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Journal

2012

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 175

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp

Journal of Public Deliberation

In this special issue of the Journal of Public Deliberation, multiple faces of Participatory Budgeting programs are revealed. The articles demonstrate that there is no standardized set of “best practices” that governments are adopting, but there are a broader set of principles that are adapted by local governments to meet local circumstances. Adopt and adapt appears to be the logic behind many PB programs.


Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler

Journal of Public Deliberation

This essay is a reflection piece. I identify key principles at the core of how PB functions and to discuss the scope of change we might expect to see generated by these institutions. I move beyond the idea that there is a specific model or set of “best practices” that define PB. Rather, it is most fruitful to conceptualize PB as a set of principles that can generate social change. The weaker the adherence to these principles, the less social change generated. The second purpose of the essay is to reflect on the impacts generated by PB. How do these ...


Transformative Deliberations: Participatory Budgeting In The United States, Hollie Russon Gilman Dec 2012

Transformative Deliberations: Participatory Budgeting In The United States, Hollie Russon Gilman

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article develops two conceptual models, based on empirical data, for assessing deliberation and decision making within United States adoptions of Participatory Budgeting (PB). The first model is results oriented whereas the second model is process oriented. The two models evince the tension between inclusiveness and efficiency that emerge as U.S. PB tries accommodating the dual goals of improved short-term service delivery and democratic deepening. Each model satisfies one of these deliberate goals better. Results oriented deliberation is more effective at producing viable projects whereas process oriented is better at ensuring that all participants’ voices are heard. Variation suggests ...


The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank Dec 2012

The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article addresses the long-standing controversy over the World Bank’s role in the promotion of participatory budgeting (PB). Some on the left have celebrated the Bank’s funding and advocacy for PB as signifying the legitimacy or mainstream success of the process, while others see the Bank’s endorsement of PB as a sign that participatory budgeting is becoming watered down and losing its transformative potential, if it ever had such potential. This debate has mostly been an ideological one, and little research has been done to provide evidence to either side. The article is the first to address ...


Participatory Budgeting - The Australian Way, Nivek K. Thompson Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting - The Australian Way, Nivek K. Thompson

Journal of Public Deliberation

For the first time in Australia a local council has used a deliberative democracy approach to obtain citizen advice on key decisions regarding the full range of Council services, service levels and funding. Typically a participatory budget (PB) gives citizens authority in relation to a component of the local government budget. The City of Canada Bay Council, in metropolitan Sydney, went well beyond this. In this paper the Canada Bay Citizens’ Panel (CP), the name given to the PB, is compared to the traditional PB process highlighting three distinctive features of this process: (1) the use of a randomly selected ...


An Unlikely Success: Peru’S Top-Down Participatory Budgeting Experience, Stephanie Mcnulty Dec 2012

An Unlikely Success: Peru’S Top-Down Participatory Budgeting Experience, Stephanie Mcnulty

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article focuses on the unlikely success of Peru’s top-down participatory budget experience. As part of democratization and decentralization efforts in the early 2000s, Peruvians mandated participatory budgeting in all subnational governments. The article suggests that, while success is constrained in many ways, Peruvians can point to two important accomplishments: 1) engaging a significant number of civil society organizations in debating public resources; and 2) an increased focus on “pro-poor” projects. The article concludes that the current challenge in Peru is to improve the process and engage an even more diverse array of participants. Only then will the process ...


(In) Stability, A Key Element To Understand Participatory Budgeting: Discussing Portuguese Cases., Mariana Lopes Alves, Giovanni Allegretti Dec 2012

(In) Stability, A Key Element To Understand Participatory Budgeting: Discussing Portuguese Cases., Mariana Lopes Alves, Giovanni Allegretti

Journal of Public Deliberation

Much has been said about Participatory Budgeting. Still, how to make it a successful and long-lasting experience remains open for debate. Studies have advanced in analyzing many PB “features”, discussing its capacity to promote transparency, empowerment and accountability. However, little was said about its capacity to maintain continuity over time. With the increasing number of experiences all over the world we can observe that not always the numeric growth represent the emergency of strong and stable experiences. Many Participatory Budgeting experiences are implemented but after a short time disappear from the local political agenda. In this paper we analyze the ...


