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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Causes And Consequences Of Police Militarization, Edward Eugene Lawson, Jr. Apr 2019

Causes And Consequences Of Police Militarization, Edward Eugene Lawson, Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

After the 2014 shooting of Michael Brown, and many other incidents of police violence that followed, the militarization of policing and the use of violence by police became the subjects of contentious debate among the public, policymakers, and scholars. Research on these subjects necessary to inform the debate has been lacking. This work examines the causes and effects of police militarization in the United States. Specifically, I argue that militarization is a response to perceived threat from minority racial groups, but the rela- tionship between racial demographics and militarization is curvilinear. Militarized begin to see themselves as soldiers fighting on ...


Judicial Legitimacy And The Dearth Of State Supreme Court Knowledge, Tj Kimel Apr 2019

Judicial Legitimacy And The Dearth Of State Supreme Court Knowledge, Tj Kimel

Theses and Dissertations

As western democracies face challenges unseen since the Cold War ended, understanding the correlates of legitimacy for democratic institutions has grown in importance. While scholars have well-developed theories and empirical evidence of Supreme Court support, we know far less about state supreme court legitimacy. This is despite the fact that these courts hand down 100,000 legal decisions annually. Relying on an original survey conducted with participants in 46 states, I develop and test a theory that respondents rely on the Supreme Court as a cue when deciding whether they should extend legitimacy to state supreme courts they know next ...


Dynamic Environments And Judicial Power, Monica Lineberger Apr 2019

Dynamic Environments And Judicial Power, Monica Lineberger

Theses and Dissertations

The study of judicial independence in comparative environments is an increasingly important endeavor for scholars and policy-makers. Scholars seek to understand how an institution without any degree of enforceable power can leverage its position into an influential member of country politics. Policy-makers assume that a high degree of judicial independence correlates with the rule of law, and consequently, a respect for the outcomes from judicial processes. While in recent history the United States Supreme Court has enjoyed a relatively stable degree of judicial autonomy, courts in other countries are plagued by institutional weakness, attacks from other institutions, or corruption from ...


Evangelicals, Perceived Marginalization And Expressive Mobilization, Christin E. Mcmasters Jan 2018

Evangelicals, Perceived Marginalization And Expressive Mobilization, Christin E. Mcmasters

Theses and Dissertations

Expressive forms of collective and individual mobilization of the evangelical population in the United States have been understudied in both social movement theory and religion and politics literature. While these forms of mobilization are not the only form of mobilization, they are important to understanding what specific issues evangelicals are feeling aggrieved about. Current research such as Wong (2018a; 2018b) and Sides, Tesler, and Vavreck (2018) have found that there is a growing sense of racial anxiety among the ranks of white evangelicals. Hence, it is likely that evangelicals, at least white evangelicals, are feeling a sense of marginalization.

I ...


Deepening Democracy: Inclusion, Deliberation, And Voice In The Grassroots South, Annie L. Boiter-Jolley Jan 2018

Deepening Democracy: Inclusion, Deliberation, And Voice In The Grassroots South, Annie L. Boiter-Jolley

Theses and Dissertations

Through an exploration of grassroots challenges to shallow democracy in South Carolina, this dissertation offers a model of democratization based on inclusion, deliberation, and empowerment as a remedy for democratic insufficiency. I posit that greater emphasis on inclusive democratic deliberation, both inside and outside formal political structures, will help deepen the South’s shallow democracy, and that inclusive deliberation fostered through grassroots organizing that priorities consciousness raising, empowerment, and activism training will positively affect participants, deliberation, and policy outcomes. Taking a grounded theory approach, I consider case studies of three organizations based in Columbia, South Carolina, and their attending theories ...


Partisan Polarization, Social Identity, And Deliberative Democracy In The United States, Ryan Strickler Jan 2017

Partisan Polarization, Social Identity, And Deliberative Democracy In The United States, Ryan Strickler

Theses and Dissertations

As of late, political theory, research, and practice have taken a deliberative turn, extolling the benefits of public discourse guided by norms such as inclusion, respect, and open-mindedness. Can these ideals, though, be approximated in the current era of partisan polarization? If so, what factors contribute to high quality, productive discourse?

These are the questions this project addresses, assessing how partisanship and polarization impact the public’s propensity to adopt the key deliberative attitude of reciprocity (or mutual respect) towards political argumentation. Drawing on social identity theory, the project conceptualizes partisan attachment as containing interrelated, yet separate ideological and social ...


