Hinduism As A Political Weapon: Gender Socialization And Disempowerment Of Women In India, Aindrila Haldar

Master's Theses

There is a growing use of religion as a political tool to control Hindu women in India, contributing to a rise in gender inequality. Immediate authoritative patriarchal domains such as household and politics, continuously speak of “protecting” Hindu women by disregarding their voices and needs. Consequently, potentially creating a loss of agency among women. This research will use inductive reasoning to understand the position of Hindu women in modern Indian society. Particularly, through the understanding of the involvement of religion in the political and household sphere. Hindu women are highly influenced by the expectations of what being an ”ideal” woman ...


Imperial Subjection And The Orientalist Gaze: Turning Asian Women’S Bodies Into Entertainment, Miriam Ahn May 2020

Imperial Subjection And The Orientalist Gaze: Turning Asian Women’S Bodies Into Entertainment, Miriam Ahn

Master's Theses

This thesis analyzes the structural factors that provide meaning and space to performances where violence is served as entertainment. What are the structural conditions that turn gendered and racialized violent forms of display into enjoyment? By exploring the sex tourism in Thailand, particularly ping-pong shows, I will analyze aspects of international political economy and feminist studies to address forms of display based on the abjectness of the other. I argue that sex tourism in Thailand is not part of local culture but is upheld by imperial hegemonic perceptions of the colonized and gendered bodies. The perspectives of Orientalism, patriarchal systems ...


Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose May 2020

Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose

Master's Theses

This thesis documents and analyzes the major trends of the military, political, economic, and cultural relationships between Denmark and Russia from 1989 to 2019. I document the relationship from the Danish perspective, using primary sources, with the aim to conduct analysis of Danish politicians’ speeches and activities during this period. The outcome is a comprehensive image of the Danish-Russian bilateral relationship at the present time. This relationship has fluctuated widely during the time period under study. Shared economic development interests in the 1990s contributed to a positive relationship; controversy surrounding the war in Chechnya and an assertive Danish prime minister ...


Changing Tides: The Impact Of Chinese Investment In Gambia’S Fishing Industry, Abdallah Alami May 2020

Changing Tides: The Impact Of Chinese Investment In Gambia’S Fishing Industry, Abdallah Alami

Master's Theses

This thesis analyzes the presence and impact of Chinese fishing companies in the West African country of The Gambia. The presence of the Chinese companies have resulted in drastic changes in the country’s fisheries industry where they have a comparative advantage due to their geographic location. Through interviews conducted with Gambian officials in the Ministry of Fisheries and Water Resources, and members of the fishing community (both fishermen and merchants), I conclude that the Chinese presence is a trade-off between the Gambian government and the Chinese investors. It is positive because they are engaged in a beneficial partnership with ...


Guiding Principle 28: The Unfulfilled Promise To End Protracted Displacement In Azerbaijan, Kaleigh Rose Mclaughlin May 2020

Guiding Principle 28: The Unfulfilled Promise To End Protracted Displacement In Azerbaijan, Kaleigh Rose Mclaughlin

Honors Thesis

In 1998 internal displacement became a major focus of international concern with the adoption the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement by the United Nations. This seminal document outlined the rights and protections of internally displaced persons (IDPs), as well as developing policy solutions for ending displacement. In the two decades since the adoption of the Guiding Principles, there has been an explosion of research into various case studies. This paper re-examines the case of Azerbaijan within a new theoretical framework. This paper uses the work of Walter Kalin, former UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (2004-2010 ...


The Mapuche And Chilean State: An Analysis Of The State Reaction To Mapuche Protests, Mckenna Gossrau May 2020

The Mapuche And Chilean State: An Analysis Of The State Reaction To Mapuche Protests, Mckenna Gossrau

Honors Theses

The history between the Mapuche and Chilean state is long and complex. Since 2000, the conflict between the state and Mapuche has periodically drawn wider public attention as well as public demands for change. In this thesis, I look to examine how the Chilean state has reacted to the demands of the Mapuche since 2000. Mapuche activists have protested violently and peacefully against state policy that has left many rural Mapuche impoverished and landless. This project assesses the impact of protests on state-Mapuche policy. The project also examines how deeply entrenched neoliberal fiscal policies of the state play a central ...