By The People, For The People: Participatory Budgeting From The Bottom Up In North America, Josh Lerner, Donata Secondo Dec 2012

By The People, For The People: Participatory Budgeting From The Bottom Up In North America, Josh Lerner, Donata Secondo

Journal of Public Deliberation

In the pilot year of Participatory Budgeting in New York City, around 8,000 people decided how to spend almost $6 million across four city districts. After years advocating for participatory budgeting (PB) in the US, our organization - The Participatory Budgeting Project (PBP) - served as lead technical assistance partner. In this article, we share some of the lessons learned from our work in New York and other North American cities. Two main concerns have haunted PB in the US (and elsewhere) - that it will only attract the “usual suspects” and that it will merely be a token effort. We argue ...


An Interview With Dr. Theda Skocpol, Sarah Russell Dec 2012

An Interview With Dr. Theda Skocpol, Sarah Russell

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

No abstract provided.


The Structural Constitutional Principle Of Republican Legitimacy, Mark D. Rosen Dec 2012

The Structural Constitutional Principle Of Republican Legitimacy, Mark D. Rosen

William & Mary Law Review

Democracy does not spontaneously occur by citizens gathering to choose laws. Instead, representative democracy takes place within an extensive legal framework that determines such matters as who gets to vote, how campaigns are conducted, and what conditions must be met for representatives to make valid law. Many of the “rules of the road” that operationalize republicanism have been subject to constitutional challenges in recent decades. For example, lawsuits have been brought against partisan gerrymandering—which is partly responsible for the fact that most congressional districts are no longer party competitive, but instead are either safely Republican or safely Democratic—and ...


The Cold War And Heated Divides: Religious Proliferation, Maxwell Bevilacqua Dec 2012

The Cold War And Heated Divides: Religious Proliferation, Maxwell Bevilacqua

The Undergraduate Journal of Social Studies

Whereas religion, in its most general sense, is typically understood to be a secondary, tertiary, or even a non-factor in the realm of international relations, this piece explores the potential primacy of it’s impact in the Cold War. Specifically, America’s fanatical and concerted efforts to rally the world against the fanaticism of communism underscore not only the universal appeal of ”spiritual forces”, but also the historical reframing of American soft power. Further, this piece investigates how we may have come to understood the Cold War as a battle of “good” against “evil” in pursuit of peace and yet ...


Progress And Liberty: Friends And/Or Foes, Jesse A. Ross-Silverman Dec 2012

Progress And Liberty: Friends And/Or Foes, Jesse A. Ross-Silverman

The Undergraduate Journal of Social Studies

In his Road to Serfdom, Friedrich von Hayek seeks to explain why societies ought not impose limitations on individual freedom in order to further collective goals, claiming that “a policy of freedom for the individual is the only truly progressive policy.” This paper will argue that Hayek's emphasis on the state's relationship with the individual is myopic, that he inadequately examines both what social progress actually entails and the efficacy of classical liberalism as a means to achieve it.


The Dual-Faceted Federalism Framework And The Derivative Constitutional Status Of Local Governments, Michael W. Cannon Dec 2012

The Dual-Faceted Federalism Framework And The Derivative Constitutional Status Of Local Governments, Michael W. Cannon

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


How And Why Do Dictatorships Survive? Lessons For The Middle East, Erica Frantz Dec 2012

How And Why Do Dictatorships Survive? Lessons For The Middle East, Erica Frantz

Bridgewater Review

Political events in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have dominated news headlines for the past two years. Since the revolution in Tunisia in December 2010, one dictatorship after the next has appeared on the verge of collapse, as citizens gather en masse to voice their demands for democratic governance. In countries such as Libya and Egypt, though relatively successful democratic elections were held following the collapse of long-standing dictatorships, it is uncertain whether the new political system being installed will be democratic or autocratic. When looking to the future of the region beyond the Arab Spring, one thing ...


Will The Arab Spring Succeed In Bringing Bread, Freedom, And Dignity?, Sandra Popiden Dec 2012

Will The Arab Spring Succeed In Bringing Bread, Freedom, And Dignity?, Sandra Popiden

Bridgewater Review

Economic discontent fueled the political dissatisfaction that erupted in the Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen in 2011. Demonstrators blamed repressive authoritarian governments for slow economic growth, increasing poverty and social inequality, high youth unemployment and rampant corruption. Alongside demands for increased political freedom, greater participation in politics, and an end to repression were calls for economic freedom and improved well-being. The uprisings, which spawned democracy in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, continue to reverberate across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by opening up previously closed public spaces to wider popular participation in national debates over ...


