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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Social Capital And Resilience, Daniel P. Aldrich, Robert E. Smith Jul 2015

Social Capital And Resilience, Daniel P. Aldrich, Robert E. Smith

Daniel P Aldrich

Despite regular claims about the importance of communities and crisis-affected individuals, the humanitarian aid system remains in many respects a top-down, centralized system which too often overlooks the power of social networks and social capital among crisis-affected people. We show how social capital serves as a critical resource for those in crisis and illuminate the lack of research and programmatic focus on this resource in conflict situations in less developed countries (LDCs)--where the large majority of the world’s humanitarian needs and aid occur. We believe that the World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) can serve as a focal point for ...


It's Who You Know: Factors Driving Recovery From Japan's 11 March 2011 Disaster, Daniel P. Aldrich May 2015

It's Who You Know: Factors Driving Recovery From Japan's 11 March 2011 Disaster, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

The 11 March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake affected dozens of coastal communities along the shore of Japan’s Tohoku region. Following the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear meltdowns, utilities, businesses and schools in some towns have bounced back to pre-disaster capacity while other municipalities have lagged behind. The question of which factors accelerate the recovery of business, infrastructure and population after the disaster remains unanswered. This article uses a new dataset of roughly 40 disaster-affected cities, towns and villages in the area to identify the factors connected with recovery. More than tsunami damage, spending on disaster mitigation, population density, economic ...


The Need For Social Capital: More Trust Meant Fewer Deaths In Tohoku, Daniel P. Aldrich Apr 2015

The Need For Social Capital: More Trust Meant Fewer Deaths In Tohoku, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

While the 3/11 compounded disasters claimed more than 18,000 lives, the mortality rates varied widely across more than 140 coastal communities. This article summarizes our findings published in the Social Science and Medicine journal to underscore the role of social networks and trust during disaster.


Elders Leading The Way To Resilience, Emi Kiyota, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Margaret Arnold, Daniel P. Aldrich Dec 2014

Elders Leading The Way To Resilience, Emi Kiyota, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Margaret Arnold, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

The theory of change behind this project draws on multiple constructs, including elder empowerment, ibasho, community bonding, social capital, and community resilience. 1. Empowering elders changes the way they feel about their role in their community 2. Creating the Ibasho Café (both physical and social infrastructures) with elders in a leadership role increases the community bonding among the members of all ages 3. A strong sense of community bonding increases the level of social network and community participation, enhancing the sense of belonging and trust, and developing reciprocity between neighbors 4. An enhanced sense of social capital strengthens the community ...


La Dolce Vita, The Italian Case Study: Linking Culture, Policy And ‘Active Aging’, Maria L. Kimmerle Mar 2013

La Dolce Vita, The Italian Case Study: Linking Culture, Policy And ‘Active Aging’, Maria L. Kimmerle

Maria L. Kimmerle

By 2025, the global demographic trend reveals a chalice-like structure, indicating an aging population. Active Aging (AA) policies are sustained on social capital or networking wherein people are successful, positive, and experiencing a high quality of life in their aging years. The major backbones supporting activity in the elderly must be reinforced by the culture of that society, the policies and the political support which is witnessed in societies with a large aging population, such as Italy. Adopting culturally inappropriate policies contrary to social norms create social dilemmas, thereby policies are rejected and no change occurs.

Objective: To present the ...


Response To My Critics, Daniel P. Aldrich Feb 2013

Response To My Critics, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

This article responds to the questions and criticisms raised by six reviewers about my book Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery. I focus on the distinctions between social capital types (bonding, bridging, and linking), the difficulties in pinning down widely accepted proxies for social capital, the double edged nature of social networks, race, class, and ethnicity, and public policies which can deepen reservoirs of social capital. Given the ubiquitous nature of disasters and society’s need to move beyond technical and engineering-based responses to crisis, this article continues an important dialogue on the role of human factors in disaster ...


The Politics Of Natural Disasters (Pre-Print), Daniel P. Aldrich May 2012

The Politics Of Natural Disasters (Pre-Print), Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Political scientists, sociologists, geographers, anthropologists, economists, and historians have studied disaster recovery, best practices in disaster response, the role of the government in rebuilding, and so forth. This annotated bibliography illuminates representative examples of the interdisciplinary work in this vast academic subfield.


Social, Not Physical, Infrastructure: The Critical Role Of Civil Society After The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake, Daniel P. Aldrich Dec 2011

Social, Not Physical, Infrastructure: The Critical Role Of Civil Society After The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Despite the tremendous destruction wrought by catastrophes, social science holds few quantitative assessments of explanations for the rate of recovery. This article illuminates four factors—damage, population density, human capital, and economic capital—that are thought to explain the variation in the pace of population recovery following disaster; it also explores the popular but relatively untested factor of social capital. Using time-series, cross-sectional models and propensity score matching, it tests these approaches using new data from the rebuilding of 39 neighborhoods in Tokyo after its 1923 earthquake. Social capital, more than earthquake damage, population density, human capital, or economic capital ...