The Economic Foundations Of Authoritarian Rule, Clay Robert Fuller Jan 2017

The Economic Foundations Of Authoritarian Rule, Clay Robert Fuller

Theses and Dissertations

Personal ambition and the distribution of economic goods often determine the character of politics. This dynamic plays out dramatically in authoritarian states where there are few independent arbiters outside of political violence. All dictatorships face two paramount problems in maintaining their tenure. First, to maintain power and distribute goods dictators must devise ways in which to manage a ruling coalition in the absence of explicit power-sharing institutions. Second, authoritarian regimes must devise ways to manage the desires of a population ruled with only implicit consent. This dissertation empirically treats the management style of authoritarian leaders as exogenous to the institutional ...


Being Strategic: Black Legislative Representation In The Republican-Controlled South Carolina House Of Representatives, Willie James Black Jun 2016

Being Strategic: Black Legislative Representation In The Republican-Controlled South Carolina House Of Representatives, Willie James Black

Theses and Dissertations

Under what circumstances, can descriptive representatives produce a representation, which may not be merely descriptive, but still substantive in nature? In other words, do descriptive representatives provide representation that produces salient black constituency policies, yet not be strictly black interest substantive policies? Do these black Democrats still “substantively represent” their black constituents and if so, to what extent? More importantly, what legislative actions do they undertake to represent their black constituents? Moreover, can these black Democratic legislators form strategic alliances successfully to prevent passage of policies detrimental to the interest of their black constituency? Can they form alliances to enhance ...


Nothing Is The Matter With Kansas: White Southern Exceptionalism In American Politics, Paul White Jr. Jun 2016

Nothing Is The Matter With Kansas: White Southern Exceptionalism In American Politics, Paul White Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

There are two research questions at the heart of this dissertation: Does the American South have a distinct political environment in comparison to other regions? If so, how does this distinction influence American politics? I argue that the American South has long been politically distinct from other regions in the United States. This southern ethos, this southern way of agrarian politics, is predicated on three factors- State Centered Federalism, Racial Conservatism, and Religious Conservatism. I consider these factors in a model I call “The Determinants of Southern Exceptionalism” or the D.S.E. Model. It views the American South as ...


The Impact Of Supreme Court Precedent In A Judicial Hierarchy, Ali Masood Jan 2016

The Impact Of Supreme Court Precedent In A Judicial Hierarchy, Ali Masood

Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation explores three core questions. First, how is information regarding the preferences of judicial actors communicated within the American federal judiciary? Second, can U.S. Supreme Court justices meaningfully signal their policy preferences, vis-á-vis their decisions, to judges on the U.S. Courts of Appeals? Finally, what impact do such signals have on the propensity of lower courts judges to follow the precedents of the Supreme Court? The primary objective of this project is to identify the conditions that either increase or decrease the likelihood that judges on the courts of appeals comply with the precedents of the Supreme ...


The Three Dimensionality Model Of State Security And Armed Conflict: Internal And External Dimensions And Lessons From The Middle East, Juri Kim Jan 2016

The Three Dimensionality Model Of State Security And Armed Conflict: Internal And External Dimensions And Lessons From The Middle East, Juri Kim

Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this research is to explore the dynamics in the development of civil conflict. Specifically, I attempt to explain the reasons for the occurrence of full-scale internal armed conflicts and the variation in intensity of those conflicts. Given that a substantial portion of previous studies in the field have taken rebel-centric and aggregate cross-country approaches, this research focuses on the state side and how the internal-external environments within which the ruling regime is situated affect its security decisions on rebellion.

The main argument is that internal armed conflict is a serious security problem of incumbent governments in ...


Leaders In Search Of The Bomb: Institutional Incentives For Nuclear Decisions, Paige Price Cone Jan 2016

Leaders In Search Of The Bomb: Institutional Incentives For Nuclear Decisions, Paige Price Cone

Theses and Dissertations

Nuclear weapons hold a strong allure for many leaders. These weapons are more than tools of national security; rather, they represent international normative symbols of modernity and national identity. This symbolic power presents a strong incentive to proliferate. However, beginning a nuclear weapons program (“proliferating”) is a costly endeavor, one that requires a significant amount of resources and time. A leader who chooses to proliferate must balance the preferences of his or her domestic audience with the significant resources required to proliferate in an international system that opposes nuclear proliferation to new states. In order to understand the paradox of ...


