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Racialized Perceptions: A Comparative Study Of Symbolic Racism In Europe, Brandi D. Pikes
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Symbolic racism is a concept that has been heavily publicized and studied in the American context. However, less is known about what factors may influence levels of symbolic racism outside of America, and more specifically, in Europe. Nevertheless, it expected that symbolic racism is present in European countries whose residents have a relationship with the African Diaspora and/or Great Migration of North Africans and Caribbean. Furthermore, symbolic racism is present where the state has laws implemented that prohibit actions of overt racism, old-fashion racism, and discrimination. Thus, this thesis examines symbolic racism in eight European countries: France, Italy, United ...