“[Don’T] Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor...” A Study On The Trump Administration’S Unprecedented Reforms To The U.S. Refugee Admissions Program And Their Implications, Savannah Day May 2020

“[Don’T] Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor...” A Study On The Trump Administration’S Unprecedented Reforms To The U.S. Refugee Admissions Program And Their Implications, Savannah Day

Honors Theses

From 2017 to 2020, the Trump administration cut United States refugee admissions tenfold. These reforms come unprecedented to the 40-year-old resettlement program (USRAP). By critically reviewing literature on this topic as well as conducting eight original interviews with five national nonprofits contracted by the Department of State to do refugee resettlement casework, this study sought to identify the implications of the Trump administration’s reforms to the program. Once implications were identified, I used the applied frameworks of program model as well as Michael Worth’s sociological and political science theories of American nonprofit-government relations to better inform and guide ...


Thank You For Considering Me Such A Huge Threat: A Critical Analysis Of Iran's Foreign Policy, Liza Boyer May 2020

Thank You For Considering Me Such A Huge Threat: A Critical Analysis Of Iran's Foreign Policy, Liza Boyer

Honors Theses

The United States has long held the idea that Iran poses a threat to our interests as well as global stability, implying that Iran is irrational and makes decisions rooted purely in ideology. After creating an independent framework based on rational choice theory, descriptive decision theory, and the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, I determined four possible ways to describe Iran’s foreign policy: rational-constitutional, irrational-constitutional, rational-unconstitutional, and irrational-unconstitutional. I then apply this framework to six cases which I have identified to be vital to understanding Iran’s foreign policy: Iraq, Israel, United States of America, China, the ...


The Belt And Road Initiative: China’S Rise, America’S Balance, And Latin America’S Struggle, Garrett Bullock May 2020

The Belt And Road Initiative: China’S Rise, America’S Balance, And Latin America’S Struggle, Garrett Bullock

History Honors Papers

This research attempts to understand the evolving relationship between China, the United States, and Latin America. Specifically, it explores China’s rapid rise as a formidable geopolitical power, the United States’ mixed response to that rise, and efforts by two Latin American countries, Ecuador and Argentina, to avoid exploitation by both China and the United States—and, indeed, to even benefit from this mutating relationship. In all cases, historically constructed ideas and strategic interests shape relations among these various actors. Accordingly, this research lays out the historical sources for each of these powers’ central ideas. Then, it connects those ideas ...


Determinants Of Compliance With Protectionist Policies For Human Trafficking Victims, Jodi Henon May 2020

Determinants Of Compliance With Protectionist Policies For Human Trafficking Victims, Jodi Henon

Honors College Theses

The international community has joined together in an effort to combat human trafficking. Utilizing the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, commonly known as the Palermo Protocols, the focus of combatant efforts has been tailored to fit three categories: prosecution, prevention, and protection. Because the attention of several countries appears to be primarily devoted to prosecution, protection often falls victim to indifference, leaving victims without the care that they need to readjust to daily life. While the three components are supposedly equal in weight, this inequality is apparent in several countries through their ...


The Case Of Kashmir: Ethnic Mobilization And Insurgency, Kayla Hofmann May 2020

The Case Of Kashmir: Ethnic Mobilization And Insurgency, Kayla Hofmann

Politics Honors Papers

This paper analyzes ethnic identity and potential reasons for conflict through a constructivist lens. Using the case study of Kashmir, I explore the past and present events in the state and the salience of ethnicity, specifically Kashmiri Muslims and Indian Hindus.


