Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Master's Theses

Western Michigan University

Articles 1 - 30 of 125

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Inequality, Patronage, Ethnic Politics And Decentralization In Kenya And Botswana: An Analysis Of Factors That Increase The Likelihood Of Ethnic Conflict, Rei Gordon Aug 2019

Inequality, Patronage, Ethnic Politics And Decentralization In Kenya And Botswana: An Analysis Of Factors That Increase The Likelihood Of Ethnic Conflict, Rei Gordon

Master's Theses

Scholars have recommended numerous institutional arrangements for mitigating ethnic conflict in divided societies. Electoral systems are often considered to have an impact on ethnic conflict, and scholars have recommended both proportional representation systems and majoritarian systems for their respective effects on mitigating ethnic tensions. However, in a cross-national analysis of 18 sub-Saharan democracies, I find no impact of electoral systems on ethnic conflict. Countries employing proportional representation systems and majoritarian systems are compared according to three measures of ethnic conflict, yet neither electoral system correlates with higher or lower levels of conflict. In the interest of identifying factors that do ...


Political Utopias Of The Renaissance: An Analysis Of Thomas More’S Utopia, Johann Valentinus Andreae’S Christianopolis, And James Harrington’S The Commonwealth Of Oceana, Brittany Page Brake Apr 2016

Political Utopias Of The Renaissance: An Analysis Of Thomas More’S Utopia, Johann Valentinus Andreae’S Christianopolis, And James Harrington’S The Commonwealth Of Oceana, Brittany Page Brake

Master's Theses

Utopian works have entertained generations throughout history. Much like more recent genres including science-fiction novels or movies, utopian works stimulate the mind and ultimately cause its readers to question whether an author’s design of such a place, or society, is possible in the real world. While some may perceive the purpose of utopias to be completely fantasy-driven, there is a great deal of scholarly literature that dedicates itself to proving otherwise. More specifically, many scholars argue that utopias are serious and practical, ultimately aimed at re-shaping the entire political structure of a society.

This thesis aims to understand the ...


Language Policy In Turkey And Its Effect On The Kurdish Language, Sevda Arslan Aug 2015

Language Policy In Turkey And Its Effect On The Kurdish Language, Sevda Arslan

Master's Theses

For many decades the Kurdish language was ignored and banned from public use and Turkish became the lingua franca for all citizens to speak. This way, the Turkish state sought to create a nation-state based on one language and attempted to eliminate the use of other languages, particularly Kurdish, through severe regulations and prohibitions.

Firstly, this thesis traces the language planning policies in the 20th century which resulted in the invisibilization and denial of Kurdish through an attempted linguicide. Through decade long oppressions which resulted in mass killings, arrests, re-location of Kurds, monopolization of education in Turkish and eventually the ...


State Of Memory: National History And Exclusive Identity In Contemporary Denmark, John Terrell Foor May 2015

State Of Memory: National History And Exclusive Identity In Contemporary Denmark, John Terrell Foor

Master's Theses

Increased rates of immigration to Western European states over the past three decades have yielded a wealth of literature in the social sciences, much of which has focused on cases of individuals from so-called ―non-Western‖ countries of origin. Immigrants, refugees, and asylum-seekers from the Middle East, Africa, and Asia often bring with them cultural and religious traditions that are unfamiliar to the citizens of states which receive them. Tensions between majority populations and growing minorities in Western Europe have resulted in skepticism—and, increasingly, hostility—toward immigrants, particularly those regarded as ―"Islamic."

But is this type of tension inevitable? Are ...


Why Abstain? Trends In And Origins Of Indifference And Estrangement In The United States, 1968-2012, Christopher R. Keeler May 2015

Why Abstain? Trends In And Origins Of Indifference And Estrangement In The United States, 1968-2012, Christopher R. Keeler

Master's Theses

Abstention rates have remained quite high in the United States for the last several decades. This thesis explores the trends in and origins of the nonvoters from 1968 to 2012 using a statistical model of abstention in presidential elections. The objective is to determine why nonvoters have chosen to abstain and who are they?

Using data from the American National Elections Studies, four groups of nonvoters are identified – voters who are both alienated and indifferent, voters who are neither alienated nor indifference, voters who are only alienated, and voters who are only indifferent. The two groups exclusively analyzed are the ...


