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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Discriminating Rated Leadership In The U.S Presidency From Value Content And Stylistic Variables In State Of The Union Addresses: A Data Mining Methodology, Steven D. Silver Nov 2016

Discriminating Rated Leadership In The U.S Presidency From Value Content And Stylistic Variables In State Of The Union Addresses: A Data Mining Methodology, Steven D. Silver

Steven D. Silver

Data mining methodology is used to study the content of presidential State of the Union messages. Ratings of greatness in leadership from C-Span panels of historians are defined as the dependent variables. The set of independent variables included measures of values, rhetorical style and intellective ability. Results of linear regression models with bootstrapped standard errors indicated a value facet related to self-direction and stylistic
variables to significantly discriminate the expert ratings of presidential leadership by historians.


The Middle Class, Urban Schools And Choice, Michael Lewyn Oct 2016

The Middle Class, Urban Schools And Choice, Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

Urban schools tend to be less attractive to middle-class parents than suburban schools; as a result, the public school system generates suburban sprawl.  This talk discusses both egalitarian and market-oriented means of making cities more attractive to parents.


University Of Rhode Island Presentations At Interdisciplinary Conference On Human Trafficking, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Oct 2016

University Of Rhode Island Presentations At Interdisciplinary Conference On Human Trafficking, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


Gender Attitudes, Gendered Partisanship: Feminism And Support For Sarah Palin And Hillary Clinton Among Party Activists, Elizabeth Sharrow, Dara Z. Strolovitch, Michael T. Heaney, Seth E. Masket, Joanne M. Miller Sep 2016

Gender Attitudes, Gendered Partisanship: Feminism And Support For Sarah Palin And Hillary Clinton Among Party Activists, Elizabeth Sharrow, Dara Z. Strolovitch, Michael T. Heaney, Seth E. Masket, Joanne M. Miller

Elizabeth Sharrow

Activists in the Democratic and Republican parties have distinct concerns about women’s place in American politics and society. These views lead them to evaluate female candidates through different ideological lenses that are conditioned, in part, on their divergent attitudes about gender.  We explore the implications of these diverging lenses through an examination of the 2008 candidacies of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin, using data from an original survey of Democratic and Republican National Convention delegates.  We find that delegate sex did not affect their evaluations but that evaluations were influenced by the interaction of partisanship and attitudes about women ...


America’S Legendary Ignorance About Africa Persists, Julius A. Amin Sep 2016

America’S Legendary Ignorance About Africa Persists, Julius A. Amin

Julius A. Amin

In an increasingly interconnected and technological global environment, ignorance of Africa is no longer acceptable. This, especially from major political leaders. Yet, examples of such ignorance are evident in the current American presidential campaign. Neither the Republican nominee Donald J. Trump nor the democratic nominee Hillary R. Clinton has articulated any concrete vision for an African policy.


The Value Of Precedent : Appellate Briefs And Judicial Opinions In The U.S. Courts Of Appeals., Laura P. Moyer, Todd A. Collins, Susan B. Haire Sep 2016

The Value Of Precedent : Appellate Briefs And Judicial Opinions In The U.S. Courts Of Appeals., Laura P. Moyer, Todd A. Collins, Susan B. Haire

Laura Moyer

This study of appellate advocacy examines factors that affect judicial treatment of precedents identified in litigant briefs. Although we find some attorney and party characteristics influence whether a court addresses precedent cited by a party, legal resources are not as influential in determining whether the court adopts a party’s use of a precedent. At times, ideological congruence between the circuit panel and the litigant can increase the likelihood that the court’s opinion will use a precedent in the same way as presented by the litigants. There is also some support for the importance of attorney experience. Even when ...


