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University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Faculty Publications: Political Science

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Articles 1 - 30 of 99

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Ethical Concerns Of Heroism Training, Brian R. Riches, Matt Langdon, Ari Kohen Jan 2020

Ethical Concerns Of Heroism Training, Brian R. Riches, Matt Langdon, Ari Kohen

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Heroism training programs originated in the mid-2000s with the goal to “Train everyday heroes” (Heroic Imagination Project, 2017). Most participants of these programs are students between the ages of 10 and 20. Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggests that these programs may create more courageous and prosocial people (Heiner, 2018; Kohen & Sólo, 2019), however there is very little discussion in the emerging academic field of heroism science about the potential ethical concerns of training minors to be heroes (Beggan, 2019; Franco & Zimbardo, 2016; Franco et al., 2017). With the growth of heroism science scholarship, it would be wise to examine and offer best practices for the ethical training of heroism with minors.

Heroic action is inherently risky, and while training programs currently discuss mortality and risk assessment, minors have not developed the ...


Social Identity And The Use Of Ideological Categorization In Political Evaluation, Ingrid J. Haas, Christopher R. Jones, Russell H. Fazio Apr 2019

Social Identity And The Use Of Ideological Categorization In Political Evaluation, Ingrid J. Haas, Christopher R. Jones, Russell H. Fazio

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In this research, we address a longstanding question concerning how individuals evaluate social and political issues. We focus on the role that political self-identification plays when individuals evaluate policy statements. In a laboratory setting, participants completed a task facilitation procedure, in which they made paired sets of judgments about a series of policy statements. Relative to a control task, ideological categorization of policy statements as liberal or conservative influenced the ease of evaluation. On experimental trials that began with ideological categorization, policy evaluations that were consistent with the participant’s own ideology were made more quickly than responses that were ...


Friends, Relatives, Sanity, And Health: The Costs Of Politics, Kevin Smith, Matthew V. Hibbing, John R. Hibbing Jan 2019

Friends, Relatives, Sanity, And Health: The Costs Of Politics, Kevin Smith, Matthew V. Hibbing, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Political scientists have long known that political involvement exacts costs but they have typically defined these costs in relatively narrow, largely economic terms. Though anecdotal evidence suggests that the costs of politics may in fact extend beyond economics to frayed personal relationships, compromised emotional stability, and even physical problems, no systematic evidence on these broader costs exists. We construct and validate batteries of survey items that delineate the physical, social, and emotional costs of political engagement and administer these items to a demographically representative sample of U.S. adults. The results suggest that a large number of Americans believe their ...


Global South Scholars Are Missing From European And Us Journals. What Can Be Done About It, Peace A. Medie, Alice Kang Jul 2018

Global South Scholars Are Missing From European And Us Journals. What Can Be Done About It, Peace A. Medie, Alice Kang

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Studies have shown that scholars in the global South are under represented in top international peer-reviewed social and medical sciences journals.

The global South refers to African, Asian, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries who are also members of the Group of 77. The intergovernmental organisation of mainly developing countries is used to identify countries in the South. The global North includes the Group of 8 and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. Our own analysis of gender and politics journals shows scholars in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East are missing from leading journals ...


Coalitions Matter: Citizenship, Women, And Quota Adoption In Africa, Alice Kang, Aili Mari Tripp Mar 2018

Coalitions Matter: Citizenship, Women, And Quota Adoption In Africa, Alice Kang, Aili Mari Tripp

Faculty Publications: Political Science

We provide new theory and evidence of the role of domestic women’s coalitions in the adoption of gender quotas. Previous research has shown the importance of women’s movements to policy change. We show that specific types of mobilization, often multiethnic in character, are a more precise way of describing these influences. Using a new dataset of coalitions in 50 countries in Africa (1989–2014), we first examine where coalitions are likely to emerge. Controlling for factors that correlate with their formation, we find that when domestic women’s organizations form a coalition for quotas, governments are more likely ...


Genetic Attributions: Sign Of Intolerance Or Acceptance?, Stephen P. Schneider, Kevin B. Smith, John R. Hibbing Jan 2018

Genetic Attributions: Sign Of Intolerance Or Acceptance?, Stephen P. Schneider, Kevin B. Smith, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Many scholars argue that people who attribute human characteristics to genetic causes also tend to hold politically and socially problematic attitudes. More specifically, public acceptance of genetic influences is believed to be associated with intolerance, prejudice, and the legitimation of social inequities and laissez-faire policies. We test these expectations with original data from two nationally representative samples that allow us to identify the American public’s attributional patterns across 18 diverse traits. Key findings are (1) genetic attributions are actually more likely to be made by liberals, not conservatives; (2) genetic attributions are associated with higher, not lower, levels of ...


