Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 57

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Finnish Line: Verbal Tactics Of Small States In Immature Anarchy, Christopher Main May 2019

The Finnish Line: Verbal Tactics Of Small States In Immature Anarchy, Christopher Main

Theses and Dissertations

The rules-based international system which has steadily emerged over the last century is in decline. Realists fail to realize that the fundamental anarchy of the international system can mature into a rules-based system which constrains geopolitics. Liberals fail to realize that it can regress in the opposite direction, towards the self-help system described by the realists. Small states stand to lose the most in this regression and are least equipped to fight it by material means. Finland is an ideal example of such a small state, and its foreign policy is articulated by President Sauli Niinistö. This paper will analyze ...


Divided Agencies: Internal Strife In The Fight Against Castro, Stephanie R. Schmidt Dec 2018

Divided Agencies: Internal Strife In The Fight Against Castro, Stephanie R. Schmidt

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines how the Central Intelligence Agency and the U.S. State Department differed in their approaches to dealing with the Castro regime from 1959 through the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Using declassified documents from the CIA and State Department, I argue that the approaches of the CIA in dealing with the Castro regime were more aggressive than the approaches of the U.S. State Department. Many of the primary sources used in this work were accessed in the CIA electronic reading room and on the office of the historian website. The office of the historian ...


“There Goes That Relationship”: Journalistic Aggression And Political Equivocation In Joint Press Conferences, Nichole Anne Russell Aug 2018

“There Goes That Relationship”: Journalistic Aggression And Political Equivocation In Joint Press Conferences, Nichole Anne Russell

Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluates the relationship between the press and political leaders during joint press conferences. Aggressive journalistic questioning in press conferences has increased over time (Clayman & Heritage, 2002; Clayman, Elliott, Heritage, & McDonald, 2004; Clayman, Elliott, Heritage, & McDonald, 2007), but recent scholarships shows that journalists present less aggressive questions when a foreign head of state is present (Banning & Billingsley, 2007). Joint press conferences hosted in the United States by President Donald Trump between Prime Minister Theresa May of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel, and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, respectively, were analyzed via conversation analysis ...


Future Melting Away: Water Stress As A Threat To Human Security In Bangladesh And The Role Of International Community, Farzana Afroz Chowdhury Jul 2018

Future Melting Away: Water Stress As A Threat To Human Security In Bangladesh And The Role Of International Community, Farzana Afroz Chowdhury

Theses and Dissertations

Bangladesh is considered as one of the frontline states in the global climate change; its policy agendas attempt to respond to the perceived security threats emanating from such changes. Water stress is one of the key problems the country is facing. Yet, links between glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalaya, Bangladesh’s climate, growing water stress, and its implications for human security have seldom been studied. Drawing on the concepts of climate change, human security and water stress, the thesis examines the causes of Bangladesh’s freshwater crisis and its contribution to the human insecurity. Here in this study, the ...


Future Melting Away: Water Stress As A Threat To Human Security In Bangladesh And The Role Of International Community, Farzana Afroz Chowdhury Jul 2018

Future Melting Away: Water Stress As A Threat To Human Security In Bangladesh And The Role Of International Community, Farzana Afroz Chowdhury

Theses and Dissertations

Bangladesh is considered as one of the frontline states in the global climate change; its policy agendas attempt to respond to the perceived security threats emanating from such changes. Water stress is one of the key problems the country is facing. Yet, links between glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalaya, Bangladesh’s climate, growing water stress, and its implications for human security have seldom been studied. Drawing on the concepts of climate change, human security and water stress, the thesis examines the causes of Bangladesh’s freshwater crisis and its contribution to the human insecurity. Here in this study, the ...


From The Tartan Tories To Scotland’S Social Democrats: The Remaking Of The Scottish National Party, Natalie Jayne Mauchline May 2018

From The Tartan Tories To Scotland’S Social Democrats: The Remaking Of The Scottish National Party, Natalie Jayne Mauchline

Theses and Dissertations

The United Kingdom is entering a period of great uncertainty, with the future of Scotland’s membership still in question. Following personal work experience in the Scottish Parliament, it became apparent to me that the Scottish National Party currently finds itself in a unique position. By utilizing constituency maps, this study will trace the evolution of the Scottish National Party (SNP) and explore how its changing nature allowed it to grow from a minute populist group seeking independence to a social justice party hoping to appeal to a more diverse group of voters by increasing credibility at the local level ...