Failure Of Democratic Consolidation: The Three Year Interlude Of Military Rule (1958-1962) In Burma, Zaw Thein Aug 2014

Failure Of Democratic Consolidation: The Three Year Interlude Of Military Rule (1958-1962) In Burma, Zaw Thein

Master's Theses

Many scholars believe that the period between 1948 when Burma won Independence and 1962 when the military took over the country from the elected civilian government as the parliamentary democracy era. During this era, there was a three-year interlude where the military leaders ruled the country as the Caretaker Government- a euphemism for the three-year military interlude. My argument is that this interlude happened due to the growing strength of the military as an institution and the decline of political parties in Burma. The strength of the military institution was due to the civil war that broke out just after ...


Creating Sustainable Economic And Ecological Growth In The Congo Basin: Bushmeat Consumption And Biodiversity Protection, Richelle Lynn Warnock Apr 2013

Creating Sustainable Economic And Ecological Growth In The Congo Basin: Bushmeat Consumption And Biodiversity Protection, Richelle Lynn Warnock

Master's Theses

This research examines the economic and ecological sustainability of bushmeat hunting in the Congo Basin, specifically the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of Congo. Although bushmeat hunting has provided short term gain for individuals in the region, long term solutions focusing on micro and macro level interventions may provide community wide benefits, while protecting Congo Basin wildlife. Research shows that a focus on the development of key economic sectors such as agriculture, mineral resources and hydroelectricity, as well as the growth of infrastructure may provide viable economic gain for the Congo Basin. Ecotourism and improvements to forest management ...


Developing A Game-Theoritic Analysis Of Terrorism, Matthew A. Love Apr 2013

Developing A Game-Theoritic Analysis Of Terrorism, Matthew A. Love

Master's Theses

My research demonstrates the applicability of game theory to analyzing terrorism through consideration of multiple examples. These examples provide a foundation upon which further research involving the application of game theory to terrorism can be explored.

My research contributes to a growing body of literature, especially since the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, in which it has been argued that terrorists are rational agents and, because of that, game theory can be usefully applied to an analysis of terrorism. My research further supports this conclusion.


Deference Of Defiance? Principal-Agent Theory And The Us Courts Of Appeals During The Rehnquist And Burger Courts, Nathaniel R. Vanden Brook Apr 2008

Deference Of Defiance? Principal-Agent Theory And The Us Courts Of Appeals During The Rehnquist And Burger Courts, Nathaniel R. Vanden Brook

Master's Theses

By examining cases from the Courts of Appeals in several issue areas between 1969 and 2002 (e.g., the Burger and Rehnquist Courts), this research examines both the fear of reversal from the high court (judicial impact theory) and whether this results in differences in response from these courts to Supreme Court precedent (principal-agent theory). The study finds that when the Supreme Court grants review to a decreasing number of lower court cases and thus gives a longer leash to these courts that instead of deferring to their principal, the appellate courts often defy the high court and seek to ...


Hiv/Aids Policies In The United States And The United Kingdom: Emerging At-Risk Groups And The Struggle For Limited Resources, Jennifer Lorren Willis Dec 2007

Hiv/Aids Policies In The United States And The United Kingdom: Emerging At-Risk Groups And The Struggle For Limited Resources, Jennifer Lorren Willis

Master's Theses

This thesis compares the HIV/ AIDS policies in the United States of America and the United Kingdom since the emergence of the virus in 1981. Despite a privatized health care system in the U.S. and the universal system in the UK, which lie on opposite ends of the policy care spectrum, similar populations have recently emerged as those most in need of health care services, preventative programs, and financial assistance. This thesis employs several quantitative and qualitative data to highlight the emergence of women and minorities in both nations as those that are most in need of resources. Data ...


The Independent Press In The Emerging Democracies: The Case Studies Of Poland, Ukraine And Russia, Lyudmyla Pustelnyk Apr 2007

The Independent Press In The Emerging Democracies: The Case Studies Of Poland, Ukraine And Russia, Lyudmyla Pustelnyk

Master's Theses

My research will entail the election coverage in the mainstream papers of Poland, Ukraine and Russia, these are the Gazeta Wyborcha, the Den, and the Izvestiya respectively. The diverse levels of media-freedom in the observed countries explain the difference between all three outlets in featuring political issues. The purpose of this Master's Thesis is to contrast and compare the state of the free press in Poland, Ukraine and Russia as well as the factors that determine the media-independence. In particular, these are the media-legislation, civil society and the economic performance.

This study revises the empirical claims made by Price ...


