Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Dissertations and Theses

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 222

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Arctic Security: The Race For The Arctic Through The Prism Of International Relations Theory, Michael Gregory Morgan Trujillo Mar 2019

Arctic Security: The Race For The Arctic Through The Prism Of International Relations Theory, Michael Gregory Morgan Trujillo

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of the thesis is to examine future international relations in the Arctic as a theoretical exercise based on realism and liberalism. As the ice cap shrinks, and the region's environment changes, developing costs will decrease allowing for resource-extraction while new transit routes emerge. The opportunities to develop resources and ship via the Arctic are economic and strategically valuable, altering the geopolitics of the region. This thesis seeks to explore how resource development and new transit routes will affect regional politics through the lens of two theories. The two theoretical approaches will examine states and actors' interests and ...


Grappling With The African E-Waste Pandemic: Contributing Factors And Future Deterrence, Brittany Nicole Wideman Mar 2019

Grappling With The African E-Waste Pandemic: Contributing Factors And Future Deterrence, Brittany Nicole Wideman

Dissertations and Theses

Electronic waste is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide. Illegal methods of transport, indifference in legislative response, and public ignorance of what to do in response, all influence e-waste proliferation. This dirty industry of e-waste is hazardous to human health and well-being as well as the environment. Since this dirty industry has ballooned over the last few decades, two major questions arise: What are the primary and secondary factors that influence the proliferation of e-waste dumping in developing countries; and what structures are emerging to combat the e-waste problem in developing countries in Africa? The following pages will investigate the ...


Politics In The Social Media Era: The Relationship Between Social Media Use And Political Participation During The 2016 United States Presidential Election, Kevin Everett Curry Jul 2018

Politics In The Social Media Era: The Relationship Between Social Media Use And Political Participation During The 2016 United States Presidential Election, Kevin Everett Curry

Dissertations and Theses

The growth of social media use raises significant questions related to political information and its effect on political knowledge and participation. One issue is whether social media delivers news and political information in a similar manner as traditional news media sources, like newspapers, TV, and radio, by contributing to political knowledge, which is linked to voter turnout. This dissertation examines the relationship between an individual's social media use, their use of traditional news media sources, and whether they turn out to vote. It utilizes American National Election Survey data from the 2016 U.S. Presidential election to complete three ...


Understanding Asean - An Alternative Approach To International Relations Theory In Asia, Ryan Grimstad Driver Jun 2018

Understanding Asean - An Alternative Approach To International Relations Theory In Asia, Ryan Grimstad Driver

Dissertations and Theses

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was originally formed in 1967 by five members as a means to promote peaceful relations and prevent the spread of communist influence within their sovereign states. Since then the regional organization has doubled in size and now includes communist states amongst its membership as it seeks to establish itself as a strong economic and political hub for the greater region as two large military powers, China and the United States, vie for hegemonic influence. The American presence in the region must be governed by a firm understanding of ASEAN's unique nature and ...


Building Climate Empire: Power, Authority, And Knowledge Within Pacific Islands Climate Change Diplomacy And Governance Networks, Ashlie Denée Denton Jun 2018

Building Climate Empire: Power, Authority, And Knowledge Within Pacific Islands Climate Change Diplomacy And Governance Networks, Ashlie Denée Denton

Dissertations and Theses

Transnational networks are growing in prevalence and importance as states, nongovernmental, and intergovernmental organizations seek to meet climate change goals; yet, the organizations in these networks struggle between the global, technical and local, contextual sources of power, authority, and knowledge used to influence decision-making and governance. This dissertation analyzes these contestations in Pacific Islands climate change diplomacy and governance efforts by asking: i) What do power relations look like among the Pacific Islands' networked organizations? ii) To what authority do organizations appeal to access sources of power? iii) What sources of knowledge are produced and reproduced by these organizations? and ...


Exploring District Judges' Decision Making In The Context Of Admitting Expert Testimony, Andrew Bryan Dzeguze May 2018

Exploring District Judges' Decision Making In The Context Of Admitting Expert Testimony, Andrew Bryan Dzeguze

Dissertations and Theses

Over the last several decades, multiple schools of thought have emerged regarding what impacts judicial decision making. In contrast to the classic legal model, studies have argued alternatively that judges are policy actors who rule consistent with their political attitudes; that behavioral traits such as race, gender and socialization influence judicial conduct, both consciously and unconsciously; that whatever policy interests judges may have, these are moderated by institutional constraints and strategic considerations; and that judges are subject to some common cognitive shortcuts in decision making, although they may be moderated or present differently than in the general population in light ...