The Externalities Of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery In Southeast India, Daniel P. Aldrich Mar 2011

The Externalities Of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery In Southeast India, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Much research has implied that social capital functions as an unqualified “public good,” enhancing governance, economic performance, and quality of life (Coleman 1988; Cohen and Arato 1992; Putnam 1993; Cohen and Rogers 1995). Scholars of disaster (Nakagawa and Shaw 2004; Adger et al. 2005; Dynes 2005; Tatsuki 2008) have extended this concept to posit that social capital provides nonexcludable benefits to whole communities after major crises. Using qualitative methods to analyze data from villages in Tamil Nadu, India following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, this paper demonstrates that high levels of social capital simultaneously provided strong benefits and equally strong ...


Between Market And State: Directions In Social Science Research On Disaster, Daniel P. Aldrich Nov 2010

Between Market And State: Directions In Social Science Research On Disaster, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

In this extended review, I discuss three recent books on disaster: Governing after Crisis: The Politics of Investigation, Accountability, and Learning edited by Arjen Boin, Allan McConnell, and Paul ‘T Hart, Learning from Catastrophes: Strategies for Reaction and Response , edited by Howard Kunreuther and Micheel Useem, and The Next Catastrophe: Reducing Our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial, and Terrorist Disasters by Charles Perrow. All three books invoke the market and state as core forces at work in mitigation and disaster recovery, overlooking the critical role of social capital.


The Power Of People: Social Capital’S Role In Recovery From The 1995 Kobe Earthquake, Daniel P. Aldrich Jul 2010

The Power Of People: Social Capital’S Role In Recovery From The 1995 Kobe Earthquake, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Despite the regularity of disasters, social science has only begun to generate replicable knowledge about the factors which facilitate post-crisis recovery. Building on the broad variation in recovery rates within disaster-affected cities, I investigate the ability of Kobe’s nine wards to repopulate after the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan. This article uses case studies of neighborhoods in Kobe alongside new time-series, cross-sectional data set to test five variables thought to influence recovery along with the relatively untested factor of social capital. Controlling for damage, population density, economic conditions, inequality and other variables thought important in past research, social capital ...


Fixing Recovery: Social Capital In Post-Crisis Resilience, Daniel P. Aldrich May 2010

Fixing Recovery: Social Capital In Post-Crisis Resilience, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Disasters remain among the most critical events which impact residents and their neighborhoods; they have killed far more individuals than high salience issues such as terrorism. Unfortunately, disaster recovery programs run by the United States and foreign governments have not been updated to reflect a new understanding of the essential nature of social capital and networks. I call for a re-orientation of disaster preparedness and recovery programs at all levels away from the standard fixes focused on physical infrastructure towards ones targeting social infrastructure. The reservoirs of social capital and the trust (or lack thereof) between citizens in disaster-affected communities ...


The Way Home: Peaceful Return For Victims Of Ethnic Cleansing, Djordje Stefanovic, Neophytos Loizides Jan 2010

The Way Home: Peaceful Return For Victims Of Ethnic Cleansing, Djordje Stefanovic, Neophytos Loizides

Neophytos Loizides

This article examines how the right of return is negotiated and implemented in post-conflict societies. It focuses on cases of voluntary yet ‘difficult’ return and identifies the conditions under which victims of ethnic cleansing choose to return to their homes despite opposition from new occupants and local authorities. The article provides a theoretical framework for the study of return looking at security provisions, incentives, contact and ideology. Drawing on the experiences of Bosnian (Drvar) and Cypriot (Maronite) returnees, it emphasizes the role of social capital and demonstrates how community effort resolves coordination and commitment problems and facilitates voluntary peaceful return.


Separate And Unequal: Post-Tsunami Aid Distribution In Southern India, Daniel P. Aldrich Dec 2009

Separate And Unequal: Post-Tsunami Aid Distribution In Southern India, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Objective. Disasters are a regular occurrence throughout the world. Whether all eligible victims of a catastrophe receive similar amounts of aid from governments and donors following a crisis remains an open question. Methods. I use data on 62 similarly damaged inland fishing villages in five districts of southeastern India following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami to measure the causal influence of caste, location, wealth, and bridging social capital on the receipt of aid. Using two-limit tobit and negative binomial models, I investigate the factors that influence the time spent in refugee camps, receipt of an initial aid packet, and receipt ...


Capital Social O Estructura Política: Explorando La Participación Ciudadana, Benjamin (Benny) Temkin Yedwab, Rodrigo Salazar Elena, Mario Torrico Teran, Sandra Solano Luna Jan 2007

Capital Social O Estructura Política: Explorando La Participación Ciudadana, Benjamin (Benny) Temkin Yedwab, Rodrigo Salazar Elena, Mario Torrico Teran, Sandra Solano Luna

benjamin (benny) temkin

no abstract