The People's Republic Of China's Corrupt Culture: Is The Prc's Arbitration Systems Exempt?, Mary Elizabeth Crawford Apr 2005

The People's Republic Of China's Corrupt Culture: Is The Prc's Arbitration Systems Exempt?, Mary Elizabeth Crawford

Master's Theses

The People's Republic of China (PRC) has struggled with corruption for decades. The PRC' s admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO) has brought some hope to curtail corruption, but this alone has not eliminated corruption within the PRC. One reason for the prevalence of corruption within the PRC is the intertwined relationship between the Chinese Communist Party and judicial and government officials. The purpose of this Masters thesis is to evaluate whether the relationship between Chinese governmental bodies and the PRC's arbitration systems makes Chinese arbitration systems susceptible to corruption.

This study examines the PRC's arbitration ...


The Contribution Of Education And The Role Of The Media In Creating And Promoting Justice, Lavinia A. Baxter Aug 2003

The Contribution Of Education And The Role Of The Media In Creating And Promoting Justice, Lavinia A. Baxter

Master's Theses

The issue of creating and promoting justice is becoming more and more significant in our era of democratization. Thus it is important to understand how countries as diverse as South Africa, Germany and the United States have managed to address the issue of providing justice to groups that suffered under previous regimes in these countries. I examine victims’ groups as diverse as former Japanese American internees, ex-German slave and forced laborers, and black South Africans. My hypothesis in this study is that two factors, the media and public education through quasi-legal commissions are critical for redress campaigns to be visible ...


The Taiwan Issue In Sino-Japanese Relations In The 1990'S, Melanie Kintz Aug 2002

The Taiwan Issue In Sino-Japanese Relations In The 1990'S, Melanie Kintz

Master's Theses

The Taiwan issue did not figure prominently in the relationship between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Japan between the normalization of Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations in the 1970s and the early 1990s; other issues dominated and shaped the relationship. However, in the 1990s the Taiwan question re-emerged as a source of disturbance in the relationship between the PRC and Japan. Especially during the so-called missile crisis of 1995-1996, the Taiwan issue was pushed into the world media's center of attention and significantly affected the dynamics of the Sino-Japanese relationship. What accounts for this observable change in the ...


First And Second Generations Of Urban Black Mayors: Atlanta, Detroit, And St. Louis, Harold Eugene Core Jr. Dec 2001

First And Second Generations Of Urban Black Mayors: Atlanta, Detroit, And St. Louis, Harold Eugene Core Jr.

Master's Theses

This research attempts to create an understanding of generationality as it applies to successive black mayors in the urban setting. At a glance, the first black mayors of Atlanta, Detroit, and St. Louis received criticism for being anti-white and using racial conflict to accomplish their goals of diversifying the decision-making elites in each city. The black mayors immediately following in each city were criticized in the black community as being too accommodating to white interests as they attempted to find racial balance in the decision-making elite.

This research uses literature to establish the nature of early black mayors as believing ...


Expenditure Control And Traditional Budgets: Comparing Two Implementations, Angela Lauria Gunnink Dec 2001

Expenditure Control And Traditional Budgets: Comparing Two Implementations, Angela Lauria Gunnink

Master's Theses

My research will entail examining the budget processes of Kalamazoo, Michigan, and Fairfield, California. The difference between these two cities and their budgets is that Fairfield implemented an expenditure control budget, and Kalamazoo operates with a traditional budget. The purpose of this Master’s Thesis is to compare and contrast Fairfield's performance with their expenditure control budget to Kalamazoo, a city of approximately the same size in terms of population, square mileage, and local governance as Fairfield, but operates with a traditional city budget.

This study revisits the empirical claims made by Osborne and Gaebler (1992), which illustrates Fairfield ...


Gender Equality And Agricultural Development: Women And Agricultural Extension Programs In Malawi, Amanda Bigelow Apr 2001

Gender Equality And Agricultural Development: Women And Agricultural Extension Programs In Malawi, Amanda Bigelow

Master's Theses

Since it gained independence, Malawi has struggled to produce enough food to feed its quickly growing population. As the Ministry of Agriculture has tried to implement new policies regarding agricultural development, it has restructured key organizations within the government.

Initially, women were largely ignored in governmental and international aid agencies' development plans. However, after several unsuccessful projects, most implemented by the World Bank, a new project created by USAID revealed statistics that attributed part of the failures to gender-related biases in planning. Once these biases were identified, the government of Malawi requested assistance in reaching women farmers for purposes of ...


