Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

A Political Theory Of Kulturkampf: Evidence From Imperial Prussia & Republican Turkey, Ioannis N. Grigoriadis, Theocharis Grigoriadis Jan 2018

A Political Theory Of Kulturkampf: Evidence From Imperial Prussia & Republican Turkey, Ioannis N. Grigoriadis, Theocharis Grigoriadis

Theocharis Grigoriadis

No abstract provided.


Religious Origins Of Democracy & Dictatorship, Theocharis Grigoriadis Jan 2016

Religious Origins Of Democracy & Dictatorship, Theocharis Grigoriadis

Theocharis Grigoriadis

Weber considered the Protestant work ethic the foundation of modern capitalism. I extend Weber’s theory by arguing that states with predominantly Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim populations have had a stronger inclination toward underdevelopment and dictatorship than states with Protestant or Jewish majorities. This is the case because their respective religious collectives (monastery, tariqa) promote the hierarchical provision of common goods at the expense of market incentives. I define the aforementioned three religions as collectivist, in contrast to Protestantism and Judaism, which I define as individualist. I provide a historical overview that designates the Jewish kibbutz as the ...


Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin Sep 2011

Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Evgeny A. Klochikhin

In 2001 Goldman Sachs named Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICs) the most rapidly-growing countries in the world capable of surpassing the United States, Japan and Europe as leading economies by 2050.

Nevertheless, for the last decade we have learned relatively little about the mechanisms of success and failure in these countries. All of them have huge territory and population as well as fast-growing economies that sometimes show two-digit rates of GDP growth per year and surprise the world by their increasing budgets and public spending. In the meantime, most of these countries are believed to be desperately struggling against ...


Progress Delayed: State Of Tobacco Control Policymaking In Oklahoma From 2005-2011, Michael Givel, Ami Stearns, Andrew Spivak Jun 2011

Progress Delayed: State Of Tobacco Control Policymaking In Oklahoma From 2005-2011, Michael Givel, Ami Stearns, Andrew Spivak

Michael S. Givel

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • Oklahoma’s 1987 Smoking In Public Places Act required the inclusion of smoking sections in restaurants and pre-empted more stringent local anti-tobacco laws with state regulations. • With the 2001 arrival of an aggressive new Commissioner of Health, Dr. Leslie Beitsch, the tide turned with new legislation (Senate Joint Resolution 21 in 2003) that prohibited smoking inside public places and restaurants were allowed to build separately-ventilated “smoking rooms.” • In 2004, State Question 713 increased the cigarette tax by 80 cents per package. • Dr. Beitsch resigned in 2003 and since that time, efforts toward clean air have stalled. Although restaurants ...


Les Musulmans : Un Cauchemar Ou Une Force Pour L’Europe ?, Hichem Karoui, Arno Tausch Apr 2011

Les Musulmans : Un Cauchemar Ou Une Force Pour L’Europe ?, Hichem Karoui, Arno Tausch

Hichem Karoui

This is a comparative study related to European and Global Islam, based on documented- social- anthropological analysis, and quantitative data from the European Social Survey and the World Values Survey. Can we really say that Islam is not faulty as for the exclusion of European Muslims? Or is it only biased European policies toward Islam? How can we explain the radicalization of some European Muslims?


El Desarrollo De La Ciencia Política En México. Una Mirada A Través De Los Estudios Sobre El Estado De La Disiciplina, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal Jan 2011

El Desarrollo De La Ciencia Política En México. Una Mirada A Través De Los Estudios Sobre El Estado De La Disiciplina, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

Se presenta una revisión de los títulos publicados hasta 2009 que han analizado la situación de la ciencia política en México o algún aspecto de ésta. Destaca el crecimiento y la diversificación de autores e instituciones, de las revistas publicadas y de los enfoques y temas recurrentes. Hasta fines de los años noventa se ven autores recurrentes y momentos de auge en las publicaciones asociados a coyunturas como congresos, procesos de modificación a planes de estudio, etc., Después de estos años hay la emergencia de nuevos autores y enfoques de estudio, y que el desarrollo de estos trabajos en su ...


In Search Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel Jan 2011

In Search Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel

Michael S. Givel

Since the 1950s, despite considerable and long-term tobacco industry and government efforts, attempts to develop a less risky cigarette that reduces harmful ingredients, generally or specifically, have failed. Moreover, even under ideal conditions with adequate scientific testing, the efficacy of purportedly reducing the severe health effects cannot be scientifically verified for up to 20 years after the introduction of a product on the market. A key and central provision in the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation is to reduce the risk or harm of cigarettes. Because creating a less risky cigarette is not currently possible, this ...


Deconstructing Social Constructionist Theory In Tobacco Policy: The Case Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel Jan 2011

Deconstructing Social Constructionist Theory In Tobacco Policy: The Case Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel

Michael S. Givel

Scholars in tobacco control have utilized a social construction approach to test and explain tobacco control policy and advocacy. Some recent tobacco control policy research has contended that Philip Morris's support of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco (including purportedly reducing the harm of cigarettes) is to obtain the social construction goal of a socially responsible company. However, the primary motivation for Philip Morris's support of proposed FDA regulation and harm reduction for cigarettes was to maintain the company's market stability and profitability implemented by U.S. political process and institutions. In ...