The Judicialization Of Peace, Courtney Hillebrecht, Alexandra Huneeus, Sandra Borda Jan 2018

The Judicialization Of Peace, Courtney Hillebrecht, Alexandra Huneeus, Sandra Borda

Faculty Publications: Political Science

As international courts gain in influence, many worry that they will impoverish domestic politics— that they will limit democratic deliberation, undermine domestic institutions, or even thwart crucial political initiatives such as efforts to make peace. Indeed, many states are in the midst of withdrawing, or actively considering withdrawal, from international commitments presided over by international courts. The Article focuses on the currently unfolding Colombian peace process, the first to be negotiated under the watch of not one but two international courts, to show that these concerns misconstrue the way international courts actually work.

Throughout four years of peace talks, many ...


Who Can Deviate From The Party Line? Political Ideology Moderates Evaluation Of Incongruent Policy Positions In Insula And Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Ingrid J. Haas, Melissa N. Baker, Frank J. Gonzalez Oct 2017

Who Can Deviate From The Party Line? Political Ideology Moderates Evaluation Of Incongruent Policy Positions In Insula And Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Ingrid J. Haas, Melissa N. Baker, Frank J. Gonzalez

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Political polarization at the elite level is a major concern in many contemporary democracies, which is argued to alienate large swaths of the electorate and prevent meaningful social change from occurring, yet little is known about how individuals respond to political candidates who deviate from the party line and express policy positions incongruent with their party affiliations. This experiment examines the neural underpinnings of such evaluations using functional MRI (fMRI). During fMRI, participants completed an experimental task where they evaluated policy positions attributed to hypothetical political candidates. Each block of trials focused on one candidate (Democrat or Republican), but all ...


Women, Rights And Power: Review Of Alice Kang, Bargaining For Women’S Lives: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy., Jill Vickers Jan 2017

Women, Rights And Power: Review Of Alice Kang, Bargaining For Women’S Lives: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy., Jill Vickers

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Alice Kang’s Bargaining for Women’s Lives is an impressive study of the competition between women activists and religious conservatives in Muslim-majority, francophone Niger. In this emerging democracy, Kang focuses on debates about women’s rights at the time when freedom of speech and assembly were being established. She explores how Niger handles women’s issues: who puts them on the national agenda, how they get framed and who decides. In a chapter discussing (unsuccessful) efforts to reform family law, Kang identifies the inability of colonial and post-colonial rulers to create central state structures as the problem since it ...


Mass Political Behavior, Ingrid J. Haas, Stephen P. Schneider Jan 2017

Mass Political Behavior, Ingrid J. Haas, Stephen P. Schneider

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Mass political behavior is the study of how average citizens form and express opinions about politics and decide how to engage with the political system through voting or other forms of political participation. Political scientists interested in mass political behavior have drawn on a variety of disciplinary approaches to understand the topic, including history, economics, sociology, and more recently, psychology, biology, and neuroscience. Political psychologists interested in understanding mass political behavior have applied social psychological theories of attitudes, emotion, social cognition, and social identity to help improve our understanding of political behavior. This entry provides a brief overview of how ...


The Making Of A Hero: Cultivating Empathy, Altruism, And Heroic Imagination, Ari Kohen, Matt Langdon, Brian R. Riches Jan 2017

The Making Of A Hero: Cultivating Empathy, Altruism, And Heroic Imagination, Ari Kohen, Matt Langdon, Brian R. Riches

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Heroes are not born; they’re made. This article examines the commonalities in the backgrounds of people who take heroic action on behalf of others to theorize the ways in which our society can encourage citizens to prepare themselves to act heroically. In looking closely at a variety of people who have acted heroically, in a single moment or over time, we argue they have at least four crucial commonalities: They imagined situations where help was needed and considered how they would act; they had an expansive sense of empathy, not simply with those who might be considered “like them ...


Heroism Research: A Review Of Theories, Methods, Challenges, And Trends, Zeno E. Franco, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella, Ari Kohen, Matt Langdon, Philip G. Zimbardo Dec 2016

Heroism Research: A Review Of Theories, Methods, Challenges, And Trends, Zeno E. Franco, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella, Ari Kohen, Matt Langdon, Philip G. Zimbardo

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Heroism as an expression of self-actualization and a pinnacle social state is of fundamental interest to humanistic psychology and the field more broadly. This review places the growing discussion on heroic action in a humanistic perspective, as heroism aligns with ethical self-actualization in its highest form, personal meaning making, and social good, and can also involve profound existential costs. This review is organized in four major sections: First, the historical and philosophical underpinnings of heroism are examined, moving from ancient Greco-Roman perspectives, to more modern interpretations of Continental philosophy, and to Freud and Le Bon. Second, the article summarizes in ...