Judicial Innovation And Sexual Harassment Doctrine In The U.S. Court Of Appeals., Laura P. Moyer, Holley Takersley Sep 2016

Judicial Innovation And Sexual Harassment Doctrine In The U.S. Court Of Appeals., Laura P. Moyer, Holley Takersley

Laura Moyer

The determination that sexual harassment constituted “discrimination based on sex” under Title VII was first made by the lower federal courts, not Congress. Drawing from the literature on policy diffusion, this article examines the adoption of hostile work environment standards across the U.S. Courts of Appeals in the absence of controlling Supreme Court precedent. The results bolster recent findings about the influence of female judges on their male colleagues and suggest that in addition to siding with female plaintiffs, female judges also helped to shape legal rules that promoted gender equality in the workplace.


Competing Social Movements And Local Political Culture : Voting On Ballot Propositions To Ban Same-Sex Marriage., Arnold Fleischmann, Laura Moyer Sep 2016

Competing Social Movements And Local Political Culture : Voting On Ballot Propositions To Ban Same-Sex Marriage., Arnold Fleischmann, Laura Moyer

Laura Moyer

Objective: This paper uses social movement theory to explain variation in local support for proposed constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage in 22 states during 2004 and 2006. Methods: The analysis uses OLS regression with county-level data to explain variation in local support for the amendments. Results: Support for the amendments in both years was positively related to the proportion of a county that was evangelical or Republican, but negatively related to its level of education and proportion of Catholics. Amendment support was positively related in only one year to the percentage of a county’s population that was professional ...


Gender, Race, And Intersectionality On The Federal Appellate Bench., Todd Collins, Laura Moyer Sep 2016

Gender, Race, And Intersectionality On The Federal Appellate Bench., Todd Collins, Laura Moyer

Laura Moyer

While theoretical justifications predict that a judge’s gender and race may influence judicial decisions, empirical support for these arguments has been mixed. However, recent increases in judicial diversity necessitate a reexamination of these earlier studies. Rather than examining individual judges on a single characteristic, such as gender or race alone, this research note argues that the intersection of individual characteristics may provide an alternative approach for evaluating the effects of diversity on the federal appellate bench. The results of cohort models examining the joint effects of race and gender suggest that minority female judges are more likely to support ...


Trailblazers And Those That Followed : Personal Experiences, Gender, And Judicial Empathy., Laura P. Moyer, Susan B. Haire Sep 2016

Trailblazers And Those That Followed : Personal Experiences, Gender, And Judicial Empathy., Laura P. Moyer, Susan B. Haire

Laura Moyer

This paper investigates one causal mechanism that may explain why female judges on the federal appellate courts are more likely than men to side with plaintiffs in sex discrimination cases. To test whether personal experiences with inequality are related to empathetic responses to the claims of female plaintiffs, we focus on the first wave of female judges, who attended law school during a time of severe gender inequality. We find that female judges are more likely than their male colleagues to support plaintiffs in sex discrimination cases, but that this difference is seen only in judges who graduated law school ...


Rethinking Critical Mass In The Federal Appellate Courts., Laura Moyer Sep 2016

Rethinking Critical Mass In The Federal Appellate Courts., Laura Moyer

Laura Moyer

This article draws from critical mass studies of gender in other political institutions to inform an application to the US Courts of Appeals. The results demonstrate the utility of considering court-level aspects of diversity. As mixed-sex panels become more common within a circuit, both male and female judges increasingly support plaintiffs in civil rights claims, though the magnitude of the effect is larger for women. The presence of a female chief judge is also positively associated with pro-plaintiff decisions by men and women in sex discrimination cases.


The Role Of Case Complexity In Judicial Decision Making., Laura P. Moyer Sep 2016

The Role Of Case Complexity In Judicial Decision Making., Laura P. Moyer

Laura Moyer

The literature on ideology and decision making offers conflicting expectations about how judges’ ideology should affect their votes in cases that raise many legal issues. Using cases from the U.S. Courts of Appeals, I examine the strength of ideology as a predictor of sincere voting in single and multi-issue cases and test whether the same effect for ideology can be seen for liberal and conservative judges. For all judges, ideology yields a larger effect as the number of issues increases; however, conservative judges are much more likely than liberal judges to cast sincere votes at all levels of complexity.