Using The Syrian Civil War To Measure Hierarchy: Regional Power Transition In The Middle East, Eric Michael Clary Mar 2018

Using The Syrian Civil War To Measure Hierarchy: Regional Power Transition In The Middle East, Eric Michael Clary

Dissertations and Theses

In 2018, the Syrian Civil War will enter into its ninth year of conflict. From an international relations perspective there are few, if any, studies on state actors in regional sub-state systems. What can an intrastate conflict teach us about future dynamics of the regional interstate hierarchy? It is worthwhile to examine The Syrian Civil War for three reasons. First, Syria lies in the heart of the Middle East lending proximity to regional actors. Second, the breakdown of order in Syria represents a microcosm of the global anarchic environment. Third, Syrian Civil War is an intrastate war that encapsulates both ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Oregon's Citizen Initiative Review (Cir) On Voter Decisions, Ari Joaquin Wubbold Mar 2018

Evaluating The Impact Of Oregon's Citizen Initiative Review (Cir) On Voter Decisions, Ari Joaquin Wubbold

Dissertations and Theses

Voters are getting information from more and more sources. Along with this proliferation of sources has come an increasing distrust of traditional mass media. This has created a challenge for voters who seek reliable information when making decisions in the voting booth; including on ballot initiatives. Because voters tend to find ballot initiatives confusing and not easily informed by traditional party cues, the Citizen's Initiative Review (CIR) and the non-partisan, fact-based recommendations they produce have now spread into multiple states. This thesis seeks to gauge whether the CIR is effective at achieving the goals of increasing voter knowledge and ...


Crime On The High Seas: What Conditions Are Necessary To Achieve Effective Maritime Governance Regime?, Michael A. Celic Jan 2018

Crime On The High Seas: What Conditions Are Necessary To Achieve Effective Maritime Governance Regime?, Michael A. Celic

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis explores why international maritime governance regimes have inconsistent rates of success. The global community relies on the world’s oceans for food, trade, and resources. Therefore, the regulation of these oceans is necessary to provide adequate passage through its waters and the management of all the resources they supply for the mutual benefit of all. Although there are international laws such as the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS), many of these laws fail to address current global threats and have proven inadequate in forming proactive collective responses. It is particularly problematic addressing transnational ...


Evangelizing Neoliberalism Through Megachurches In Latin America And The United States, William O. Collazo Jan 2018

Evangelizing Neoliberalism Through Megachurches In Latin America And The United States, William O. Collazo

Dissertations and Theses

The most prominent and influential feature of worldwide Evangelicalism, is the megachurch. In Latin America megachurches have proliferated and grown in political influence when they first came into contact with neoliberalism during Pinochet's dictatorship in Chile. As Latin America's poor first migrated out of rural areas into Latin American cities, then north, to the United States, they have brought with them their religion. Increasingly, this religion is Protestant, evangelical, and for many, it is Pentecostalism. Misunderstood by the early literature on Pentecostalism, is the strain of neoliberalism that has become infused in the religion's most powerful institution ...


Nationalism, Soft Annexation And Hybrid Warfare: Putin's Recipe For Russian Resurgence, Brian E. Szlenk Straub Jan 2018

Nationalism, Soft Annexation And Hybrid Warfare: Putin's Recipe For Russian Resurgence, Brian E. Szlenk Straub

Dissertations and Theses

Over the last decades since the fall of the Soviet Union, The Russian Federation has struggled to reclaim its grasp over Eastern Europe and re-establish itself as a major player on the international scene. Increased NATO expansion towards its borders, and the “Westernization” of Eastern Europe has led to the country feeling it has been boxed into a corner. The feeling that the Russian nation has been encroached upon by the Western world has led to the rise of Vladimir Putin as President of Russia, and the marked rise in nationalism within the country. In this Master’s Thesis, I ...


Are Cyber Operations Having An Impact On State Electoral Processes?, Sean Joseph Mcnicholas Jan 2018

Are Cyber Operations Having An Impact On State Electoral Processes?, Sean Joseph Mcnicholas

Dissertations and Theses

Cyber-attacks have become common occurrences which have an impact on all aspects of life ranging from business transactions to personal communications. Alarmingly, coordinated cyber-attacks are increasingly targeting politicians and their associates, political campaigns, political organizations and the broader public with political messaging. Given the novelty of these new forms of attacks, little is known of their potential impact. This thesis argues that states, state-directed actors, or non-state actors are disrupting, altering or influencing the electoral process in democratic states through coordinated cyber operations. It further argues that the purpose is to increase hyper-partisanship and erode the legitimacy of democratically-elected leaders ...


