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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Politics Of Natural Disaster : How Governments Maintain Legitimacy In The Wake Of Major Disasters, 1990-2010, Zahidul Arefin Choudhury Dec 2013

Politics Of Natural Disaster : How Governments Maintain Legitimacy In The Wake Of Major Disasters, 1990-2010, Zahidul Arefin Choudhury

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is about major natural disasters, and how they contribute to legitimacy crises of governments. Three major factors explain the emergence of a legitimacy crisis in a post-disaster context: the frequency of disaster occurrence, the quality of the government response to disasters, and the type of regime within which the government operates. Employing a large-N statistical analysis of data on major natural disasters and anti-government domestic political activities for the years between 1990 and 2010, I show that higher counts of disasters, as a rule, increase the risks of anti-government demonstrations, revolutions, riots, guerrilla warfare, and intrastate conflict. The ...


A Tangled Hope: America, China, And Human Rights At The End Of The Cold War, 1976-2000, Jared Michael Phillips Dec 2013

A Tangled Hope: America, China, And Human Rights At The End Of The Cold War, 1976-2000, Jared Michael Phillips

Theses and Dissertations

A Tangled Hope: America, China, and Human Rights at the End of the Cold War, 1976-2000, discusses the evolution of both the international and American understanding of human rights. Beginning with a discussion of the philosophical and cultural frameworks concerning "rights" that developed in Europe and the Americas throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, this work moves into the post-World War II climate that shaped Jimmy Carter and his unique understanding of human rights and America's role in the Cold War world. In particular, I argue that the existing narrative concerning Carter's foreign policy is lacking in a ...


Three Essays On The Economic Costs Of Armed Conflict, Anton Parlow Aug 2013

Three Essays On The Economic Costs Of Armed Conflict, Anton Parlow

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the economic cost of armed conflict.

The first essay focuses on the impact of an armed conflict on children's health. The exposure to violence in utero and early in life has adverse impacts on children's age-adjusted height. Using the experience of the Kashmir insurgency, I find that children more affected by the insurgency are 0.9 to 1.4 standard deviations shorter compared with children less affected by the insurgency. The effect is larger for children born during peaks in violence. Also, children affected by the insurgency are more likely to ...


Political Culture, Policy Liberalism, And The Strength Of Journalist's Privilege In The States, Casey James-Michael Carmody Aug 2013

Political Culture, Policy Liberalism, And The Strength Of Journalist's Privilege In The States, Casey James-Michael Carmody

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the relationships between the strength of states' journalist's privileges and state characteristics. The state characteristics included political culture and policy liberalism. The study created an index to identify and score several important components of journalist's privilege in each state. The various components included the legal source of the privilege, when journalists could use the privilege, what types of information the privilege protected, and who could invoke the privilege. The study then used statistical tests to test the relationships between state characteristics and privilege strength. The results indicated that policy liberalism was a significant predictor of ...


Political Economy Of Free Trade Agreements In China, Japan, And South Korea: Sectoral And National Security Politics Of The Fta Wave, Youngmi Choi Aug 2013

Political Economy Of Free Trade Agreements In China, Japan, And South Korea: Sectoral And National Security Politics Of The Fta Wave, Youngmi Choi

Theses and Dissertations

Over the course of three essays, this dissertation examines three important questions regarding free trade agreements (FTAs) in China, Japan, and South Korea (CJK), the three main economies of Northeast Asia: Under what conditions are CJK most likely to establish an FTA? Which factors most significantly influenced U.S. Congressional voting on the Korean-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)? Is the establishment of a multilateral FTA among China, Japan, and South Korea (a CJK FTA) possible and, if so, what is the optimal path towards achieving it? In answering these questions, the cumulative findings indicate that an FTA is ...