Comparative Evaluation Of Small To Mid-Size U.S. Bus Transit Systems, 1997, Greg P. Vlietstra Apr 2000

Comparative Evaluation Of Small To Mid-Size U.S. Bus Transit Systems, 1997, Greg P. Vlietstra

Master's Theses

This study provides an assessment of the overall comparative performance of 178 small to mid-size bus transit operations located in the United States, during 1997. It uses commonly applied measures of resources and results. This is the only known study that compares and ranks small to mid-size bus systems by combining both resources and results.

The selected data comes from the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database Profiles: Agencies in Urbanized Are·as with a Population of Less than 200,000. The nationally reported data is collected and published by the FTA under Section 15 of the Transit ...


The Future Of Banking: A Political Analysis For 1999 And Beyond, John Maffey Dec 1999

The Future Of Banking: A Political Analysis For 1999 And Beyond, John Maffey

Master's Theses

This study focuses on the cycle of politics and banking by analyzing the relationship amongst the three primary actors within the domestic financial subsystem; regulatory agencies, the banking industry, and members of Congress. The cycle consists of three stages; loosening or deregulatory behavior, tightening or reregulatory activity, and re-loosening, which is a return to deregulation. Legislation does not distinguish the stages, rather it ratifies existing behavior. Prior to legislative action, regulators grant bankers similar authority in an effort to enhance profitability or fend off competitors. Regulatory agencies provide mostly objective, non-partisan advice to Congress and supervision of the industry, acting ...


The Study Of Political And Economic Reforms In Ghana, John L. Adedeji Jun 1999

The Study Of Political And Economic Reforms In Ghana, John L. Adedeji

Master's Theses

The dual transition program of Ghanaian political economy was put in place as a result of Ghana's huge external debts, its balance of payments problems, and the critical shortage of foreign exchange resulting from years of financial management by seven regimes (civilian and military) that ruled the West African nation since its independence in 1957. Taken together, these problems tilted the balance of power in favor of external actors, including the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

The study focuses on the dual strategy of macroeconomic measures and structural adjustments. The study then evaluates: (a) the policy components of ...


The Origins Of Greek Cypriot National Identity, Elena Koumna Dec 1998

The Origins Of Greek Cypriot National Identity, Elena Koumna

Master's Theses

Discussions of Greek Cypriot identity have conventionally been dominated by primordial arguments, contributing to the creation and maintenance of stereotypes and mythologies about the ethnic conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. In order to examine the validity of the primordial thesis, modernist and constructionist approaches on nationalism and identity are considered (Gellner 1983; Hobsbawm 1990; Anderson 1991; Hroch 1985; Smith 1991). Nationalism and identity formation are analyzed in the context of"stages," where the social composition of each stage and the degree of modernization are examined. The findings of the thesis largely support the hypotheses that pinpoint the articulation of ...


Thomas Jefferson And The United States Constitution: A Comparative Study Of Jefferson As Maturing Political Thinker To Jefferson The Political Operative, Thomas A. Parker Dec 1998

Thomas Jefferson And The United States Constitution: A Comparative Study Of Jefferson As Maturing Political Thinker To Jefferson The Political Operative, Thomas A. Parker

Master's Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to use historical, qualitative, and comparative methods of research in studying the life of Thomas Jefferson, his views on governance, and his impact on the highest law of our land, the United States Constitution. Thomas Jefferson's constitutional thoughts and theories evolved first as a maturing political thinker and later as a political operative on the state, national and international stage. His beliefs were shaped by many factors including Jefferson's own principles and character, his scholarship via learned men and life experiences, American and overseas events in and out of his control, titles ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Harm That Russian And Chinese Organized Crime Groups Can Inflict On American Society, Bryce L. Hoekenga Dec 1997

A Comparative Analysis Of The Harm That Russian And Chinese Organized Crime Groups Can Inflict On American Society, Bryce L. Hoekenga

Master's Theses

Determining which of the two main ethnic organized crime groups emerging in America poses a greater threat to society was the focus of this study. One group is from or is closely linked to Russia and the other group is from or is closely linked to China.

The aspects of each group that were discussed include their origins, their spread to America, how they structured, their membership sizes, the types of crimes they commit, and how law enforcement has responded to each group. The aspects that were compared between the two groups include their levels of sophistication, the seriousness and ...


Community In Liberal Thought, Richard C. Brill Aug 1997

Community In Liberal Thought, Richard C. Brill

Master's Theses

The aim of this thesis is to research the role of community in liberal thought. The problem that has initiated this research is the erosion of traditional communal bonds in contemporary liberal society. This problem has been the focus of the debate between communitarians and liberals for the past two decades. The research problem will be to discover workable definitions of community and liberalism which have been plagued with multiple interpretations throughout the debate.