Physiology And Political Beliefs: A Response To Knoll, O’Daniel, And Cusato, Johnathan C. Peterson, Kevin Smith, John Hibbing Sep 2016

Physiology And Political Beliefs: A Response To Knoll, O’Daniel, And Cusato, Johnathan C. Peterson, Kevin Smith, John Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

n a recent paper in this journal, Knoll et al. question three studies from our laboratory. In this response to that paper, we address deficiencies in their “reproduction.” Notably, we demonstrate that their data provide little evidence of a negativity bias among research subjects, suggesting a failure not only to reproduce findings from our earlier studies, but also a failure to find a widely acknowledged universal human physiological response trait. This situation raises a number of questions regarding the data on which their analyses are based. We explore these questions below and speculate that Knoll et al.’s data collection ...


Are Military Regimes Really Belligerent?, Nam Kyu Kim Aug 2016

Are Military Regimes Really Belligerent?, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Does military rule make a state more belligerent internationally? Several studies have recently established that military autocracies are more likely than civilian autocracies to deploy and use military force in pursuit of foreign policy objectives. I argue that military regimes are more likely to resort to military force because they are located in more hostile security environments, and not because they are inherently aggressive. First, I show that rule by military institution is more likely to emerge and exist in states facing external territorial threats. Second, by examining the relationship between military autocracies and conflict initiation, I find that once ...


Anti-Regime Uprisings And The Emergence Of Electoral Authoritarianism, Nam Kyu Kim Jun 2016

Anti-Regime Uprisings And The Emergence Of Electoral Authoritarianism, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This paper explores the role of threats from below in the emergence of electoral authoritarianism. Mass uprisings for democratic regime change undermine closed authoritarian regimes by making it difficult for autocrats to maintain their regimes through repression and co-optation. Anti-regime uprisings also promote the establishment of electoral authoritarianism by toppling existing closed regimes or by compelling autocrats to offer political reform as a survival strategy. My analysis of closed authoritarian regimes, from 1961 to 2006, reveals that anti- regime mass uprisings are significantly associated with transitions to electoral authoritarianism. I also find that nonviolent uprisings are more likely than violent ...


Just The Facts? Media Coverage Of Female And Male High Court Appointees In Five Democracies, Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Valerie Hoekstra, Alice Kang, Miki Caul Kittilson May 2016

Just The Facts? Media Coverage Of Female And Male High Court Appointees In Five Democracies, Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Valerie Hoekstra, Alice Kang, Miki Caul Kittilson

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In this article, we examine gender differences in news media portrayals of nominees to high courts and whether those differences vary across country and time. Although past research has examined gender differences in news media coverage of candidates for elective office, few studies have looked at media coverage of high court nominees. As women are increasingly nominated to courts around the world, it is important to examine how nominations are covered by the news media and whether there is significant variation in coverage based on gender. We analyze media coverage of high court justices in five democracies: Argentina, Australia, Canada ...


Political Psychology (Annotated Bibliography), Ingrid J. Haas Feb 2016

Political Psychology (Annotated Bibliography), Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

The field of political psychology explains political behavior as a function of both individual- and group-level psychological processes. While the field is interdisciplinary, political psychologists tend to work in either psychology or political science departments. Although the overall aim is often similar, researchers from each discipline approach the same questions in different ways, and interested scholars are encouraged to examine literatures from both fields. The general approach to research is to focus on individual political attitudes, emotion, beliefs, and behavior, and attempt to explain these phenomena using psychological research and theory. Historical approaches to research in this field often relied ...


Political Neuroscience, Ingrid J. Haas Jan 2016

Political Neuroscience, Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

The field of political science has traditionally had close ties to disciplines like economics, history, and sociology. While political science has always been somewhat interdisciplinary in nature, in recent years this interdisciplinary approach has expanded to include biology, psychology, and neuroscience. This interest in the human sciences has led to the development of new subfields within political science, including biopolitics, political psychology, and political neuroscience (also called neuropolitics). What these new subfields have in common is an interest in individual human behavior and decision-making as an approach to understanding political behavior. While political science has traditionally focused on understanding politics ...