How Conventions Bump: An Individual-Level Investigation, Joseph Cera Aug 2013

How Conventions Bump: An Individual-Level Investigation, Joseph Cera

Theses and Dissertations

Presidential nominating conventions sometimes trigger shifts in aggregate levels of candidate support large enough to affect election outcomes. While we are able to predict the probable impact of conventions with some degree of accuracy, we do not yet fully understand how these large-scale campaign events produce the changes we observe. Current scholarship on the impact of conventions on opinion is almost exclusively limited to aggregate-level analysis. In this study, I focus on individual-level analysis to demonstrate how self-exposure to different sources of information during conventions can produce overlapping yet distinct impacts on candidate support that are not always observable at ...


The Effects Of The Bi-Partisan Campaign Reform Act On The Process Of The Campaign Finance In The Presidential Nomination Process, Karen Sebold Aug 2013

The Effects Of The Bi-Partisan Campaign Reform Act On The Process Of The Campaign Finance In The Presidential Nomination Process, Karen Sebold

Theses and Dissertations

The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act increased the individual donor limit to $2,000 per candidate per election and indexed the limit for inflation every two years. The primary research question guiding this study is how has the increase in the donor limit affected donor behavior. Answering this question should allow a determination to be made about how donors have responded to the increased donor limit. Understanding how donors responded to the doubled limit is important because it provides evidence on the intersection of wealth inequality and political influence. To answer the research question this study considers how the increased donor ...


Interest Group Scorecards And Legislative Satisfaction: Using Ratings To Explore The Private Bias In Public Policy, Daniel E. Chand Aug 2013

Interest Group Scorecards And Legislative Satisfaction: Using Ratings To Explore The Private Bias In Public Policy, Daniel E. Chand

Theses and Dissertations

Despite their importance to our system, the study of interest groups has produced few concrete findings compared to other actors such as administrative agencies and political parties in the policymaking process. The absence of generalizable findings is partly explained by the unpopularity of the topic, but is primarily due to a deficiency of easily accessible data and lack of agreement over how to operationalize important concepts. In the following dissertation, I employ interest group "scorecards" (ratings of members of Congress) as an approach to examining interest groups in a generalizable manner. Specifically, I use scorecards to test the pluralist assumptions ...


The American Donor: An Exploration Of The Modern Individual Donor, Amanda Marie Frost Jul 2013

The American Donor: An Exploration Of The Modern Individual Donor, Amanda Marie Frost

Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally political donating behavior has been explained using socio-demographic and socialization-based models. The dramatic increase in the number of donors between 2000 and 2008 and the virtual elimination of structural barriers that limited donating to a select few suggest that this explanation is no longer adequate. What differentiates individuals who donate from those who do not? To answer this question I expand the traditional funnel of causality to develop a theoretical model that integrates biological, psychological, political behavior, and rational choice approaches. Using five samples, three nationally representative and two population-based surveys collected in 1990 and 2008, I investigate each ...


Tell Me Who Your Friends Are: An Endogenous Model Of International Trade Network Formation And Effect On Domestic Political Outcomes, Olga Chyzh Jul 2013

Tell Me Who Your Friends Are: An Endogenous Model Of International Trade Network Formation And Effect On Domestic Political Outcomes, Olga Chyzh

Theses and Dissertations

What is the relationship between networks and unit-level outcomes, such as the international trade network among states and domestic rule of law or repression? Do these effects hold after accounting for actors' strategic selection of network ties? I explore these questions by building a multi-player game, in which players make two simultaneous decisions: (1) whether to form trade links and with who, and (2) whether to increase their trade benefits by improving their type, associated with the level of domestic economic risk factors. The model predicts an endogenous relationship between the number of direct trade partners and the probability of ...