From The Humanitarian Impact Initiative To The Treaty On The Prohibition Of Nuclear Weapons: A Novel Approach To Nuclear Disarmament, Elisabeth Szeli Jan 2018

From The Humanitarian Impact Initiative To The Treaty On The Prohibition Of Nuclear Weapons: A Novel Approach To Nuclear Disarmament, Elisabeth Szeli

Dissertations and Theses

The present thesis analyzes current developments in nuclear disarmament, specifically the humanitarian impact initiative that culminated in the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW, the Treaty) by 122 members of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in July 2017. Through academic research and six interviews with people directly involved in the process, I traced the humanitarian initiative from its first conference in Oslo in 2013 all the way to the Treaty negotiations in 2017. My argument is that the humanitarian initiative constitutes a novel approach to nuclear disarmament, spearheaded by small and medium-sized states, with ...


Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: Seeking A Peaceful Solution, Aaron Marcus Homer Jan 2018

Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: Seeking A Peaceful Solution, Aaron Marcus Homer

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of those dispute settlement mechanisms that are capable of resolving the Guyana-Venezuela border dispute. This thesis will analyze those legal principles and/or techniques of the International Court of Justice, mediation and the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which are indispensable for dispute resolution. I argue that a resolution is significant for the stability of the international community.

Guyana and Venezuela possess economic and political interests in the disputed Essequibo region. Venezuela’s predilection for bilateral negotiations contradicts Guyana’s request for a judicial solution. These extreme positions are ...


The 2016 Presidential Election: Demographic Transformation And Racial Backlash, Skyler Lillian Brocker-Knapp Sep 2017

The 2016 Presidential Election: Demographic Transformation And Racial Backlash, Skyler Lillian Brocker-Knapp

Dissertations and Theses

Despite analysts' predictions and assertions prior to the 2016 presidential election, the Hispanic vote did not prove decisive. Donald Trump's victory elucidates a new electoral calculus, one that will be ruled simultaneously by changing demographics and the backlash against such change. While Hispanic voters largely supported Hillary Clinton, structural and individual impediments hinder their access to the voting booth and their turnout on election day. This thesis explores the reasons why the Hispanic electorate did not prove decisive in the 2016 presidential election. It further illuminates the changing Electoral College map, in which the Midwest and the Rustbelt are ...


Influence Of The Presidential Inaugural Address On Audience Perceptions Of Candidate Image And The State Of The Nation, Kyle Alexander Rush Sep 2017

Influence Of The Presidential Inaugural Address On Audience Perceptions Of Candidate Image And The State Of The Nation, Kyle Alexander Rush

Dissertations and Theses

This study asks whether and how the presidential inaugural address influences American audiences. The current study explores how the 2017 Presidential Inaugural Address of Donald Trump influences audiences. Two areas were studied: Candidate image and the state of the nation. I hypothesized that participants who watched the address would have different attitudes regarding candidate image and the state of the nation compared to non-viewers. I also hypothesized that viewers of the address who voted for Donald Trump would respond differently to candidate image and the state of the nation when compared with those who did not vote for Trump.

With ...


The Function Of Religion In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Stephanie Claire Mitchell Sep 2017

The Function Of Religion In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Stephanie Claire Mitchell

Dissertations and Theses

The role of religion in politics has been rising to the forefront of history in the Middle East for a number of decades and more so since 9/11, raising significant questions as to whether religion functions as a catalyst for conflict or peace. This thesis focuses specifically on the role of religion in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the manner in which actors incorporate religion into their national politics. In doing so, the inquiry focuses on the proponents of religion on both the Jewish and the Palestinian sides in addressing a) territorial rights, b) interpretations in the use of deadly ...


"First"-Matters: Projecting The Displacement Of Responses To Questions In The Context Of Presidential Primary-Campaign Debates, Kristella Marie Montiegel Aug 2017

"First"-Matters: Projecting The Displacement Of Responses To Questions In The Context Of Presidential Primary-Campaign Debates, Kristella Marie Montiegel

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis takes a conversation-analytic approach examining the pragmatic functions of the linguistic marker "first (off/of all)" in second-pair-part (i.e., responsive) position relative to questions. Using data from question-answer sequences in the 2015-2016 U.S. Presidential Republican primary debates, I propose six claims regarding the composition, position, and action of what is referred to as the practice of "First"-prefacing. Analysis reveals that "First"-prefacing projects the displacement of a response (conforming or non-conforming) to a question. In projecting the displacement of a response, "First"-prefacing does two things: (1) it projects that the unit(s) of talk ...