Collective Choice, Justin Schwartz Jan 2011

Collective Choice, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

This short nontechnical article reviews the Arrow Impossibility Theorem and its implications for rational democratic decisionmaking. In the 1950s, economist Kenneth J. Arrow proved that no method for producing a unique social choice involving at least three choices and three actors could satisfy four seemingly obvious constraints that are practically constitutive of democratic decisionmaking. Any such method must violate such a constraint and risks leading to disturbingly irrational results such and Condorcet cycling. I explain the theorem in plain, nonmathematical language, and discuss the history, range, and prospects of avoiding what seems like a fundamental theoretical challenge to the possibility ...


Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2011

Innovation Cooperation: Energy Biosciences And Law, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

This Article analyzes the development and dissemination of environmentally sound technologies that can address climate change. Climate change poses catastrophic health and security risks on a global scale. Universities, individual innovators, private firms, civil society, governments, and the United Nations can unite in the common goal to address climate change. This Article recommends means by which legal, scientific, engineering, and a host of other public and private actors can bring environmentally sound innovation into widespread use to achieve sustainable development. In particular, universities can facilitate this collaboration by fostering global innovation and diffusion networks.


Judging Women, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati, Mirya R. Holman, Eric A. Posner Jan 2011

Judging Women, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati, Mirya R. Holman, Eric A. Posner

Mirya R Holman

Judge Sonia Sotomayor’s assertion that female judges might be better than male judges has generated accusations of sexism and potential bias. An equally controversial claim is that male judges are better than female judges because the latter have benefited from affirmative action. These claims are susceptible to empirical analysis. Primarily using a dataset of all the state high court judges in 1998-2000, we estimate three measures of judicial output: opinion production, outside state citations, and co-partisan disagreements. For many of our tests, we fail to find significant gender effects on judicial performance. Where we do find significant gender effects ...


Gender And Regime Politics In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman Jan 2011

Gender And Regime Politics In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman

Mirya R Holman

The scholarship on urban politics often focuses on the political economy provided by regimes, or long-term coalitions between local politicians and private actors like the business community. Notably absent from the regime scholarship is any substantial investigation of the role that urban regimes play in the promotion of the interests of women living in urban areas. A comparison of the priorities of urban regimes with the interests of women in politics suggests substantial conflicts. The implications for women serving in urban governance are explored, as are the consequences for urban politics, women in politics, and democracy.


Evaluating Political And Environmental Behavior In The Face Of A Green Crisis: An Experimental Analysis, Mirya R. Holman, Travis G. Coan Jan 2011

Evaluating Political And Environmental Behavior In The Face Of A Green Crisis: An Experimental Analysis, Mirya R. Holman, Travis G. Coan

Mirya R Holman

Incidents such as the Japanese Nuclear Meltdowns and the British Petroleum oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico remind us that environmental issues can be central to activating political activity and influencing political opinions. While the literature suggesting a relationship between environmental risk and action is extensive, few scholars directly examine the relationship between perceived environmental threat and political behavior, and even fewer adopt research designs appropriate for making causal inferences. Building on a growing literature in political psychology that examines the effects of crises and emotions on political opinions, we examine the relationship between environmental threat and political behavior ...


Gender And Power In American Cities: Investigations Of The Effect Of Mayoral Gender On Deliberation, Representation, And Policymaking In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman Jan 2011

Gender And Power In American Cities: Investigations Of The Effect Of Mayoral Gender On Deliberation, Representation, And Policymaking In U.S. Cities, Mirya R. Holman

Mirya R Holman

The representation of historically marginalized groups in the democratic policy process serves many purposes, including introducing new and differing perspectives to the policymaking process, opening the policymaking process up to disenfranchised groups, and changing the deliberative process of urban policymaking. In this paper, I investigate the effect of gender on policy priorities and policy outcomes of mayors in U.S. cities. Using a combination of interview data and coded city council minutes, I examine the effect of mayoral gender on the discussion of issues of importance to female constituents, the nature of deliberation in city councils, and the engagement of ...


Proyecto De Investigación: La Primera Agencia Espacial Mexicana: La Comisión Nacional Del Espacio Exterior (1962-1977), J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal Dec 2010

Proyecto De Investigación: La Primera Agencia Espacial Mexicana: La Comisión Nacional Del Espacio Exterior (1962-1977), J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

No abstract provided.


Proyecto De Investigación: Los Mexicanos En Las Operaciones De La Segunda Guerra Mundial, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal Dec 2010

Proyecto De Investigación: Los Mexicanos En Las Operaciones De La Segunda Guerra Mundial, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

No abstract provided.