Take Two On Race And Politics: Reexamining The Origins And Consequences Of Electoral Structures In American Cities, Natasha Ernst Altema Mcneely Jul 2013

Take Two On Race And Politics: Reexamining The Origins And Consequences Of Electoral Structures In American Cities, Natasha Ernst Altema Mcneely

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive explanation of how race continues to affect the origins and consequences of electoral structures in American cities. The existing literature presents few answers regarding how race, specifically the racial context, affects attempts to modify the existing electoral structures at the local level. Although scholars have examined how electoral structures affect African American and Latino representation on city councils, few studies have evaluated how electoral structures determine the emergence of African American and Latino candidates in these elections. I address these gaps in the literature by providing a comprehensive examination of ...


Competing Pathways Of The Internet & New Media's Influence On Women Political Candidates, Allison Joy Hamilton Jul 2013

Competing Pathways Of The Internet & New Media's Influence On Women Political Candidates, Allison Joy Hamilton

Theses and Dissertations

How does digital media and online news, especially blogs, influence support for women congressional and presidential candidates? From work on traditional print and television news we know women are framed differently than men, and are more likely to be framed as women (appearance, clothing, mother or wife, marital status, sex, gendered issues). I argue the transition to digital media (blogs and online news) is exacerbating these trends, increasing gender stereotype opinions of women candidates in the mass public, among both men and women. In turn I find gender stereotype opinions combined with use of online media reduces the probability of ...


'Cause You've Got Personality: Understanding The Impact Of Personality On Political Participation, Aaron C. Weinschenk May 2013

'Cause You've Got Personality: Understanding The Impact Of Personality On Political Participation, Aaron C. Weinschenk

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I ask why some people participate more intensely in political life than others, a classic question in political science. Previous answers have focused on socioeconomic status, demographics, socialization, political context, attitudes, and resources. To date, very little political science research has acknowledged that individual personality traits may play a role in determining political behaviors. I argue that there is good reason to believe that individual personality traits influence individual participatory habits in the political realm. In short, what I am suggesting is that some people have natural predispositions toward participating (or not participating) in politics and civic ...


Cold War Battleground In Africa: American Foreign Policy And The Congo Crisis, January 1959 - January 1961, Souleyman Saleh Souleyman May 2013

Cold War Battleground In Africa: American Foreign Policy And The Congo Crisis, January 1959 - January 1961, Souleyman Saleh Souleyman

Theses and Dissertations

In the late 1950s, the Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union turned the Congo as one of the most volatile regions of the Third World. Because of Belgium's failure to effective decolonize the Congo, and because of the secession of two of the richest provinces of the Congo, the country would quickly fell into chaos and a civil war that would force its former colonial power to maintain its economic and military influence in the region. This neocolonial attitude induced Congo's Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba, to request a military assistance from the Soviet ...


Feet In The South, Eyes To The West: Fort Smith Enters The Sunbelt, Adam Morrison Carson May 2013

Feet In The South, Eyes To The West: Fort Smith Enters The Sunbelt, Adam Morrison Carson

Theses and Dissertations

This paper examines the political realignment of Fort Smith, Arkansas and argues that the standard historiographical argument about the process of realignment does not explain what occurred in this city. Much of the historiography of political realignment currently revolves around the belief in a white backlash against the federal government and the national Democratic Party for their support of African American civil rights. Though historians have moved toward a "suburban synthesis" that downplays the backlash thesis, historians still argues that many white southerners moved to the suburbs to avoid integration.

I argue that this process did not occur in the ...


Woes Of The Arkansas Internationalist: J. William Fulbright, The Middle East, And The Death Of American Liberalism, Mitchell Smith May 2013

Woes Of The Arkansas Internationalist: J. William Fulbright, The Middle East, And The Death Of American Liberalism, Mitchell Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Contemporary scholarship has shown that J. William Fulbright's defeat in 1974 was due to a plethora of reasons including his opposition to America's involvement in Vietnam, lackadaisical attitude towards the monolithic threat of Communism, connection to the Washington establishment amidst the Watergate scandal, and old age. Scholars, however, have not paid enough attention to the role Fulbright's Middle Eastern stances played in his final election campaign. I seek to place the voice of Arkansans in the national and international political discussions and show that, despite their relatively unfocused interest in Middle Eastern affairs (and perhaps because of ...