Contexts Of Reception And Constructions Of Islam: Second Generation Muslim Immigrants In Post-9/11 America, Shahriyar Smith Jul 2017

Contexts Of Reception And Constructions Of Islam: Second Generation Muslim Immigrants In Post-9/11 America, Shahriyar Smith

Dissertations and Theses

The World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001 fundamentally transformed the context of reception for Muslim immigrants in the U.S., shifting it from neutral to negative while also brightening previously blurred boundaries between established residents and the Muslim minority. This study explores how second-generation Muslim immigrants have experienced and reacted to post-9/11 contexts of reception. It is based on an analysis of ten semi-structured in-depth interviews that were conducted throughout the Portland Metropolitan Area from January to April of 2016. It finds experiences of discrimination to be primarily affected by two factors: public institutions and gender. It ...


Manufacturing Consent In The Maghreb: How Mohammed Vi Of Morocco Survived The Arab Spring, David Michael Duke Ii Dec 2016

Manufacturing Consent In The Maghreb: How Mohammed Vi Of Morocco Survived The Arab Spring, David Michael Duke Ii

Dissertations and Theses

The Arab Spring of 2011 revealed stark variation in the durability of different types of authoritarian regimes. Kings and emirs demonstrably outperformed their republican peers. This paper provides a qualitative study of the Moroccan monarchy in order to better explain this pattern. The findings of an original media content analysis support the paper's thesis that Morocco's King Mohammed VI maintained his throne by effectively using a historically derived position of concentrated power and immense wealth to manipulate potential opposition and dominate public discourse. This multi-causal mechanism of manufactured consent helped create and sustain the monarch's domestic legitimacy ...


Democratization, Political Performance, And Income Distribution In Argentina And Brazil, Nicholas Paul Stowell Aug 2016

Democratization, Political Performance, And Income Distribution In Argentina And Brazil, Nicholas Paul Stowell

Dissertations and Theses

This research examines the effects of democratization and political performance on the functional distribution of income in Argentina and Brazil from the end of their authoritarian periods to the present. The existing literature tends to focus on the impacts of democratization and political performance on the economic growth of the country as a whole or on changes to per capita income. This analysis focuses on the equality of economic development in less developed countries because growth is not necessarily distributed equally and poverty and inequality are both endemic to many less developed countries and also negatively impact development as a ...


Bee Cause: Is Legislative Action Protecting Bees From Neonicotinoids Justified?, Ursula A. Squire Jul 2016

Bee Cause: Is Legislative Action Protecting Bees From Neonicotinoids Justified?, Ursula A. Squire

Dissertations and Theses

The potential harm caused to bees and other pollinators by the widespread use of neonicotinoids has the capacity to pose a real and immediate threat to both the environment and humans. The benefits that bees and other pollinators provide, combined with the potential of harm they may face, are important enough to warrant a more comprehensive testing apparatus by which to evaluate threats to their population. Environmentally, bees and other pollinators are an important piece of ecosystemic balance--from pest management to pollination of plants that are a part of many species' diet. Anthropologically speaking, the way of life humans have ...


Substantive Representation By The Unelected: The Role Of Staff Gender On Mayoral Priorities In U.S. Cities, Sara M. Hottman Mar 2016

Substantive Representation By The Unelected: The Role Of Staff Gender On Mayoral Priorities In U.S. Cities, Sara M. Hottman

Dissertations and Theses

The literature on descriptive and substantive representation focuses on elected representatives, but overlooks the gender of those who play an integral role in policy process (agenda-setting) and outcomes (implementation): The elected’s chief of staff, senior policy advisors, and, in council-manager systems, the city manager. This thesis examines the role policy staff and city manager gender plays in substantive representation. After analyzing staff composition and agenda priorities — gleaned from State of the City addresses — for mayors of the 50 most-populous cities in the United States, I found substantial evidence to support my hypotheses that the chief of staff’s gender ...


On The Poverty, Rise, And Demise Of International Criminal Law, Tiphaine Dickson Mar 2016

On The Poverty, Rise, And Demise Of International Criminal Law, Tiphaine Dickson

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation in four essays critically examines the emergence of international criminal courts: their international political underpinnings, context, and the impact of their political production in relation to liberal legalism, liberal political theory, and history. The essays conceive of international criminal legal bodies both as political projects at their inception and as institutions that deny their own political provenance. The work is primarily one of political theory at the intersection of history, international relations, international criminal law, and the politics of memory. The first essay questions Nuremberg's legacy on the United States' exceptionalist view of international law and its ...