Most Claims Settle: Implications For Alternative Dispute Resolution From A Profile Of Medical Malpractice Claims In Florida, Mirya R. Holman, Neil Vidmar Jan 2010

Most Claims Settle: Implications For Alternative Dispute Resolution From A Profile Of Medical Malpractice Claims In Florida, Mirya R. Holman, Neil Vidmar

Mirya R Holman

The public image of medical malpractice cases is one of a courtroom, with an injured plaintiff, lawyers, and a judge. However, the reality of malpractice claims is very different. Approaching the study of alternative dispute resolution methods for medical malpractice claims with an eye towards identifying those contexts by which the claims are resolved, this article focuses on the institutional and informal processes of resolving disputes. These processes include both statutory procedural requirements and informal settlements, many of which occur prior to the filing of a lawsuit. A profile of medical malpractice claims in Florida from 1990 through 2008, indicates ...


El Staff Presidencial En México. Del Secretario Particular A Las Oficinas De La Presidencia, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal Feb 2007

El Staff Presidencial En México. Del Secretario Particular A Las Oficinas De La Presidencia, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

No abstract provided.


International Trade In The San Bernardino Region: Transportation, Trends, And Employment, Mirya R. Holman, Travis Coan Dec 2006

International Trade In The San Bernardino Region: Transportation, Trends, And Employment, Mirya R. Holman, Travis Coan

Mirya R Holman

International trade presents significant employment, growth, and revenue opportunities for the San Bernardino region, which encompasses San Bernardino County and several cities in Riverside County and is located to the immediate east of Los Angeles County. Proximity to the San Pedro Bay Port complex (which includes the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach) and access to a transportation and logistics network expanding out across the U.S., makes the San Bernardino region a prime location for companies participating in international trade activity. The purpose of this report is to quantify trade activity in the region, while also estimating the ...


Neoliberal And Public Health Impact Of Not Adopting Osha’S Proposed National Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Rule, Michael Givel Jan 2006

Neoliberal And Public Health Impact Of Not Adopting Osha’S Proposed National Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Rule, Michael Givel

Michael S. Givel

From the early 1980s to the present, neo-liberal doctrine has called for governmental policies of privatization, funding cutbacks, and deregulation of public health and other domestic social programs in the belief that the market can best organize and distribute crucial societal services rather than the public sector. Proponents of a neoliberal and deregulatory mixed approach of command and control and self-regulation argue this approach provides the most adequate means to conduct regulation in the legalistic and adversarial United States regulatory process. In April 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued a proposed rule to eliminate tobacco smoking in most ...


Relativism, Reflective Equilibrium, And Justice, Justin Schwartz Jan 1997

Relativism, Reflective Equilibrium, And Justice, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

THIS PAPER IS THE CO-WINNER OF THE FRED BERGER PRIZE IN PHILOSOPHY OF LAW FOR THE 1999 AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE BEST PUBLISHED PAPER IN THE PREVIOUS TWO YEARS.

The conflict between liberal legal theory and critical legal studies (CLS) is often framed as a matter of whether there is a theory of justice that the law should embody which all rational people could or must accept. In a divided society, the CLS critique of this view is overwhelming: there is no such justice that can command universal assent. But the liberal critique of CLS, that it degenerates into ...


Rising Temperatures: Rising Tides, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 1996

Rising Temperatures: Rising Tides, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Transboundary environmental problems do not distinguish between political boundaries. Global warming is expected to cause thermal expansion of water and melt glaciers. Both are predicted to lead to a rise in sea level. We must enlarge our paradigms to encompass a global reality and reliance upon global participation.


Ozgur 1993 Turkiye'nin Ozel Cevre Koruma Bolgeleri Politikasi (Specially Protected Areas Policy Of Turkey) Türkiye'nin Özel Çevre Koruma Bölgeleri Politikası: Foça Örneği, Huseyin Ozgur Prof.Dr. Sep 1993

Ozgur 1993 Turkiye'nin Ozel Cevre Koruma Bolgeleri Politikasi (Specially Protected Areas Policy Of Turkey) Türkiye'nin Özel Çevre Koruma Bölgeleri Politikası: Foça Örneği, Huseyin Ozgur Prof.Dr.

Huseyin Ozgur Prof.Dr.

Specially protected areas (SPAs) in Turkey were initiated in 1990 with the special interest of Prime Minister Turgut Özal and pressure from international agreements signed by Turkish Government. As of 1992, there were 12 SPAs in 5 provinces, most of them were on shorelines of lakes or seas. The decision making of SPAs policy in Turkey fit to muddling through. It helped to protect special and sensitive areas to be protected. All these SPAs had several small settlements and controversial usages of the land and water areas. The policy helped to control dense and uncontrolled settlements however created issues on ...


Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz Jan 1993

Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A number of (present or former) analytical Marxists, such as Jon Elster, have argued that functional explanation has almost no place in the social sciences. (Although the discussion is framed in terms of a debate among analytical Marxists, the point is quite general, and Marxism is used for illustrative purposes.) Functional explanation accounts for what is to be explained by reference to its function; thus, sighted organism have eyes because eyes enable them to see. Elster and other critics of functional explanation argue that this pattern of explanation is inconsistent with "methodological individualism," the idea, as they understand it, that ...