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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

La Gobernabilidad Democrática En América Latina: Cuatro Ejes De Análisis, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jan 2014

La Gobernabilidad Democrática En América Latina: Cuatro Ejes De Análisis, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

No abstract provided.


The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas May 2013

The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a new measure of democracy, the DCC index, is proposed and constructed from five popular indices of democracy (Freedom House, Polity IV, Vanhanen's index of democratization, Cheibub et al.'s index of democracy and dictatorship, and the Cingranelli-Richards index of electoral self-determination). The DCC was used to classify the regime types for twenty-four countries in the Americas and thirty-nine countries in Europe over a thirty-year period. The results indicated that democracy is a latent class variable. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for the five existing democracy indices as well as the newly proposed Unified ...


Elected Kings With The Name Of Presidents. On The Origins Of Presidentialism In The United States And Latin America, Josep M. Colomer Dec 2012

Elected Kings With The Name Of Presidents. On The Origins Of Presidentialism In The United States And Latin America, Josep M. Colomer

Josep M. Colomer

The leaders of the independence in the Americas chose their institutions in a context of high territorial tensions, which moved them to create a potential anchor in the figure of a powerful central executive. Presidential regimes were endogenously shaped as elected monarchies by rulers who were army chiefs. The military-presidential nexus is not accidental, but constitutive and substantial. Some legacies of those choices include the frequency of military rulers as chief executives and long-standing attempts at life appointments or indefinite reelections by incumbent presidents.


Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser Dec 2012

Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser

Cas Mudde

Although there is a lively academic debate about contemporary populism in Europe and Latin America, almost no cross-regional research exists on this topic. This article aims to fill this gap by showing that a minimal and ideological definition of populism permits us to analyse current expressions of populism in both regions. Moreover, based on a comparison of four prototypical cases (FN/Le Pen and FPÖ/Haider in Europe and PSUV/Chávez and MAS/Morales in Latin America), we show that it is possible to identify two regional subtypes of populism: exclusionary populism in Europe and inclusionary populism in Latin America.


Replacing And Amending Constitutions: The Logic Of Constitutional Change In Latin America, Gabriel L. Negretto Dec 2012

Replacing And Amending Constitutions: The Logic Of Constitutional Change In Latin America, Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

Since 1978, all countries in Latin America have either replaced or amended their constitutions. What explains the choice between these two substantively different means of constitutional transformation? This article argues that constitutions are replaced when they fail to work as governance structures or when their design prevents competing political interests from accommodating to changing environments. According to this perspective, constitutions are likely to be replaced when constitutional crises are frequent, when political actors lack the capacity to implement changes by means of amendments or judicial interpretation, or when the constitutional regime has a power-concentrating design. It is further argued that ...


Technical Relevance And Social Opposition To E-Voting, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jun 2012

Technical Relevance And Social Opposition To E-Voting, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

This paper makes an assessment of the technical and social motivations that drive some governments to promote and implement e-voting mechanisms. Success stories mentioned, especially those in Latin America, and contrasted with those cases where e-voting implementation has failed, as has happened in some European countries. Finally, the relationship between new technologies that promote e-voting and the nature of the elections as a part of democracy is analyzed. It could be argued that voting is not solely a technical exercise, it is an element that merges different political and social elements that e-voting promoters should not ignore.


Modelos De Gestión Electoral En América Latina En Perspectiva Comparada, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jun 2012

Modelos De Gestión Electoral En América Latina En Perspectiva Comparada, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

A través de un método comparativo se dan a conocer los diferentes modelos de gestión electoral desarrollados a partir de los procesos de democratización de las dos últimas décadas del siglo XX en América Latina. Los criterios más relevantes para realizar el estudio son el grado de independencia y la composición de los organismos encargados de la gestión electoral. Sin embargo, aclara, existen otros criterios que señalan diferencias centrales respecto al modelo de gestión adoptado por un país dado, puede ser un modelo unificado, permanente, con funciones de administración y justicia electoral, y además con una cobertura amplia. Hace hincapié ...


Shifting Constitutional Designs In Latin America. A Two-Level Explanation, Gabriel L. Negretto Jan 2011

Shifting Constitutional Designs In Latin America. A Two-Level Explanation, Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

Latin American countries have been riding a massive wave of constitutional change since 1978. One aspect of the political institutions selected as a result of this process seems particularly puzzling. Reforms that promote party pluralism and consensual decision making coexist, often within the same design, with other reforms that restrict party competition and foster concentration of power in the executive branch. This Article argues that constitutional choice is endogenous to the performance of preexisting constitutional structures and to the partisan interests and relative power of reformers. According to this theory, the seemingly contradictory trends of design that we observe in ...


Where Is Local Government Going In Latin America? A Comparative Perspective, Robert Andrew Nickson Jan 2011

Where Is Local Government Going In Latin America? A Comparative Perspective, Robert Andrew Nickson

Robert Andrew Nickson

In the light of the decentralisation process now under way in Latin America, this paper seeks to address the direction of local government in the region. It proposes two Weberian ideal types of local government systems – ‘managerial’ and ‘governmental’. Ten basic features of local government systems are then used as a template to ‘situate’ Latin American local government within this typology. On the basis of this comparative framework, the paper tentatively concludes that the ‘managerial’ type of local government is gaining ground in the region.