Review Of Joe Renouard, Human Rights In American Foreign Policy; From The 1960s To The Soviet Collapse (Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2016), Isbn 9780812247732, 324 Pages., David P. Forsythe Jan 2016

Review Of Joe Renouard, Human Rights In American Foreign Policy; From The 1960s To The Soviet Collapse (Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2016), Isbn 9780812247732, 324 Pages., David P. Forsythe

Faculty Publications: Political Science

There are historians who do dense narrative history with great attention to documenting the details. And there are other historians who use history to paint a big conceptual picture whose accuracy often leads to much debate. Joe Renouard is in the former camp, with his new book on human rights in US foreign policy during the middle and late stages of the Cold War. Samuel Moyn is in the latter camp, with his stimulating and widely read but controversial interpretations in The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History.


Review Of Alice Kang, Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy, Jaimie Bleck Jan 2016

Review Of Alice Kang, Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy, Jaimie Bleck

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In Alice Kang’s Bargaining for Women’s Rights: Activism in an Aspiring Muslim Democracy, readers are introduced to the contentious debates about the inclusion of women’s rights policy in Niger. Based on fourteen months of fieldwork, the author provides a vivid exploration of domestic politics as the Muslim-majority state negotiates its transition to democracy. Kang shows that political actors adopt some women’s rights policy, while simultaneously rejecting comparable legislation on women’s rights.

This book offers an important step forward for research trajectories that seriously consider domestic determinants of policy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, but also Muslim-majority ...


Review Of Muslim Women In Postcolonial Kenya: Leadership, Representation And Social Change By Ousseina D. Alidou, And: Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang.", Lisa Mueller Jan 2016

Review Of Muslim Women In Postcolonial Kenya: Leadership, Representation And Social Change By Ousseina D. Alidou, And: Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang.", Lisa Mueller

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Alidou offers an important lesson for scholars who study Muslim women in contemporary Africa: gender and religion are transnational identities, but “being a Muslim in a predominantly Muslim area has different implications for Muslim women and men than being a Muslim in a predominantly non- Muslim area” (103). This is an implicit invitation to read Muslim Women in Postcolonial Kenya alongside literature on regions of Africa where Muslim women are in the religious majority.

Enter Bargaining for Women’s Rights: Activism in an Aspiring Muslim Democracy by Alice J. Kang, who studies women in the context of Niger, a country ...


Review Of Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang, Susanna D. Wing Jan 2016

Review Of Bargaining For Women’S Rights: Activism In An Aspiring Muslim Democracy By Alice J. Kang, Susanna D. Wing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Many people consider women’s rights and Muslim democracy as antithetical to each other. Conventional wisdom would have us believe that a Muslim majority country would be an unlikely place to see the adoption of women-friendly policies. In her terrific book, Bargaining for Women’s Rights, Alice Kang dispels this idea through her thoughtful research and richly nuanced analysis of negotiation over women’s rights reforms in Niger. She explains the variation in policy-making in Niger over time and argues that Islam per se is not the fundamental constraint to the adoption of women-friendly policies. Instead, mobilisation for or against ...


Representation And Governance In International Organizations, David P. Rapkin, Jonathan R. Strand, Michael W. Trevathan Jan 2016

Representation And Governance In International Organizations, David P. Rapkin, Jonathan R. Strand, Michael W. Trevathan

Faculty Publications: Political Science

What does representation mean when applied to international organizations? While many scholars working on normative questions related to global governance often make use of the concept of representation, few have addressed specifics of applying the concept to the rules and practices by which IOs operate. This article examines representation as a fundamental, albeit often neglected, norm of governance which, if perceived to be deficient or unfair, can interfere with other components of governance, as well as with performance of an organization’s core tasks by undermining legitimacy. We argue that the concept of representation has been neglected in the ongoing ...


The Impact Of Uncertainty, Threat, And Political Identity On Support For Political Compromise, Ingrid J. Haas Jan 2016

The Impact Of Uncertainty, Threat, And Political Identity On Support For Political Compromise, Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This work examines the impact of uncertainty and threat on support for political compromise. In Study 1, uncertainty, threat, and support for compromise were measured. Uncertainty increased support for compromise only when paired with positive or neutral affect. Studies 2 and 3 used an experimental design to examine the impact of incidental affect on support for political compromise as a function of political identification. Uncertainty was more likely to increase support for compromise in positive or neutral contexts and for political moderates and liberals. The combination of uncertainty and threat led conservatives to express reduced support for compromise.