Epistemic Communities And Proliferation: The Implications Of Nuclear Knowledge, David Ayar Roze Jan 2016

Epistemic Communities And Proliferation: The Implications Of Nuclear Knowledge, David Ayar Roze

Dissertations and Theses

How do epistemic communities facilitate nuclear proliferation? The nuclear nonproliferation regime contains numerous actors exerting varying levels of influence on policy outcomes and state behavior. Neoliberal institutional theory emphasizes the role of sub-national groups play in forming policy preferences; one under-researched group is epistemic communities. Existing literature tends to consider only the nonproliferation action of epistemic communities, however this study aims to examine how these communities can facilitate and lower the cost of undertaking nuclear weaponization, effectively encouraging proliferation. It is especially ironic that the literature has ignored the facilitation effect, given that America’s decision to investigate nuclear weapons ...


Successful Regional Integration In The European Union Through Vision And Planning, Joshua Berliner Jan 2016

Successful Regional Integration In The European Union Through Vision And Planning, Joshua Berliner

Dissertations and Theses

The community of Europe today is at a crossroads. Recent pressures, many of them external, are severely testing the integrity of the European Union, as well as the long-standing regional cooperation. Widespread inconsistencies in national policies across member states, especially with regards to economic culture and fiscal policy, have presented the EU with an existential crisis. My hypothesis is that successful regional integration in Europe, however gradual, was not a spontaneous reaction to acute external pressures. Instead, I argue that successful regional integration was the result of a shared vision and careful planning by policy makers and negotiators, who never ...


The European Union At Stake? A Comparative Analysis On The Dimensions Of Eu Decisionmaking In Crisis Settings, Franziska Kipp Jan 2016

The European Union At Stake? A Comparative Analysis On The Dimensions Of Eu Decisionmaking In Crisis Settings, Franziska Kipp

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis examines how the EU as an international organization deals with international crisis situations by looking at its functions and imperfections in its decision-making process. Drawing from theoretical organization theory insights, particularly realism and constructivism, as well as empirical findings derived from two case studies, the goal if this study is to identify the dimensions of crises and find an answer to the question which factors influence decisions on crisis management. The Eurozone crisis and the Refugee crisis serve as case studies to investigate the narrative of crises in order to explain process outcomes. In both case studies I ...


The Incongruence Of Development Assistance: An Overview Of World Bank Policies, Elizabeth Garcia-Polanco Jan 2016

The Incongruence Of Development Assistance: An Overview Of World Bank Policies, Elizabeth Garcia-Polanco

Dissertations and Theses

In post-conflict countries were instability has intensified, it becomes apparent how inadequate development assistance can be and why even after large sum of investments development assistance has not been able to completely alleviate poverty. For agencies like the World Bank that provide first hand assistance, we question whether there are prerequisites needed in order for their policies to be effective and whether these policies are targeting the core reasons for the countries’ poverty dilemma. African countries continue to hold intricate predicaments that may at times be too complicated to be analyzed without sufficient resources provided by the international community. While ...


Interest Groups And Exchange Rate Policy Choice In Brazil And Venezuela: Incorporating The Workers, James Suggett Jan 2016

Interest Groups And Exchange Rate Policy Choice In Brazil And Venezuela: Incorporating The Workers, James Suggett

Dissertations and Theses

Why did Brazil and Venezuela choose different exchange rate policies in 2003? Brazilian President Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silva chose to maintain the managed float established by his predecessor; Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez chose to switch to a fixed exchange rate. Economic explanations typically consider structural factors drawn from Optimum Currency Area (OCA) theory as well as macroeconomic indicators such as level of reserves and inflation. Political explanations examine regime type, parliamentary structure, and interest groups. This study further explores the role of interest groups in determining exchange rate policy choice. Existing research on interest groups focuses primarily on major ...


Globalization, Tourism And Sustainable Development: The Multifaceted Impact Of Tourism On Development And Poverty Alleviation In Brazil, Gaëlle Lopes Saraiva Jan 2016

Globalization, Tourism And Sustainable Development: The Multifaceted Impact Of Tourism On Development And Poverty Alleviation In Brazil, Gaëlle Lopes Saraiva

Dissertations and Theses

Globalization is a popular concept deeply embedded in our era that represents the widespread intensification of transnational connections emblematic of this century. In general, this study aims to clarify the contradictory effects globalization exerts on development by specifically analyzing the particular impact of tourism in the emerging economy of Brazil. It is argued that the unequal distribution of tourism activities between urban and rural areas, and the prevalence of specific sizes and types of tourism are the main factors involved in sustaining unequal patterns of development across the country. The study concludes that public-private partnerships in tourism should prioritize the ...