How The European Union’S Criteria For Membership Move Public Opinion, Douglas Page Jan 2016

How The European Union’S Criteria For Membership Move Public Opinion, Douglas Page

Theses and Dissertations

Existing studies suggest that normative commitments to the European Union’s human rights standards remain weak in states applying for EU membership, and that citizens are unresponsive to information the EU provides. This research does not gauge public support for human rights when they are framed as an EU issue. In an original experimental survey of Bosnia and Herzegovina, I examine the effect of EU framing on support for the equal treatment of gay people, equal pay between women and men, and blame assigned to the government for policy outcomes regarding these rights. I find that EU frames affect blame ...


Information Heterogeneity And Economic Voting: A Cross-National Analysis, Chia-Yin Wei Jan 2016

Information Heterogeneity And Economic Voting: A Cross-National Analysis, Chia-Yin Wei

Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation explores the effect of information sources (especially the media) on retrospective and prospective national economic evaluations and their subsequent voter choice in comparative perspective. I examine whether the level of democracy and level of economic development are associated with the effect of information sources on economic voting across nations. The results indicate that consolidated democracies and countries with middle income (GDP per capita: $1,000~$9,999) are most strongly associated with both retrospective and prospective national economic evaluations. However, the level of democracy and economic development are not associated with voter choice. The comparative case study of ...


The Political Economy Of Property Rights In China: Local Officials, Incentive Structure, And Private Enterprises, Ingrid Yingxia Li Jan 2015

The Political Economy Of Property Rights In China: Local Officials, Incentive Structure, And Private Enterprises, Ingrid Yingxia Li

Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation tries to solve two puzzling questions in China’s economic miracle: why some private firms enjoy better property rights protection than others under similar political and economic institutional conditions. Secondly, under the incentive structure designed by the central government, why some local officials in some localities actively protected private property rights than others hence foster local economic development. Existing literature either emphasizes social networks or focuses on fiscal decentralization and personnel control system. But neither these accounts is able to systematically explain the considerable variation of private property rights protection across regions and over time.

I develop a ...


The Liberal Commercial Peace, Regional Considerations: International Relations Of Southeast Asia, Latin America, And The European Union Countries, Chienwu Hsueh Jan 2015

The Liberal Commercial Peace, Regional Considerations: International Relations Of Southeast Asia, Latin America, And The European Union Countries, Chienwu Hsueh

Theses and Dissertations

Most of the large-N empirical studies on the liberal commercial peace theory demonstrate that, in general, trade has a robust pacifying effect in reducing the probability of dyadical militarized interstate disputes. However, why trade’s pacifying effect varies across time and space remains a puzzle that previous research has not yet solved. The liberal commercial peace literature suggests the following questions are in need of answers: Why does trade promote peace mainly in inter-region dyads but not in intra-region dyads? What are the preconditions that make trade’s pacifying effect work or not work? In this research, I argue that ...


The Domestic Adoption Of International Human Rights Law: The Roles Of Regional And National High Courts In Latin America, Rebecca Ann Reid Jan 2015

The Domestic Adoption Of International Human Rights Law: The Roles Of Regional And National High Courts In Latin America, Rebecca Ann Reid

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the question: under what conditions do regional and national high courts matter in the promotion and domestic incorporation of international human rights law? In order to address this question, I argue that domestic high courts can proactively adopt international human rights laws through their interpretation of the law and resulting case decisions. Regional courts promote international law, particularly through their requirement of domestic legal reforms in their judgments. I examine the extent of state compliance with these requirements, where compliance consists of these changes in the domestic legal system thereby institutionalizing international laws and transforming them into ...


The Turkish Foreign Policy Under The Justice And Development Party (Akp): A Paradigm Shift?, Ali Demirdas Jan 2015

The Turkish Foreign Policy Under The Justice And Development Party (Akp): A Paradigm Shift?, Ali Demirdas

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the Turkish foreign policy has become even more important in recent years given the developments surrounding the country. Furthermore, the last decade witnessed a radical change in the Turkish foreign policy making under the Justice and Development Party (AKP).

This dissertation aims to explain the nature of this change based on the application of the Policy Paradigms Theory, comparing the components of the AKP foreign policy understanding with those of the Kemalist, the status que paradigm that defined the foreign policy making in Turkey well into the early 21st century. The application of the theory provides evidence, based on ...


Essays On Battle Clusters In Internal Armed Conflicts And Insurgencies: Concept, Causes And Consequences, Chifeng Liu Dec 2014

Essays On Battle Clusters In Internal Armed Conflicts And Insurgencies: Concept, Causes And Consequences, Chifeng Liu

Theses and Dissertations

With the purpose to re-conceptualize the intensity of internal armed conflicts, I argue that the characteristics such as location, scale and duration of “major battlefields,” i.e. the spatio-temporal clusters of combat events are important in the evaluation of impact of modern civil wars and insurgencies. I start with elaborating and constructing a new concept of conflict magnitude with battle clusters using up-to-date geo-referenced data and spatial statistic methods. In the second article, I first explain the location and duration of major battlefields. The findings indicate that an area with multiple non-state armed groups (NSAGs) is more likely to become ...