North And South Korea: Division By Constructions, Hannah Horton May 2020

North And South Korea: Division By Constructions, Hannah Horton

Honors Theses

This paper focuses on aspects of social identities that have been constructed over time in North and South Korea and their implications on the division of the Korean peninsula. This project seeks to answer the question of how social groups and individual dynamics differ between North Korea and South Korea with special attention to the experience of division? And, how these differences structure the dynamics of formal division and the larger politics of reunification? These questions have been ignored because of the emphasis on the realist and institutionalist scholars’ analysis of the division. It focus on analyzing the division through ...


Twice Migration And Indo-Caribbean American Identity Politics, Jessica Ramsawak May 2020

Twice Migration And Indo-Caribbean American Identity Politics, Jessica Ramsawak

Political Science

Being an Indo-Caribbean American can be a confusing and inspiring experience. It is marked with a desperation for understanding oneself and one’s mother, while simultaneously traumatized and burdened with a history of displacement. Migration history can inform the ways in which members of ethnic communities view themselves, their heritage, and their ethnic identity. This is particularly true of the first-generation Indo-Caribbean community in America. The term Indo-Caribbean describes the waves of Indian indentured laborers that were sent to the Caribbean in the early 1800s, developed an Indo-Caribbean culture, and then emigrated in the 1980s to join the Indian diaspora ...


Mind Your Youth: Youth Unemployment And Islamic Radicalization, Caleb Ray May 2020

Mind Your Youth: Youth Unemployment And Islamic Radicalization, Caleb Ray

Honors Theses

This study examines the potential existence of a correlation between youth unemployment and Islamic Radicalization in the MENA using data from the World Bank, the Global Terrorism Database, and the Arab Barometer. It aims to add to the current body of research regarding socioeconomic drivers for radicalization and terrorism.


Asymmetric Threats: Analyzing The Future Of Nuclear Terrorism & Cyber Attacks; The Value Of Deterrence Theory For Addressing The Challenges Of Nuclear Terrorism In The Age Of 21st Century Cybersecurity, Oliver Demmert-Shelfo May 2020

Asymmetric Threats: Analyzing The Future Of Nuclear Terrorism & Cyber Attacks; The Value Of Deterrence Theory For Addressing The Challenges Of Nuclear Terrorism In The Age Of 21st Century Cybersecurity, Oliver Demmert-Shelfo

Political Science & International Studies | Senior Theses

Given the rapid development and ease of access to technology, the threat of extremist organizations utilizing cyberspace as a means to target critical American strategic infrastructure is of increasing concern. The risk posed by the acquisition of fissile material, sabotage, or use of a nuclear device by an extremist organization has been exasperated due to technological development outpacing strategy. Despite policy-makers’ attempts to protect the public from cyber-attacks and nuclear terrorism, the federal policies in place have failed to account for the continual evolution of technology and the gaps in security that this advancement brings. Through examining documents from congressional ...


Moroccan Identity In The 1980s: The Theory And Policy Implications Of Studying Moroccan Identity, Heather Rodenberg May 2020

Moroccan Identity In The 1980s: The Theory And Policy Implications Of Studying Moroccan Identity, Heather Rodenberg

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Constructivism in International Relations’ theory grapples with broader themes affecting how country’s make decisions and relate to each other. In this theory one of the largest categories also happens to be among the least understood: a nation’s identity. Hopf and Allan, in Making Identity Count, created a framework for studying a country’s identity as objectively as possible through both quantitative and qualitative research. They have yet to apply their methodology to less understood regions of the world, from an American perspective. This paper adapts their framework to study Moroccan identity in the years 1979 through 1990. To ...


Autocratic Liberalization And Gendered Speech: Evidence From The Parliament Of Singapore, Elizabeth Rosen May 2020

Autocratic Liberalization And Gendered Speech: Evidence From The Parliament Of Singapore, Elizabeth Rosen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gender differences in political behavior are well documented in democracies, but poorly understood in the context of liberalizing autocracies. In Singapore, the ruling party experienced both an internal and external reform over the course of five years. This paper uses natural language processing to analyze the impact of these two changes on parliamentary debates delivered by elected male and female politicians from the ruling party. The internal reform, a non-binding party gender quota, activates identities that differ within the party, namely gender identity. In contrast, the external reform, the opposition’s electoral victory, activates a unifying identity of party affiliation ...