Shifty Characters: Ideological Shifting And Electoral Outcomes In U.S. Senate Elections, Clayton Clouse May 2013

Shifty Characters: Ideological Shifting And Electoral Outcomes In U.S. Senate Elections, Clayton Clouse

Theses and Dissertations

Very little research has investigated how a two-stage electoral process (a primary election to nominate the party candidate, and a general election where the parties' candidates face off) affects candidate behavior. Here I argue that candidates are attracted to the median voter position of the electorate in which they are running. And that differences between the ideological positions of the primary median voter and the general election median voter means that candidates have incentive to shift their ideological positions to align with the relevant median voter. I test for the presence of candidate ideological shifting in U.S. Senate elections ...


Family Policymaking In The Us And Uk From 1960 To 2010: A Comparative Analysis Of Civil Society And Legal Frameworks From A Feminist Perspective, Leah M. Persky May 2013

Family Policymaking In The Us And Uk From 1960 To 2010: A Comparative Analysis Of Civil Society And Legal Frameworks From A Feminist Perspective, Leah M. Persky

Theses and Dissertations

Why do countries have different family policy outcomes? This comparative analysis of maternity, paternity and family leave policies in the United States and United Kingdom traces the historical development of family policies from 1960-2010 in order to understand the trajectory of the gendered welfare state. The dissertation uncovers the impact that the social construction of gender has on family policy outcomes. I look to civil society activity and the legal framework for evidence of gender norms. Analysis draws on field research, interviews, archival sources and data collected from governmental and nongovernmental organizations. I suggest that the social construction of gender ...


Under The Influence Of Arms: The Foreign Policy Causes And Consequences Of Arms Transfers, Spencer L. Willardson May 2013

Under The Influence Of Arms: The Foreign Policy Causes And Consequences Of Arms Transfers, Spencer L. Willardson

Theses and Dissertations

How are arms export choices made within a state? In this dissertation I use a foreign policy analysis framework to examine this question. I focus on examining each of the three primary levels of analysis in international relations as it relates to the main question. I begin with a typical international relations level and examine the characteristics of the two states that dominate the world arms trade: The United States and Russia. I then examine the full network of relations among all states in the international system that are involved in the sale or purchase of arms. To do this ...


The Return On Social Bonds: The Effect Of Social Contracts On International Conflict And Economics, Mark David Nieman Jan 2013

The Return On Social Bonds: The Effect Of Social Contracts On International Conflict And Economics, Mark David Nieman

Theses and Dissertations

Hierarchical or asymmetrical power relationships among states have long been a focus of scholarly attention (e.g., asymmetrical alliances, trade dependencies). While the "power to hurt" is one expression of power, an alternative approach is to gain and exercise authority, or "rightful rule." One of the major impediments to the study of social concepts such as authority or legitimacy, however, is in their informal or intangible nature. This dissertation uses game theoretic and latent variable approaches to capture informal, social authority relationships, or social hierarchies, among international states and explores the effects of these hierarchies on security and economic behavior ...


Protracted Social Conflict: A Reconceptualization And Case Analysis, Melissa M. C. Beaudoin Jan 2013

Protracted Social Conflict: A Reconceptualization And Case Analysis, Melissa M. C. Beaudoin

Theses and Dissertations

What are the necessary components of protracted social conflict (PSC)? The works of Edward Azar have laid the foundation as to how PSC is approached in modern scholarship by identifying four necessary components: effective participation, security, distinctive identity, and social recognition of identity. However, do these components account for all of the descriptive and sustaining aspects of PSC? How are these components measured? Furthermore, testing and verification of these components has been limited. Of specific interest to this dissertation, then, is how the theory of PSC is organized and what its theoretically necessary components truly are. This dissertation reconceputalizes and ...