The method of this thesis will be to first frame in the environment of the original problem. The second chapter will address the precedents set by ...


The Impact Of Political Instability On Economic Growth: Evidence From Developing Countries, Uisoon Kwon Jun 1997

The Impact Of Political Instability On Economic Growth: Evidence From Developing Countries, Uisoon Kwon

Master's Theses

This thesis examined the impact of political instability on economic growth. This thesis included forty three developing countries and employed multiple regression analysis. Three hypotheses were tested. First, cross-nationally, political instability may serve to decrease the availability of factors of production. Second, cross-nationally, political instability will decrease the quantity of labor. Third, cross-nationally, political instability may negatively influence the timing and organization of the production process.

The statistical results of multiple regression were not significant at .05 level using t-test. Therefore the null hypotheses were not rejected. Based on statistical results, possible reasons for the statistical insignificance were considered in ...


Aboriginal Autonomy: The Future Of Indigenous Development In Western Australia, Matthew B. Eugster Apr 1997

Aboriginal Autonomy: The Future Of Indigenous Development In Western Australia, Matthew B. Eugster

Master's Theses

The prospects for development within the Aboriginal society of Western Australia were the focus of this study. The Primary intent of the study was to examine the causes behind an apparent lack of development within Aboriginal society. Next, the study examined possible remedies for the situation.

The study determined that the lack of development in Aboriginal society can be attributed primarily to social dysfunction ( or social dislocation). Furthermore, social dislocation could be attributed to cultural deprivation or the inability to practice one's culture. It was proposed and established that cultural and political autonomy would provide an environment more suitable ...


Japan's Oda (Official Development Assistance): Foreign Aid Policy And Practice In Asian Countries, Akiko Nakaya Dec 1996

Japan's Oda (Official Development Assistance): Foreign Aid Policy And Practice In Asian Countries, Akiko Nakaya

Master's Theses

Two objectives of this study are (1) to examine the relationship between the Japanese people's perspectives and government policies toward Japan's foreign aid, and (2) to examine Japan's aid administration in Asia. Two significant aid philosophies of Japan are humanitarianism and interdependence among nations. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Japan to examine public attitudes toward Japan's foreign aid. The Japanese people support Japan's ODA. They recognize their duty to the world through its foreign aid. Both the public and the government put a high priority on humanitarianism; however, not many Japanese are aware of ...


Solitas: An Evaluation Of A Non-Government Organization's Approach To Gender Needs In Latin America, Tara J. Vette Dec 1996

Solitas: An Evaluation Of A Non-Government Organization's Approach To Gender Needs In Latin America, Tara J. Vette

Master's Theses

This study is an evaluation of a project conducted by a non-government organization working with single women in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The focus of the evaluation was how Solitas, a non-government organization project approached gender-specific needs of the women. More specifically this study will ascertain if the skills learned by the women were sustainable, the amount of participation in decision making for the project and if the skills taught by the organization led to the participants organizing independently.

This evaluation was conducted by examining the organization's own reports concerning the progress of the project and the organization's gender policy ...


Conflict And Balance Among Asean Countries: Geopolitics And Security Issues, Akihito Yonekura Dec 1996

Conflict And Balance Among Asean Countries: Geopolitics And Security Issues, Akihito Yonekura

Master's Theses

This paper examines the changing geopolitical scene in Southeast Asia and regional security issues managed by the states belonging to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). A crucial research question is "How has the end of the Cold War influenced the security perspectives of these nations?"

Historical research of the political cultures and complex ethnicities of the ASEAN countries shows causes of awkward relationships (originating in the colonial era) between them. For managing regional security issues, these countries have established several regional organizations, although most of them have failed. The withdrawal of the British and U.S. forces from ...


Gender Consciousness, Patriarchy And The Indian Women’S Movement, Aparna Thomas Dec 1996

Gender Consciousness, Patriarchy And The Indian Women’S Movement, Aparna Thomas

Master's Theses

The women's movement has a long history in India. There exists an active women's movement in India today. Furthermore, there also exists a strong legal environment to protect women's rights. However, the social status of the majority of Indian women remains unchanged. In other words, the women's movement has failed to change the social status of Indian women.

This thesis examines the Indian women's movement historically from the nineteenth century to the present to explain why it has not had a greater impact on changing the social status of Indian women.

I argue that the ...