Gestión Electoral Comparada Y Confianza En Las Elecciones En América Latina, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Dec 2010

Gestión Electoral Comparada Y Confianza En Las Elecciones En América Latina, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

No se puede hablar de una buena elección si no existe una buena administración. Los organismos electorales, especialmente en América Latina, desempeñan un rol central en el proceso de legitimación de las principales autoridades políticas. A partir de los procesos de democratización en la región se ha privilegiado la gestión electoral encomendada a órganos electorales independientes del ejecutivo y legislativo, autónomos en su funcionamiento y altamente especializados para llevar a cabo procesos electorales eficaces y sobre todo para evitar fraudes electorales. Pero, comparativamente ¿Qué tan eficientes son estas instituciones? ¿En qué medida su arquitectura institucional y desempeño generan confianza de ...


A Diplomatic Theatre Of The Absurd: Canada, The Oas And The Coup In Honduras, Maxwell A. Cameron, Jason Tockman Jun 2010

A Diplomatic Theatre Of The Absurd: Canada, The Oas And The Coup In Honduras, Maxwell A. Cameron, Jason Tockman

Maxwell Cameron

Throughout the crisis caused by the coup in Honduras in 2009, Canada moved in lockstep with the United States. Doing so clashed with Canada's frequently stated commitment to multilateralism and democracy.


Latin America’S Left Turns: Beyond Good And Bad, Maxwell A. Cameron Jan 2009

Latin America’S Left Turns: Beyond Good And Bad, Maxwell A. Cameron

Maxwell Cameron

In rapid succession leftwing parties have been elected to government in some of the most important countries in the Latin American region. I challenge the view that there are two distinct variants of the left—one populist, the other social democratic—and argue that variation on the left reflects the diverse conditions under which these forces emerge and evolve. I outline common features shared by the left in Latin America; suggest how the concept of populism and analysis of social movements can help explain this variation; and show how the left’s commitment to egalitarianism, balancing markets, and, in some ...


El Giro A La Izquierda Frustrado En Peru: El Caso De Ollanta Humala, Maxwell A. Cameron Jan 2009

El Giro A La Izquierda Frustrado En Peru: El Caso De Ollanta Humala, Maxwell A. Cameron

Maxwell Cameron

The unexpected rise of radical nationalist candidate Ollanta Humala in the Peruvian general election of 2006 took many observers by surprise. This article analyzes the origin and nature of the Humala candidacy, evaluates whether his campaign capitalized on weaknesses in the party system, and the degree to which it reflected a repudiation of neoliberal policies, the state of democracy, or the performance of recent elected governments.


Political Parties And Institutional Design: Explaining Constitutional Choice In Latin America, Gabriel L. Negretto Jan 2009

Political Parties And Institutional Design: Explaining Constitutional Choice In Latin America, Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

The formulas for electing presidents and the rules determining the legislative powers of presidents are important variables for explaining the performance of presidential democracies. This article develops a strategic choice model to explain variations in these institutional features. Based on this model, it is proposed here that constitution makers are likely to opt for more-than-plurality rules of presidential elections when the number of parties necessary to pass constitutional changes increases. It is also proposed that the makers of constitutions are likely to strengthen the legislative powers of the president when the number of parties necessary to pass constitutional changes increases ...


Canada's Engagement With Democracies In The Americas, Maxwell A. Cameron, Catherine Hecht Oct 2008

Canada's Engagement With Democracies In The Americas, Maxwell A. Cameron, Catherine Hecht

Maxwell Cameron

Canada’s engagement with Latin America over the past two decades was predicated on three inter-related assumptions: that the region was becoming more democratic, that it had embraced markets, and that, as a result, it was reasonable to expect a more cooperative and pragmatic tone in inter-American affairs. These assumptions have proven faulty. Although democracy remains the preferred system of government, many voters are dissatisfied with their elected governments; the record of progress in reducing poverty and inequality has also been disappointing; finally, the international politics of the region have become more fraught. The current Canadian “re-engagement” with the region ...


Organismos Electorales Y Calidad De La Democracia En América Latina. Un Esquema De Análisis, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Mar 2008

Organismos Electorales Y Calidad De La Democracia En América Latina. Un Esquema De Análisis, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

The institutional design and the operation of state institutions are expressions of political culture in a society. As such, they are also indicators of the quality of democracy in terms of results. Within the transition and consolidation processes of democracy in Latin America, the design and operation of Electoral Management Bodies (EMB’s) have been of exceptional importance. In order to overcome lack of credibility towards elections -a result of authoritarianisms in many Latin-American countries- the independent EMB model reinforced by Electoral Courts to solve electoral quarrels has been widely promoted in Latin America. How can this choice be explained ...