A Study Of Collaboration Between The Defense Logistics Agency And The U.S. Agency For International Development In The Conduct Of Humanitarian Operations, Jessica M. Thomas Mar 2018

A Study Of Collaboration Between The Defense Logistics Agency And The U.S. Agency For International Development In The Conduct Of Humanitarian Operations, Jessica M. Thomas

Theses and Dissertations

Many organizations are finding it advantageous and often necessary to form collaborative alliances with strategic partners in order to solve collective problems and jointly work towards mutually desirable ends. This research examines a single case study of inter-agency coordination between the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and their involvement in humanitarian relief efforts. Pursuit of advancement through two collaboration models provided the framework of the research and contributed to the analysis of data. Resulting outcomes offer incentives for both organizations to develop stronger social networks assisting in a deeper understanding of the ...


The Africa First Initiative And Local Procurement, Rachel E. Herald Mar 2018

The Africa First Initiative And Local Procurement, Rachel E. Herald

Theses and Dissertations

The strategic importance of Africa to the United States has grown significantly. Camp Lemonnier, a naval-led military installation, is located in Djibouti and is vital to the strategic success of the United States in Africa. In order to strengthen U.S.-Djibouti ties and solidify an enduring presence in Africa, the Department of Defense implemented the Djibouti First Initiative. Under the initiative, local vendors received preference for resources and products needed at Camp Lemonnier. In 2017, the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act replaced the Djibouti First Initiative with Africa First. The new policy extends the authority to limit ...


The Cold War In The Eastern Mediterranean: An Interpretive Global History, James M. Brown Dec 2017

The Cold War In The Eastern Mediterranean: An Interpretive Global History, James M. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis offers the first global history of the Cold War in the eastern Mediterranean. It examines the international linkages that bound Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus with superpowers, non-aligned states, and transnational movements during the second half of the twentieth century, and it considers the effects of such linkages upon the eastern Mediterranean’s domestic arenas. Throughout, it demonstrates that two forces – synthesis of outside influence alongside consolidation of internal identities – dictated the region’s experiences during the Cold War. And though the international environment furnished the conditions within which the region’s societies pursued the project of nation-building, indigenous ...


Power, Responsibility, And Sexually Violent War Tactics: A Theoretical And Empirical Analysis Of Rape During Civil War, Jennifer L. Clemens Aug 2017

Power, Responsibility, And Sexually Violent War Tactics: A Theoretical And Empirical Analysis Of Rape During Civil War, Jennifer L. Clemens

Theses and Dissertations

Broadly, this dissertation asks, why rape? In address, this research posits a leadership preference-based strategic theory of rape during war; marking the first large-N, quantitative exploration of leadership preferences on the use of rape in civil war. Using an original dataset, preferences of armed group leaders are evaluated against the level of rape across all civil conflicts between 1980 - 2009. The results highlight three critical findings. First, evidence suggests that rape is distinctive from other human rights violations and is permitted or controlled differently than are more common forms of extra-combat violence (i.e., torture, extra-judicial killings, disappearances). This work ...


Asian Anxieties And Alliances: Balancing The Rise Of China, Adam David Crank Oct 2016

Asian Anxieties And Alliances: Balancing The Rise Of China, Adam David Crank

Theses and Dissertations

China’s rise has been met with both hope and apprehension. However, with its recent actions in the South and East China Seas, surrounding nations are becoming increasingly concerned that China may have expansionist or even hegemonic ambitions. China has taken what many of these countries consider to be aggressive actions in the past several years and months. One of the main questions now is how the surrounding nations, as well as the United States, will react to China’s actions. As of now diplomatic means of failed to resolve the crisis in the South and East China Seas.

This ...


A Vision Of Peace Through U.S. Leadership: President Jimmy Carter's Moral Foreign Policy Vision And The Panama Canal Treaties, Holly L. Welsh De Paula Jun 2016

A Vision Of Peace Through U.S. Leadership: President Jimmy Carter's Moral Foreign Policy Vision And The Panama Canal Treaties, Holly L. Welsh De Paula

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines President Jimmy Carter’s foreign policy and his administration’s campaign to promote the ratification of the Panama Canal treaties from 1977 to 1978. I argue that President Carter’s administration developed a coherent foreign policy vision that was inspired by moral convictions and aimed to promote international peace. The fundamental aspects of this vision are reflected in the Panama Canal treaties. During the turbulent Senate debate over the treaties, opposition arguments attacking President Carter’s moral policy encouraged the Carter administration to favor more pragmatic arguments in support of the treaties, which ultimately obscured President Carter ...