Social Media And Political Changes In Al-Alam Al-Arabi, Jabbar Al-Obaidi Dec 2012

Social Media And Political Changes In Al-Alam Al-Arabi, Jabbar Al-Obaidi

Bridgewater Review

The Arab countries are typically described as lacking democratic traditions, freedom of the press, human rights and civil liberties. The utilization of social media for political purposes became crucial to the widespread expression of pent-up social discontent that precipitated the Arab Spring. Uploaded videos, photos, and Twitter feeds served to outrage people in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, and Syria. This volatile combination of a young population, authoritarian rule, corruption and poverty is prompting youth to spearhead political demonstrations and the demand for regime change.


Why Some Muslim Countries Are Democracies And Some Are Not, Shaheen Mozaffar Dec 2012

Why Some Muslim Countries Are Democracies And Some Are Not, Shaheen Mozaffar

Bridgewater Review

The transitions to democracy in Tunisia and Egypt shortly after the popular uprisings of the Arab Spring, and subsequently in Libya, provide an opportunity to test the empirical validity of the conventional wisdom that democracy cannot be established and sustained in Muslim countries. This article undertakes this task through a systematic comparative analysis of 56 countries classified as Muslim countries by virtue of their membership in the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC). It first maps variations in the incidence of democracy among the 56 Muslim countries based on the widely used Freedom House Rating (FHR, www.freedomhouse.org) of countries ...


Fear Vs. Facts: Examining The Economic Impact Of Undocumented Immigrants In The U.S., David Becerra, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, Jason T. Castillo Dec 2012

Fear Vs. Facts: Examining The Economic Impact Of Undocumented Immigrants In The U.S., David Becerra, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, Jason T. Castillo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Undocumented immigration has become a contentious issue in the U.S. over the past decade. Opponents of undocumented immigration have argued that undocumented immigrants are a social and financial burden to the U.S. which has led to the passage of drastic and costly policies. This paper examined existing state and national data and found that undocumented immigrants do contribute to the economies of federal, state, and local governments through taxes and can stimulate job growth, but the cost of providing law enforcement, health care, and education impacts federal, state, and local governments differently. At the federal level, undocumented immigrants ...


Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion Nov 2012

Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Jlia Editorial Board & Staff Nov 2012

Jlia Editorial Board & Staff

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


To Forgive And Forget: How Reconciliation And Amnesty Legislation In Afghanistan Forgives War Criminals While Forgetting Their Victims, Sara L. Carlson Nov 2012

To Forgive And Forget: How Reconciliation And Amnesty Legislation In Afghanistan Forgives War Criminals While Forgetting Their Victims, Sara L. Carlson

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

More than three decades of war and hundreds of thousands killed or brutalized by the actions of warlords and insurgent commanders vying for power comprise the backdrop of modern Afghanistan. As Afghanistan continues toward a new era, seeking democracy in a country where tribal affiliations and ethnic groups often usurp any sense of patriotism, the reconciliation of armed fighters while providing an adequate grievance process for victims of war crimes must take priority in the process adopted to unify the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. This comment explores the current attempt by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to provide a system ...


International Activity And Domestic Law, Adam I. Muchmore Nov 2012

International Activity And Domestic Law, Adam I. Muchmore

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This essay explores the ways States use their domestic laws to regulate activities that cross national borders. Domestic-law enforcement decisions play an underappreciated role in the development of international regulatory policy, particularly in situations where the enforcing State's power to apply its law extraterritorially is not contested. Collective action problems suggest there will be an undersupply of enforcement decisions that promote global welfare and an oversupply of enforcement decisions that promote national welfare. These collective action problems may be mitigated in part by government networks and other forms of regulatory cooperation.


The Full Story Of United States V. Smith, America’S Most Important Piracy Case, Joel H. Samuels Nov 2012

The Full Story Of United States V. Smith, America’S Most Important Piracy Case, Joel H. Samuels

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This article explores the seminal United States Supreme Court decision of United States v. Smith (1820). Smith, an early piracy case, has influenced developments in both domestic and international law on piracy, universal jurisdiction, and a range of broader themes. This article is the first to explore the context within which the case arose, as well as the circumstances of the case itself. In addition to the details of the case, the story of the men prosecuted for their cruise aboard the vessel known as the Irresistible in the late spring and early summer of 1819 also offers a window ...


Remarks On Counterstrike, Eric Schmitt Nov 2012

Remarks On Counterstrike, Eric Schmitt

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

After 9/11, the United States government was forced to think differently about terrorism and the nation’s ability to respond to attacks. Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker address many of the intricacies faced by officials at the White House, the State Department and the Pentagon in their book Counterstrike. In this essay, transcribed from remarks given on March 21, 2012 at the Clarke Forum for Contemporary Issues at Dickinson College, Schmitt discusses how the U.S. government’s policies toward Al Qaeda and terrorism in general have evolved in the ten-year period following the attacks.