Revolutionary Leaders And Mass Killing, Nam Kyu Kim Jan 2016

Revolutionary Leaders And Mass Killing, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This article argues that revolutionary leaders are more willing to commit mass killing than nonrevolutionary leaders. Revolutionary leaders are more ideologically committed to transforming society, more risk tolerant, and more likely to view the use of violence as appropriate and effective. Furthermore, such leaders tend to command highly disciplined and loyal organizations, built in the course of revolutionary struggles, that can perpetrate mass killing. This study uses time series cross-sectional data from 1955 to 2004 to demonstrate that revolutionary leaders are more likely to initiate genocide or politicide than nonrevolutionary leaders. The violent behaviors of revolutionary leaders are not limited ...


Voting At Home Is Associated With Lower Cortisol Than Voting At The Polls, Jayme Neiman, Karl Evan Giuseffi, Kevin B. Smith, Jeffrey French, Israel Waismel-Manor, John R. Hibbing Sep 2015

Voting At Home Is Associated With Lower Cortisol Than Voting At The Polls, Jayme Neiman, Karl Evan Giuseffi, Kevin B. Smith, Jeffrey French, Israel Waismel-Manor, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Previous research finds that voting is a socially stressful activity associated with increases in cortisol levels. Here we extend this research by investigating whether different voting modalities have differential effects on the stress response to voting. Results from a field experiment conducted during the 2012 presidential elections strongly suggest that traditional “at the polls” voting is more stressful, as measured by increases in cortisol levels, than voting at home by mail-in ballot or engaging in comparable non-political social activities. These findings imply that increased low-stress voting options such as mail-in ballots may increase political participation among individuals who are sensitive ...


Reflective Liberals And Intuitive Conservatives: A Look At The Cognitive Reflection Test And Ideology, Kristen D. Deppe, Frank J. Gonzalez, Jayme Neiman, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Jackson Pahlke, Kevin Smith, John R. Hibbing Jul 2015

Reflective Liberals And Intuitive Conservatives: A Look At The Cognitive Reflection Test And Ideology, Kristen D. Deppe, Frank J. Gonzalez, Jayme Neiman, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Jackson Pahlke, Kevin Smith, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Prior research finds that liberals and conservatives process information differently. Predispositions toward intuitive versus reflective thinking may help explain this individual level variation. There have been few direct tests of this hypothesis and the results from the handful of studies that do exist are contradictory. Here we report the results of a series of studies using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to investigate inclinations to be reflective and political orientation. We find a relationship between thinking style and political orientation and that these effects are particularly concentrated on social attitudes. We also find it harder to manipulate intuitive and reflective ...


Her Ladyship Chief Justice: The Rise Of Female Leaders In The Judiciary In Africa, Josephine Dawuni, Alice Kang Jan 2015

Her Ladyship Chief Justice: The Rise Of Female Leaders In The Judiciary In Africa, Josephine Dawuni, Alice Kang

Faculty Publications: Political Science

In recent years, women have been selected as leaders of African judiciaries. This article identifies where and when women have become chief justices and presidents of constitutional courts from 1990 to 2014. We profile women from three civil-law and three common-law countries and find that the women selected meet or exceed the requirements for holding the highest position in the judiciary. We then explore why some African countries, but not others, have had female judicial leaders. We initially find that the selection method may be less important than the type of legal system, the commitment of gatekeepers, the end of ...


The Genetic And Environmental Foundations Of Political, Psychological, Social, And Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study Of Twins And Families, Peter K. Hatemi, Kevin Smith, John R. Alford, Nicholas G. Martin, John R. Hibbing Jan 2015

The Genetic And Environmental Foundations Of Political, Psychological, Social, And Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study Of Twins And Families, Peter K. Hatemi, Kevin Smith, John R. Alford, Nicholas G. Martin, John R. Hibbing

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the ...


Love Thy Neighbor? Trust In Foreigners And Support For Transnational Policies, Sergio Wals, Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, Frank J. Gonzalez, Tess Gosda Jan 2015

Love Thy Neighbor? Trust In Foreigners And Support For Transnational Policies, Sergio Wals, Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, Frank J. Gonzalez, Tess Gosda

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This study assesses the extent to which individual levels of trust in foreigners relate to preferences about regional transnational policies. We use a nationally representative survey from Mexico (2003), an emerging democracy with relatively high levels of nationalism and several multinational trade agreements. We argue that clarifying the target of social trust is essential for understanding the attitudes of citizens of less powerful countries toward the international policy realm. Statistical analysis strongly suggests that in fact trust in foreigners, above generalized trust, is key to understanding such attitudes. Our results indicate that trust in foreigners among Mexican respondents is positively ...