Revisiting Us Economic Statecraft: Three Essays On Nuclear Reversal, Anti-American Political Violence, And Social Policies In Target States, Wondeuk Cho May 2016

Revisiting Us Economic Statecraft: Three Essays On Nuclear Reversal, Anti-American Political Violence, And Social Policies In Target States, Wondeuk Cho

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates whether and how U.S. economic statecraft influence policies and politics of targeted countries. Chapter 1 raises research questions about the role of U.S. economic statecraft in policies of targeted countries. The chapter summarizes my argument and empirical findings. Chapter 2 analyzes whether and to what extent U.S. economic statecraft extracts nuclear reversal commitments from target countries that have ever explored and pursued a nuclear weapons development. Using updated data on nuclear proliferation between 1970 and 2004, this study finds that U.S. economic sanctions with international organizations' involvement and U.S. foreign aid are ...


A Think Tank On The Left: The Institute For Policy Studies And Cold War America, 1963-1989, Brian Scott Mueller Aug 2015

A Think Tank On The Left: The Institute For Policy Studies And Cold War America, 1963-1989, Brian Scott Mueller

Theses and Dissertations

For American intellectuals, the Cold War involved a battle far more important than the ones taking place in faraway lands. While the nearly half-decade conflict never degenerated into a nuclear war, the combat between intellectuals resembled a nuclear explosion at times. Participants in the war of words believed that intellectual debates would determine the direction of American foreign policy, and possibly whether the United States survived the Cold War. Led by groups such as the Americans for Democratic Action, liberal intellectuals held the dominant position during the first decades of the Cold War as they became hardened Cold Warriors intent ...


The Temporary Permanence Of Syrian Refugees In Jordan, Charles Edward Davidson Jul 2015

The Temporary Permanence Of Syrian Refugees In Jordan, Charles Edward Davidson

Theses and Dissertations

In the wake of the 2011 Syrian Civil War, hundreds of thousands of refugees fled to neighboring Jordan. The government of Jordan received them and along with NGOs from around the world, provided for some of their most basic needs including food, education and healthcare. In the summer of 2014 I travelled to Amman and Mafraq, Jordan in order to learn more about the work being done among the Syrians by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). What I found was a variety of short-term aid projects designed by the NGOs to meet the various needs of the refugees. I learned of no ...


Expect The Unexpected: An Autoethnography Of Typhoon "Yolanda" (Haiyan), Ashley Conrad Jun 2015

Expect The Unexpected: An Autoethnography Of Typhoon "Yolanda" (Haiyan), Ashley Conrad

Theses and Dissertations

On November 8, 2014 one of the most powerful typhoons in recorded history made landfall in the Philippines leaving the country in a declared state of national calamity (NPR 2013; BBC 2013). This research seeks to place in sociological context my experience as a Peace Corps Volunteer serving in the Philippines during the landfall of typhoon "Yolanda". I utilized autoethnographic methods with a focus in personal narrative to analyze my experience.


Another Kind Of Pink Tide? An Investigation Into The Rapid Expansion Of Lgbt Rights In Latin America, Christopher Joseph Petkus Jul 2014

Another Kind Of Pink Tide? An Investigation Into The Rapid Expansion Of Lgbt Rights In Latin America, Christopher Joseph Petkus

Theses and Dissertations

Within the past two decades or so, the Latin American region has seen a remarkable rise in the enactment of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) rights-affirming policies. This trend is particularly notable given the dearth of such progress in the rest of the developing world. As such, this study aims to contribute to the small but rapidly growing body of literature on the subject. In particular, I aim to determine which factors are most explanatory of when and why countries will enact LGBT rights policies and why a disparity exists across the region. The first systematic study of its ...


The Visible Effects Of An Invisible Constitution: The Contested State Of Transdniestria's Search For Recognition Through International Negotiations, Nadejda Mazur Jul 2014

The Visible Effects Of An Invisible Constitution: The Contested State Of Transdniestria's Search For Recognition Through International Negotiations, Nadejda Mazur

Theses and Dissertations

Most scholars agree that modern states share several defining characteristics: a population, territory, government, and the capacity to enter into international relations. More recently, this list has expanded to include the criteria of democracy, the rule of law, and the protection of human rights. These traditional and contemporary criteria for statehood are likewise essential for settling the status of de facto states, entities that seek international recognition yet are rebuffed by the world community.