How Civility Works.Pdf, Keith J. Bybee Aug 2016

How Civility Works.Pdf, Keith J. Bybee

Keith J. Bybee

Is civility dead? Americans ask this question every election season, but their concern is hardly limited to political campaigns. Doubts about civility regularly arise in just about every aspect of American public life. Rudeness runs rampant. Our news media is saturated with aggressive bluster and vitriol. Our digital platforms teem with expressions of disrespect and trolls. Reflecting these conditions, surveys show that a significant majority of Americans believe we are living in an age of unusual anger and discord. Everywhere we look, there seems to be conflict and hostility, with shared respect and consideration nowhere to be found. In a ...


The Subterranean Counterrevolution: The Supreme Court, The Media, And Litigation Retrenchment, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

The Subterranean Counterrevolution: The Supreme Court, The Media, And Litigation Retrenchment, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

This article is part of a larger project to study the counterrevolution against private enforcement of federal law from an institutional perspective. In a series of articles emerging from the project, we show how the Executive, Congress and the Supreme Court (wielding both judicial power under Article III of the Constitution and delegated legislative power under the Rules Enabling Act) fared in efforts to reverse or dull the effects of statutory and other incentives for private enforcement. An institutional perspective helps to explain the outcome we document: the long-term erosion of the infrastructure of private enforcement as a result of ...


Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

The program of regulation through private litigation that Democratic Congresses purposefully created starting in the late 1960s soon met opposition emanating primarily from the Republican party. In the long campaign for retrenchment that began in the Reagan administration, consequential reform proved difficult and ultimately failed in Congress. Litigation reformers turned to the courts and, in marked contrast to their legislative failure, were well-rewarded, achieving growing rates of voting support from an increasingly conservative Supreme Court on issues curtailing private enforcement under individual statutes. We also demonstrate that the judiciary’s control of procedure has been central to the campaign to ...


Class Actions And The Counterrevolution Against Federal Litigation, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

Class Actions And The Counterrevolution Against Federal Litigation, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

In this article we situate consideration of class actions in a framework, and fortify it with data, that we have developed as part of a larger project, the goal of which is to assess the counterrevolution against private enforcement of federal law from an institutional perspective. In a series of articles emerging from the project, we have documented how the Executive, Congress and the Supreme Court (wielding both judicial power under Article III of the Constitution and delegated legislative power under the Rules Enabling Act) fared in efforts to reverse or dull the effects of statutory and other incentives for ...


Winners, Losers, And Perceived Mandates : Voter Explanations Of The 1998 Gubernatorial And 2000 Presidential Elections In Florida., Stephen C. Craig, Michael D. Martinez, Jason Gainous, James G. Kane Jul 2016

Winners, Losers, And Perceived Mandates : Voter Explanations Of The 1998 Gubernatorial And 2000 Presidential Elections In Florida., Stephen C. Craig, Michael D. Martinez, Jason Gainous, James G. Kane

Jason Gainous

Elections are sometimes seen as legitimizing institutions, promoting system-level support among citizens by providing them with input into the political process. However, prior research has found that is less true among the supporters of losing candidates, who often exhibit lower levels of political trust and satisfaction with democracy. We analyze two statewide surveys in Florida (following the gubernatorial and senatorial elections of 1998, and the controversial presidential election of 2000), and find that (1) losers do exhibit lower levels of political trust, satisfaction with democracy, and beliefs that government is responsive to citizens; (2) losers also are more likely to ...


Why Does Voting Get So Complicated? : A Review Of Theories For Analyzing Democratic Participation., Jeff Gill, Jason Gainous Jul 2016

Why Does Voting Get So Complicated? : A Review Of Theories For Analyzing Democratic Participation., Jeff Gill, Jason Gainous

Jason Gainous

The purpose of this article is to present a sample from the panoply of formal theories on voting and elections to Statistical Science readers who have had limited exposure to such work. These abstract ideas provide a framework for understanding the context of the empirical articles that follow in this volume. The primary focus of this theoretical literature is on the use of mathematical formalism to describe electoral systems and outcomes by modeling both voting rules and human behavior. As with empirical models, these constructs are never perfect descriptors of reality, but instead form the basis for understanding fundamental characteristics ...