Race, Class, Gender, And Linked Fate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of African American Political Partisanship, 1996 And 2004, Sherral Yolanda Brown-Guinyard Jan 2013

Race, Class, Gender, And Linked Fate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of African American Political Partisanship, 1996 And 2004, Sherral Yolanda Brown-Guinyard

Theses and Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: To determine the predominance of linked fate and socio-demographic predictors race, class, and gender in the political partisanship of African Americans, and in the political partisanship of comparison racial and ethnic group populations.

METHODS: Data obtained from the 1996 National Black Election Study panel series were used to examine the political attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of 824 adult African Americans. In addition, data collected for the 2004 National Politics Study examined 3,087 American adults from comparison racial and ethnic population groups. These groups included 706 African Americans, 868 White Non-Hispanics, 676 Hispanics, 466 Asians, and 371 Black Caribbeans ...


Economic Agreements And Interstate Conflict: A Policy Substitution Model Of Coercion, Matthew Daniel-Marion Shaffer Jan 2013

Economic Agreements And Interstate Conflict: A Policy Substitution Model Of Coercion, Matthew Daniel-Marion Shaffer

Theses and Dissertations

Economic integration agreements - also called preferential trade agreements or regional trade agreements - have dramatically expanded in scope since World War II. While the proximate goal of economic integration is to increase commercial exchange between member states, there are strong reasons to believe agreements affect security relations as well. In particular, by increasing interdependence between member states through trade and investment, economic agreements increase the opportunity cost of coercion. However, they simultaneously marginalize commercial ties between agreement members and the outside world and exacerbate relative gains concerns through trade diversion. Hence I argue that while conflict between agreement members likely abates ...


The Impact Of Ideology And Attorneys On Precedent Usage: An Analysis Of State High Courts, Benjamin Kassow Jan 2013

The Impact Of Ideology And Attorneys On Precedent Usage: An Analysis Of State High Courts, Benjamin Kassow

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on an important question in the judicial politics literature: what types of influences encourage opinion-writers to cite and use precedents in particular patterns. I address this question by using a series of innovative frameworks from social psychology, specifically systematic information processing frameworks using a theory of motivated reasoning. This theory postulates that the interplay (and shifts) between attitudinal accessibility and fear of invalidation/illegitimacy will encourage judges to cite and/or treat precedents using behavior that is consistent with top-down or bottom-up forms of motivated reasoning. Specifically, when attitudinal accessibility is high and fear of invalidation is ...


Holding International Public-Private Partnership Accountable: An Analysis Of Sensitivity And Vulnerability Dynamics In Ghana's Water Sector Reform And Its Impact On The Target Population, Xi Chen Jan 2013

Holding International Public-Private Partnership Accountable: An Analysis Of Sensitivity And Vulnerability Dynamics In Ghana's Water Sector Reform And Its Impact On The Target Population, Xi Chen

Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the interaction among stakeholders involved in global public-private partnerships, using and developing the theoretical framework provided by the interdependence theory's sensitivity and vulnerability analysis, which is further supplemented by the two-level game model. Citing the case of Ghana's water sector reform, it looks into the dynamics among four categories of stakeholders involved in the partnership, namely the public and private partners, the World Bank (as the broker), and Ghanaian civil societies representing a broad spectrum of the local population. It is charged with the task of investigating the negotiation dynamics of all the listed actors ...


Environmental Footprints Of Violent Conflict, Swapna Pathak Jan 2013

Environmental Footprints Of Violent Conflict, Swapna Pathak

Theses and Dissertations

The effects of militarized conflict pervade countless aspects of society, yet scholars have focussed very little attention on the consequences of conflict. My dissertation assesses the cost of war by examining the relationship between violent conflict and the environment. I argue that the effect of conflict on the environment is an im- portant consequence of war that is often overlooked in favor of other repercussions such as economy and health that are more politically expedient . I study this effect in the light of components of national environmental capacity and hypothesize that conflicts result in short-term and long-term impact on the ...