By examining the criteria for international recognition from the perspective of constitutional law, this dissertation reveals the existing but overlooked relationship between the recognition process and ...


Integrated Relationships: The Impact Of European Integration On The Special Relationship, 1969-1973, Benjamin Jared Pack May 2014

Integrated Relationships: The Impact Of European Integration On The Special Relationship, 1969-1973, Benjamin Jared Pack

Theses and Dissertations

The special relationship has long been a topic of interest to historians of US foreign relations. The general consensus has been that the years 1969-1973 were a low point for Anglo-American relations, and have therefore been dismissed as largely insignificant. Rejecting this interpretation, this thesis contends that while certainly one of the lowest moments in the history of the special relationship, the Heath-Nixon relationship reveals much about the nature of the special relationship and America's relations with its allies more broadly. Focusing on the question of European integration (and the corresponding British entry into the European Community in 1973 ...


A Tangled Hope: America, China, And Human Rights At The End Of The Cold War, 1976-2000, Jared Michael Phillips Dec 2013

A Tangled Hope: America, China, And Human Rights At The End Of The Cold War, 1976-2000, Jared Michael Phillips

Theses and Dissertations

A Tangled Hope: America, China, and Human Rights at the End of the Cold War, 1976-2000, discusses the evolution of both the international and American understanding of human rights. Beginning with a discussion of the philosophical and cultural frameworks concerning "rights" that developed in Europe and the Americas throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, this work moves into the post-World War II climate that shaped Jimmy Carter and his unique understanding of human rights and America's role in the Cold War world. In particular, I argue that the existing narrative concerning Carter's foreign policy is lacking in a ...


Three Essays On The Economic Costs Of Armed Conflict, Anton Parlow Aug 2013

Three Essays On The Economic Costs Of Armed Conflict, Anton Parlow

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the economic cost of armed conflict.

The first essay focuses on the impact of an armed conflict on children's health. The exposure to violence in utero and early in life has adverse impacts on children's age-adjusted height. Using the experience of the Kashmir insurgency, I find that children more affected by the insurgency are 0.9 to 1.4 standard deviations shorter compared with children less affected by the insurgency. The effect is larger for children born during peaks in violence. Also, children affected by the insurgency are more likely to ...


Political Economy Of Free Trade Agreements In China, Japan, And South Korea: Sectoral And National Security Politics Of The Fta Wave, Youngmi Choi Aug 2013

Political Economy Of Free Trade Agreements In China, Japan, And South Korea: Sectoral And National Security Politics Of The Fta Wave, Youngmi Choi

Theses and Dissertations

Over the course of three essays, this dissertation examines three important questions regarding free trade agreements (FTAs) in China, Japan, and South Korea (CJK), the three main economies of Northeast Asia: Under what conditions are CJK most likely to establish an FTA? Which factors most significantly influenced U.S. Congressional voting on the Korean-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)? Is the establishment of a multilateral FTA among China, Japan, and South Korea (a CJK FTA) possible and, if so, what is the optimal path towards achieving it? In answering these questions, the cumulative findings indicate that an FTA is ...


Cold War Battleground In Africa: American Foreign Policy And The Congo Crisis, January 1959 - January 1961, Souleyman Saleh Souleyman May 2013

Cold War Battleground In Africa: American Foreign Policy And The Congo Crisis, January 1959 - January 1961, Souleyman Saleh Souleyman

Theses and Dissertations

In the late 1950s, the Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union turned the Congo as one of the most volatile regions of the Third World. Because of Belgium's failure to effective decolonize the Congo, and because of the secession of two of the richest provinces of the Congo, the country would quickly fell into chaos and a civil war that would force its former colonial power to maintain its economic and military influence in the region. This neocolonial attitude induced Congo's Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba, to request a military assistance from the Soviet ...


Woes Of The Arkansas Internationalist: J. William Fulbright, The Middle East, And The Death Of American Liberalism, Mitchell Smith May 2013

Woes Of The Arkansas Internationalist: J. William Fulbright, The Middle East, And The Death Of American Liberalism, Mitchell Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Contemporary scholarship has shown that J. William Fulbright's defeat in 1974 was due to a plethora of reasons including his opposition to America's involvement in Vietnam, lackadaisical attitude towards the monolithic threat of Communism, connection to the Washington establishment amidst the Watergate scandal, and old age. Scholars, however, have not paid enough attention to the role Fulbright's Middle Eastern stances played in his final election campaign. I seek to place the voice of Arkansans in the national and international political discussions and show that, despite their relatively unfocused interest in Middle Eastern affairs (and perhaps because of ...