Religion And Core Values : A Reformulation Of The Funnel Of Causality., Jason Gainous, Bill Radunovich Jul 2016

Religion And Core Values : A Reformulation Of The Funnel Of Causality., Jason Gainous, Bill Radunovich

Jason Gainous

This study reformulates the classic funnel of causality proposed in The American Voter. Where The American Voter suggests that group affiliation and values are equally influential in candidate choice, the foundational sociological literature suggest that values are derived from group affiliation, and therefore The American Voter has misconceptualized the ordering of these influences. We concur with the sociological literature, which suggests that values are more proximate to that decision than is group affiliation. Examining data from a 2002 statewide survey of Florida residents, and using religious affiliation as a measure of group affiliation, we explore the effects of political core ...


The Electronic Ballot Box : Class, Age And Racial Bias On The Internet., Jason Gainous, Kevin M. Wagner Jul 2016

The Electronic Ballot Box : Class, Age And Racial Bias On The Internet., Jason Gainous, Kevin M. Wagner

Jason Gainous

This research creates a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of Internet voting on the electorate. Based on standard Downsian rational choice voting theory, we claim that Internet voting lowers the cost of voting for certain voting demographics based upon race, age, and income.We further contend that this electoral advantage may crystallize the growing turnout disparity be-tween demographic groups. The theory is tested using Bayesian inferential methods with data from the Internet turnout in the 2000 Arizona Democratic Presidential Primary merged with demographic data obtained from the 2000 Census. Our findings lend support for the theory that the Internet ...


Is There A Woman's Perspective? : An Exploration Of Gender Differences Along Republican And Conservative Lines., Jason Gainous Jul 2016

Is There A Woman's Perspective? : An Exploration Of Gender Differences Along Republican And Conservative Lines., Jason Gainous

Jason Gainous

Is there a distinct “woman’s perspective?” This paper argues that the answer is an emphatic yes. American National Election Study survey data are used to explore Republican and conservative women’s attitudes concerning social spending issues and religiosity. Most of the previous gender gap research focuses on gender differences in attitudes by examining gender shifts in political party identification and voting, but do not adequately address opinion differences along gender lines between groups that think of themselves as similar. This paper asserts that if men and women who classify themselves as both conservative and Republican exhibit distinct differences, evidence ...


Congressional Actions And Public Reactions., Jason Gainous Jul 2016

Congressional Actions And Public Reactions., Jason Gainous

Jason Gainous

This paper explores the link between congressional actions and public attitudes about government responsiveness, public efficacy, and public trust in government. Congressional actions are moves by members of Congress that are potentially consequential to public opinion. The theory contends that actions taken by Congress influence these perspectives on government within an alert stratum of the public. This relationship is demonstrated by employing a pooled time-series logistical regression modeling data that come from the American National Election Studies merged with historical actions data. The findings support the contention that increased actions by Congress increase public efficacy and trust in government, and ...


Issue-Related Learning In A Gubernatorial Campaign : A Panel Study., Stephen C. Craig, James G. Kane, Jason Gainous Jul 2016

Issue-Related Learning In A Gubernatorial Campaign : A Panel Study., Stephen C. Craig, James G. Kane, Jason Gainous

Jason Gainous

This study is based on data from a three-wave telephone panel survey conducted during the 1998 governor's race in Florida. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of issue-related learning (having to do with candidate policy stands and group endorsements) took place over the course of the general election campaign, though substantial differences were observed from one issue area to the next. Further analysis indicates that learning was especially likely to occur among voters who (a) were more knowledgeable about political affairs to start with(confirming that the so-called "knowledge gap" may be exacerbated during campaigns); (b)scored high ...