Do Americans’ Perceptions Of The Prevalence Of Prejudice Impact Their Racial Policy Preferences? Investigating Meta-Stereotypes As A Potential Causal Mechanism, Alexandra Reckendorf Aug 2014

Do Americans’ Perceptions Of The Prevalence Of Prejudice Impact Their Racial Policy Preferences? Investigating Meta-Stereotypes As A Potential Causal Mechanism, Alexandra Reckendorf

Theses and Dissertations

Racial discrimination, though more subtle than in the past, is still an enduring presence in 21st century America. Whether looking at education, health care, the workforce, housing/lending practices, or the criminal justice system, studies routinely confirm that racial prejudice and discrimination persist despite claims of a “post-racial” America. Yet, despite the perseverance of racial prejudice and discrimination, policies correcting racial injustice remain contentious, either failing to receive the requisite support to pass reforms or receiving backlash from the public. This project explores meta-stereotypes in the Black and white communities, and highlights meta-stereotypes’ potential impact when determining why some individuals ...


Towards Common European Energy Policy, Mariam Dekanozishvili Aug 2014

Towards Common European Energy Policy, Mariam Dekanozishvili

Theses and Dissertations

A common European energy policy is emerging. That poses a puzzling instance of European integration and policy‐making. Despite the origins of the European integration project rooted in the coal and nuclear sectors, integration in the energy domain largely failed until the 1990s. The last two decades, however, witnessed an increasing number of energy policy initiatives at the European Union (EU) level and culminated in the inclusion of the energy article in the 2009 Lisbon Treaty.

The dissertation aims to explain under what conditions, and how, European integration succeeds in the domain of energy policy, based on a novel fuzzy ...


How Much Do Groups Still Matter To Politics? An Examination Of Group Influences On Public Opinion, Lauren E. Smith Aug 2014

How Much Do Groups Still Matter To Politics? An Examination Of Group Influences On Public Opinion, Lauren E. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Public opinion plays an important role in democracy. A system of government designed specifically to be by the people, for the people and of the people must by necessity listen to the opinions of the people. Accordingly, an important research agenda is determining conditions under which public opinion is listened to and translated into government responsiveness. Most of the public opinion literature answering this question focuses specifically on individual opinion. I argue that this is problematic because politics is ultimately carried out in terms of the collective. Further, I argue that collective opinion is often voiced through groups in society ...


The Effects Of Political Control And Institutional Structure On State Ethics Commissions, William Jonathan Rauh Jan 2014

The Effects Of Political Control And Institutional Structure On State Ethics Commissions, William Jonathan Rauh

Theses and Dissertations

State ethics commissions serve as both oversight and enforcement bodies. However they are also quasi-judicial institutions whose members are appointed by elected officials. At best this presents problems of oversight, and at worst it implies that commissions can be actively influenced by the very individuals they are tasked with overseeing. Previous studies of ethics commissions have examined the covariates of creating ethics commissions, or have examined the internal functioning of these commissions in the pursuit of their envisioned goals. A largely ignored area of study with regard to these commissions is the degree to which elected officials can exercise influence ...


Taking Interests And International Conflict More Seriously, Chong-Han Wu Jan 2014

Taking Interests And International Conflict More Seriously, Chong-Han Wu

Theses and Dissertations

Democratic peace theory provides theoretical and empirical arguments of the importance about democratic institutions in shaping and promoting the global order. Yet critics propose that it is the similarity of policy interests that prevent conflict between the joint democracies instead of the effects of regime types (Gartzke 1998; Oneal and Russet 1999c; Russett, Oneal and Davis 1998; Gartzke 2000). Scholars mainly question whether interests directly cause peace or interests are indirectly caused by liberal variables, such as trade or international organizations. This debate has no obvious conclusion, but it encourages students of conflict studies to pay more attention to the ...