Citizenship Deficits In Latin American Democracies, Maxwell A. Cameron Sep 2007

Citizenship Deficits In Latin American Democracies, Maxwell A. Cameron

Maxwell Cameron

There is little evidence of a crisis of electoral democracy in Latin America, yet many of the region’s democratic regimes are unstable. Recently, Latin American democracies have been threatened more by the unconstitutional and illegal actions of democratically elected leaders than by attempted military coups or systematic electoral fraud. The separation of powers is sometimes violated in subtle ways that do not necessarily interrupt electoral democracy. Such threats have been inadequately theorized in the literature. Theorizing the separation of powers could help the international community to monitor the progress or erosion of democracy in the Western Hemisphere. The proposed ...


Non-Median And Condorcet-Loser Presidents In Latin America: A Factor Of Instability, Josep M. Colomer Jan 2007

Non-Median And Condorcet-Loser Presidents In Latin America: A Factor Of Instability, Josep M. Colomer

Josep M. Colomer

Both the longer duration of present democratic regimes in Latin America in comparison with past historical periods and their high levels of political instability can be partly explained by the role of electoral rules. In this paper several electoral rules are evaluated for their results on the basis of more than 111 presidential and 137 congressional elections in 18 Latin American countries during the current emocratic periods. First, a focus is cast on the probability that elected presidents have the support of the median voter’s first preference, which is a proxy for the winner’s popular acceptance or rejection ...


The Politics Of Deepening Local Democracy: Decentralization, Party Institutionalization, And Participation, Benjamin Goldfrank Dec 2006

The Politics Of Deepening Local Democracy: Decentralization, Party Institutionalization, And Participation, Benjamin Goldfrank

Benjamin Goldfrank

No abstract provided.


Essay: The Transition From The Inquisitorial To The Accusatorial System Of Trial Procedure: Why Some Latin American Lawyers Hesitate, Leonard Cavise Dec 2006

Essay: The Transition From The Inquisitorial To The Accusatorial System Of Trial Procedure: Why Some Latin American Lawyers Hesitate, Leonard Cavise

Leonard Cavise

The article is born of my experience teaching American-style trial advocacy to over 15 groups of Latin American lawyers coming from countries in transition from the inquisitorial to the accusatorial model. The first part of the article reviews the principal differences in the two systems as it affects trial procedure. The article then reviews those aspects of accusatorial trial proceedings that caused the greatest degree of discomfort to the foreign lawyers. Finally, the article attempts to posit a few recommendations that should help not only to ease the transition process but also to anticipate the next level of procedural and ...


“Choosing How To Choose Presidents: Parties, Military Rulers, And Presidential Elections In Latin America”, Gabriel L. Negretto Jan 2006

“Choosing How To Choose Presidents: Parties, Military Rulers, And Presidential Elections In Latin America”, Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

Students of presidential regimes claim that while the combination of plurality rule for presidential elections and concurrent electoral cycles favors bipartism, majority rule for electing presidents favors multipartism. I argue that a reverse causality also affects the relationship between party systems and electoral systems. Using a bargaining model of institutional change, I propose that while dominant and large parties are likely to choose plurality rule and concurrent elections, small parties are likely to choose majority rule. I also argue that military rulers and mil- itary-civilian coalitions tend to follow the logic of electoral choice of small parties. These hypotheses are ...


The Left-Right Dimension In Latin America, Josep M. Colomer Dec 2004

The Left-Right Dimension In Latin America, Josep M. Colomer

Josep M. Colomer

We present voters' self-placement and 68 political party locations on the left-right dimension in 17 Latin American countries. Innovative calculations are based on data from Latinobarometer annual surveys from 1995 to 2002. Our preliminary analysis of the results suggests that most Latin American voters are relatively highly ideological and rather consistently located on the left-right dimension, but they have very high levels of political alienation regarding the party system.


La Segunda Vuelta Electoral Y La Gobernabilidad En Los Sistemas Políticos Latinoamericanos, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Dec 2003

La Segunda Vuelta Electoral Y La Gobernabilidad En Los Sistemas Políticos Latinoamericanos, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

En los últimos años varios países latinoamericanos han adoptado el sistema de elección directa con umbrales fijos y Segunda Vuelta Electoral (SVE) con la finalidad de asegurar la mayoría absoluta en la elección presidencial. La SVE se considera un tipo de sistema electoral que sirve para maximizar la legitimidad de origen. No obstante los efectos de la SVE son cuestionables, porque a la luz de los años los resultados han mostrado que tiende a operar en sentido contrario a los objetivos para los que se adoptó. La elección presidencial en dos vueltas en países latinoamericanos, caracterizados por graves contrastes y ...


Genocide In The Non-Western World: Implications For Holocaust Studies, Robert Cribb Jan 2003

Genocide In The Non-Western World: Implications For Holocaust Studies, Robert Cribb

Robert Cribb

The example of the Holocaust has tended to dominate genocide studies, but the broader study of extreme violence makes it difficult to exclude the mass killing of indigenous peoples and mass killing on political grounds from the category of genocide.