Remarks, The Big Picture: Beyond Hot Spots & Crises In Our Interconnected World, Anne-Marie Slaughter Nov 2012

Remarks, The Big Picture: Beyond Hot Spots & Crises In Our Interconnected World, Anne-Marie Slaughter

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The picture of foreign policy as seen by the United States has changed dramatically over the last few decades. The United States now faces a world far more interconnected and integrated than the foreign policy landscape of the Cold War and its immediate aftermath. Instead of one or two super power centers, the world today is made up of multiple global and regional power centers. This essay, transcribed and adapted from remarks given by Anne-Marie Slaughter on March 15, 2012, at the Dickinson School of Law of the Pennsylvania State University, examines the shift to a multi-polar world of foreign ...


International Order After The Financial Crisis, Harold James Nov 2012

International Order After The Financial Crisis, Harold James

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

How is international order built, and how is it legitimate, in a world in which political and economic foundations are rapidly shifting? What are the consequences of the rise of major new powers for the structure and the functioning of the international system? Great wars or great financial crises have in the past led to disorientation about the moral foundations of society, domestically and internationally. The paper examines parallels with the Great Depression, and in particular the weakening of multilateralism and of small political units, and the strengthening of large powers with hegemonic claims. The paper then turns to an ...


The Growing Dark Side Of Cyberspace ( . . . And What To Do About It), Ronald Deibert Nov 2012

The Growing Dark Side Of Cyberspace ( . . . And What To Do About It), Ronald Deibert

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Cyberspace – the global environment of digital communications – surrounds and embodies us entirely, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We are always on, always connected: emailing, texting, searching, networking, and sharing are all now as commonplace as eating, breathing, and sleeping. But there is a dark side to cyberspace - hidden contests and malicious threats - that is growing like a disease from the inside-out. This disease has many symptoms, and is being reinforced by a multiplicity of disparate but mutually reinforcing causes. Some of these driving forces are unintended byproducts of the new digital universe into which we have thrust ...


The Rise Of Transparency And The Decline Of Secrecy In The Age Of Global And Social Media, P.J. Crowley Nov 2012

The Rise Of Transparency And The Decline Of Secrecy In The Age Of Global And Social Media, P.J. Crowley

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

News reporting of a wide range of sensitive government policies, operations, and internal deliberations has raised understandable concerns that U.S. national security is being compromised. In response, there is an increase in investigations and prosecutions and proposed legislation to plug government leaks. But a broader reality may be at work. In the increasingly interconnected and transparent world of the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, satellite television, WikiLeaks, omniscient cellphones and technology-enhanced revolutions such as the Arab Awakening, governments have lost their ability to control the flow of information. More people have access to more information, with the ability to communicate anything ...


The Balance Of Power, Public Goods, And The Lost Art Of Grand Strategy: American Policy Toward The Persian Gulf And Rising Asia In The 21st Century, Flynt Leverett, Hillary Mann Leverett Nov 2012

The Balance Of Power, Public Goods, And The Lost Art Of Grand Strategy: American Policy Toward The Persian Gulf And Rising Asia In The 21st Century, Flynt Leverett, Hillary Mann Leverett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

An important driver of relative decline in America’s international standing is the failure of its political elites to define reality-based foreign policy goals and to relate the diplomatic, economic, and military means at Washington’s disposal to realizing them—the essence of “grand strategy.” For several decades, American policy has been pulled in opposite directions by two competing models of grand strategy. In one—the leadership model—America maximizes its international standing by adroitly managing regional and global power balances and promoting the processes of economic liberalization known collectively as globalization. In the second model—the transformation model—America ...


Cleaning Up Dirty Politics: A Social Marketing Perspective On New Jersey's Clean Elections Program, Amy H. Handlin Nov 2012

Cleaning Up Dirty Politics: A Social Marketing Perspective On New Jersey's Clean Elections Program, Amy H. Handlin

Atlantic Marketing Journal

This paper reviews the outcome of a state electoral reform initiative in terms of the four-stage behavior change process used by social marketers to gauge the effectiveness of their techniques. While the Clean Elections initiative was moderately successful in its Action and Contemplation stages, the author argues that realization of its full potential could be significantly hastened by utilizing the social marketing tools of segmentation, communications research and pretesting.