Microfinance And Poverty Reduction: How Risks Associated With Government Policies Affect Whether Microfinance Alleviates Poverty In Latin-America, Brian Warby Jan 2014

Microfinance And Poverty Reduction: How Risks Associated With Government Policies Affect Whether Microfinance Alleviates Poverty In Latin-America, Brian Warby

Theses and Dissertations

The expansion of financial services to the poor, now widely referred to as microfinance, quickly saw tremendous success in Bangladesh beginning in the 1970's and was exported to a number of other countries. For a time microfinance was spoken of as a panacea, in part because it is more detached from governments than other forms of poverty alleviation. I develop a model based on expected utility theory that looks at how risks associated with government policies and characteristics affect whether this mechanism eases poverty. Using a large N analysis of Latin-American states from 1990-2010 and a case study analysis ...


Protracted Social Conflict: A Reconceptualization And Case Analysis, Melissa M. C. Beaudoin Jan 2013

Protracted Social Conflict: A Reconceptualization And Case Analysis, Melissa M. C. Beaudoin

Theses and Dissertations

What are the necessary components of protracted social conflict (PSC)? The works of Edward Azar have laid the foundation as to how PSC is approached in modern scholarship by identifying four necessary components: effective participation, security, distinctive identity, and social recognition of identity. However, do these components account for all of the descriptive and sustaining aspects of PSC? How are these components measured? Furthermore, testing and verification of these components has been limited. Of specific interest to this dissertation, then, is how the theory of PSC is organized and what its theoretically necessary components truly are. This dissertation reconceputalizes and ...


Race, Class, Gender, And Linked Fate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of African American Political Partisanship, 1996 And 2004, Sherral Yolanda Brown-Guinyard Jan 2013

Race, Class, Gender, And Linked Fate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of African American Political Partisanship, 1996 And 2004, Sherral Yolanda Brown-Guinyard

Theses and Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: To determine the predominance of linked fate and socio-demographic predictors race, class, and gender in the political partisanship of African Americans, and in the political partisanship of comparison racial and ethnic group populations.

METHODS: Data obtained from the 1996 National Black Election Study panel series were used to examine the political attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of 824 adult African Americans. In addition, data collected for the 2004 National Politics Study examined 3,087 American adults from comparison racial and ethnic population groups. These groups included 706 African Americans, 868 White Non-Hispanics, 676 Hispanics, 466 Asians, and 371 Black Caribbeans ...


Economic Agreements And Interstate Conflict: A Policy Substitution Model Of Coercion, Matthew Daniel-Marion Shaffer Jan 2013

Economic Agreements And Interstate Conflict: A Policy Substitution Model Of Coercion, Matthew Daniel-Marion Shaffer

Theses and Dissertations

Economic integration agreements - also called preferential trade agreements or regional trade agreements - have dramatically expanded in scope since World War II. While the proximate goal of economic integration is to increase commercial exchange between member states, there are strong reasons to believe agreements affect security relations as well. In particular, by increasing interdependence between member states through trade and investment, economic agreements increase the opportunity cost of coercion. However, they simultaneously marginalize commercial ties between agreement members and the outside world and exacerbate relative gains concerns through trade diversion. Hence I argue that while conflict between agreement members likely abates ...


The Impact Of Ideology And Attorneys On Precedent Usage: An Analysis Of State High Courts, Benjamin Kassow Jan 2013

The Impact Of Ideology And Attorneys On Precedent Usage: An Analysis Of State High Courts, Benjamin Kassow

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on an important question in the judicial politics literature: what types of influences encourage opinion-writers to cite and use precedents in particular patterns. I address this question by using a series of innovative frameworks from social psychology, specifically systematic information processing frameworks using a theory of motivated reasoning. This theory postulates that the interplay (and shifts) between attitudinal accessibility and fear of invalidation/illegitimacy will encourage judges to cite and/or treat precedents using behavior that is consistent with top-down or bottom-up forms of motivated reasoning. Specifically, when attitudinal accessibility is high and fear of invalidation is ...


Holding International Public-Private Partnership Accountable: An Analysis Of Sensitivity And Vulnerability Dynamics In Ghana's Water Sector Reform And Its Impact On The Target Population, Xi Chen Jan 2013

Holding International Public-Private Partnership Accountable: An Analysis Of Sensitivity And Vulnerability Dynamics In Ghana's Water Sector Reform And Its Impact On The Target Population, Xi Chen

Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the interaction among stakeholders involved in global public-private partnerships, using and developing the theoretical framework provided by the interdependence theory's sensitivity and vulnerability analysis, which is further supplemented by the two-level game model. Citing the case of Ghana's water sector reform, it looks into the dynamics among four categories of stakeholders involved in the partnership, namely the public and private partners, the World Bank (as the broker), and Ghanaian civil societies representing a broad spectrum of the local population. It is charged with the task of investigating the negotiation dynamics of all the listed actors ...