Measuring Ambivalence About Government In The 2006 Anes Pilot Study., Michael D. Martinez, Jason Gainous, Stephen C. Craig Jul 2016

Measuring Ambivalence About Government In The 2006 Anes Pilot Study., Michael D. Martinez, Jason Gainous, Stephen C. Craig

Jason Gainous

Although scholars increasingly recognize that people often possess multiple and even conflicting attitudes about a given topic, our understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of such attitudinal ambivalence is limited by a lack of consensus as to how the concept should be operationalized. In this paper, we examine three separate measures (one subjective, two operative) of ambivalence regarding "the federal government in Washington" that were asked in the 2006 ANES Pilot Study. Our findings indicate that while the operative measures are less susceptible to question-order and response-order effects, none of the three indicators fares particularly well in various other ...


Slavery And Freedom In Theory And Practice, David Watkins Apr 2016

Slavery And Freedom In Theory And Practice, David Watkins

David Watkins

Slavery has long stood as a mirror image to the conception of a free person in republican theory. This essay contends that slavery deserves this central status in a theory of freedom, but a more thorough examination of slavery in theory and in practice will reveal additional insights about freedom previously unacknowledged by republicans. Slavery combines imperium (state domination) and dominium (private domination) in a way that both destroys freedom today and diminishes opportunities to achieve freedom tomorrow. Dominium and imperium working together are a greater affront to freedom than either working alone. However, an examination of slavery in practice ...


The Role Of Religiously Affiliated Law Schools In The Renewal Of American Democracy, Bruce Ledewitz Dec 2015

The Role Of Religiously Affiliated Law Schools In The Renewal Of American Democracy, Bruce Ledewitz

Bruce Ledewitz

American Democracy has broken down.  This crisis was on dramatic display in the 2016 Presidential Campaign.  Americans are resentful, distrustful and pessimistic.  We find it easy to blame “the other side” for the deadlock, mendacity and irresponsibility in American public life.  By virtue of their public role, American law schools have an obligation to address the breakdown in order to understand and try to ameliorate it.  That task is currently unfulfilled by law schools individually and collectively, which are distracted by marketing and pedagogy.  Religious law schools, which retain the traits of normative discourse, mission, Truth and tragic limit to ...


‘It’S Morning Again In America’: How The Tuesday Team Revolutionized The Use Of Music In Political Ads, Paul Christiansen Ph.D. Dec 2015

‘It’S Morning Again In America’: How The Tuesday Team Revolutionized The Use Of Music In Political Ads, Paul Christiansen Ph.D.

Paul Christiansen

The year 1984 was a watershed in the use of music in U.S. television campaign advertising. Following on the heels of technological developments in sound reproduction in television sets and MTV’s inception three years earlier, the 1984 presidential campaign saw striking changes in the way ads were conceived and constructed. “Prouder, Stronger, Better”—known popularly as “Morning in America”—used music as never before in a political ad. Whereas previously music was merely accompaniment to an ad’s voiceover and images, here, for the first time, music is the argument itself. Sweeping orchestral gestures, frequent chromatic modulations, and ...


Incumbent Landscapes, Disruptive Uses: Perspectives On Marijuana-Related Land Use Control, Donald J. Kochan Dec 2015

Incumbent Landscapes, Disruptive Uses: Perspectives On Marijuana-Related Land Use Control, Donald J. Kochan

Donald J. Kochan

The story behind the move toward marijuana’s legality is a story of disruptive forces to the incumbent legal and physical landscape. It affects incumbent markets, incumbent places, the incumbent regulatory structure, and the legal system in general which must mediate the battles involving the push for relaxation of illegality and adaptation to accepting new marijuana-related land uses, against efforts toward entrenchment, resilience, and resistance to that disruption.

This Article is entirely agnostic on the issue of whether we should or should not decriminalize, legalize, or otherwise increase legal tolerance for marijuana or any other drugs. Nonetheless, we must grapple ...


"A Tulsi By Any Other Name: Evaluating South Asian American Support For A Hindu Member Of Congress", Shyam Sriram Dec 2015

"A Tulsi By Any Other Name: Evaluating South Asian American Support For A Hindu Member Of Congress", Shyam Sriram

Shyam K. Sriram (ssriram@butler.edu)

No abstract provided.