Flipping The Kill-Switch: Why Governments Shut Down The Internet, Elizabeth Sutterlin May 2020

Flipping The Kill-Switch: Why Governments Shut Down The Internet, Elizabeth Sutterlin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the last decade, governments have begun more frequently cutting internet and mobile services as a response to real or potential threats. Both democratic and autocratic regimes use internet shutdowns to maintain security and suppress dissent. Why do governments intentionally shut down the internet? This paper focuses on complete blackouts of online communications, known as “kill-switch” shutdowns, and examines the factors that contribute to a regime’s choice to enact such extreme measures. Using a mixed-methods analysis, this paper evaluates multiple potential causes of internet shutdowns. Results from both cross-national, quantitative analysis and qualitative process tracing present several findings. First ...


Modeling Movement: A Machine-Learning Approach To Track Migration Routes After Displacement, Ethan Harrison May 2020

Modeling Movement: A Machine-Learning Approach To Track Migration Routes After Displacement, Ethan Harrison

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Over the past decade, the number of individuals internally displaced by conflict (IDPs) has reached unprecedented levels. Humanitarian actors and first-responders face persistent information gaps in meeting the needs of these populations. Specifically, they face challenges in understanding where and how IDPs move after they are displaced, which is necessary to locate them in conflict-affected situations and provide them with life-saving assistance. In this paper, I propose a framework, using established machine-learning methods, to forecast the migration routes of these displaced populations (Chapter 1). In a case study of displacement in Yemen, my models predict 80% of IDPs' migration routes ...


Trade Talks And Populist Thoughts: The Rise In Populist Rhetoric Following China's Accession To The World Trade Organization, Samuel Desmarais May 2020

Trade Talks And Populist Thoughts: The Rise In Populist Rhetoric Following China's Accession To The World Trade Organization, Samuel Desmarais

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2002, China became a full member the World Trade Organization (WTO), and in the process gained access to the ability to trade with the United States at slightly lower but significantly more consistent tariff rates. As a result, U.S.-China trade expanded dramatically and created significant import competition for U.S. manufacturers. Over the following two decades, a significant literature emerged on how that shift in trade impacted the global economy, domestic economic patterns, and importantly, domestic politics. This paper will look at the last of those three things, focusing on how American trade rhetoric has shifted over ...


All The News Fit To Print: Egyptian And Tunisian Media Development And Political Toleration Through Arab Spring, Seth Fiderer May 2020

All The News Fit To Print: Egyptian And Tunisian Media Development And Political Toleration Through Arab Spring, Seth Fiderer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Arab Spring Revolutions of 2011 have had diverse outcomes throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Two states that have experienced large scale change are Tunisia and Egypt, both of which experienced regime change. Tunisia has experienced large-scale democratization and has become more politically open. Egypt experienced a brief democratic period between 2011 and 2013 before a military coup reverted the country to authoritarian practices. Both nations have revised their press codes since their respective revolutions. Additionally, both nations have had tenuous relations with Islamist groups, namely the Tunisian Ennahda party and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Both groups ...


Challenging Bosnian Women’S Identity As Rape Victims: The Fetishization Of Sexual Violence In Post-Conflict Discourse, Rebecca Jacobi May 2020

Challenging Bosnian Women’S Identity As Rape Victims: The Fetishization Of Sexual Violence In Post-Conflict Discourse, Rebecca Jacobi

Student Research Submissions

How does one call attention to the gender dimensions of war violence or postwar inequalities without reproducing images of passive female victimhood and support for patriarchal notions of the protection of women? In the case of the Bosnian War, because of the large scale of sexual violence and the attention focused on this violence, Bosnian women have been stereotyped and relegated to the role of rape victim. Although women suffered from grave violations of human rights, this stereotypical portrayal is not adequate, and neglects the active role played in the perpetration of violence by some women. It also neglects women ...