Purchasing Power: The Effects Of Foreign Investment On Political Development In Kazakhstan, William Curtis Sullivan Aug 2012

Purchasing Power: The Effects Of Foreign Investment On Political Development In Kazakhstan, William Curtis Sullivan

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the effects of foreign direct investment on Kazakhstan's political growth. Kazakhstan's transition to a market economy was plagued by corruption, and heavy investment in the oil industry generated resource dependency concerns. The regime later began to exert control over the oil industry through renegotiated contracts and legislative changes. This enriched and empowered the regime. As a result, Kazakhstani presidentm Nursultan Nazarbayev, was able to consolidate control over the state by employing "soft authoritarian" tactics and by rewarding political supporters. The regime was able to employ these tactics because of the wealth that foreign investment created ...


Objectivity And Balance In Conflict Reporting: Imperatives For The Media Amid The Tensions In The South China Sea Dispute, Huong Thu Thi Vu Aug 2012

Objectivity And Balance In Conflict Reporting: Imperatives For The Media Amid The Tensions In The South China Sea Dispute, Huong Thu Thi Vu

Theses and Dissertations

This cross-cultural study explores practice of journalists during June and July of 2011, the most recent peak period of the multi-national conflict in South China Sea. It examines factors that influence journalists and news media outlets when reporting a conflict in which their country is a party, using the theory of news framing process and war journalism.


Competing For Relevance: Iran's Internal Struggle To Define The Arab Spring, Laila Taraghi May 2012

Competing For Relevance: Iran's Internal Struggle To Define The Arab Spring, Laila Taraghi

Theses and Dissertations

In the wake of the recent revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, political figures in Iran have offered competing claims of inspiration for the protests now spreading through the broader MENA region. This paper aims to compare the discourse of regime leaders to that of opposition activists, each seeking to frame current events in the region as a reflection of their particular aspirations and competing worldviews. Benford and Snow's literature on challenges facing movement adherents embroiled in contested framing processes will be employed as a means of highlighting some of the various obstacles to political transformation in the case of ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Free Trade Between The U.S. And The Eu : A Case Study Of The U.S./Chile Fta And The Eu/Chile Fta, Misti Dawn Sharp May 2012

A Comparative Analysis Of Free Trade Between The U.S. And The Eu : A Case Study Of The U.S./Chile Fta And The Eu/Chile Fta, Misti Dawn Sharp

Theses and Dissertations

Unlike many studies that assess the impacts of free trade agreements (FTAs), this thesis is a study of the negotiated outcomes in FTAs between the United States (U.S.) and Chile, and the European Union (EU) and Chile. Existing negotiation literature pertains to multilateral trade talks, dispute settlements or bilateral one good trade agreements. Studies regarding the negotiation process and other factors influencing outcomes in comprehensive FTAs are rare. In order to address this gap in the literature, this thesis is an analysis of how and why the FTA between Chile and the U.S. differs from the FTA between ...


Evaluating The International Criminal Court: A Comparative Analysis Of Darfur, Sudan, And The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Mirisa Hasfaria Dec 2011

Evaluating The International Criminal Court: A Comparative Analysis Of Darfur, Sudan, And The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Mirisa Hasfaria

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the effectiveness of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in holding individuals accountable for grave breaches of crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. I argue that if we measure effectiveness in terms of the ability to set agenda and to publicize, the ICC accomplishes much. My thesis to shows that, as a key part of the international agenda on human rights compliance, the ICC derives its effectiveness from the various naming and shaming campaigns by national governments and non-governmental actors (NGOs).

I draw on the cases of Darfur, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of ...


Reflection Moderation In The U.S. Senate On Economics, Social, And Foreign Policy, Brian E. Russell Aug 1998

Reflection Moderation In The U.S. Senate On Economics, Social, And Foreign Policy, Brian E. Russell

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates reelection moderation in the U.S. Senate on economic, social, and foreign policy between 1983 and 1994. I test 3 hypotheses based on the assumption that senators moderate their voting records when seeking reelection to appeal to the median voter. My hypotheses are: (1) Both groups of senators will moderate on economic policy, but a larger percentage of Democrats will moderate than Republicans (2) A majority of Democratic senators will moderate on social policy, but only a small percentage of Republicans will moderate. (3) Less than a majority of both groups of senators will moderate on foreign ...