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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The United States Supreme Court And American Individualism, Gary C. Roberts Aug 2004

The United States Supreme Court And American Individualism, Gary C. Roberts

Dissertations

The United States Supreme Court occupies an unusual, oftentimes paradoxical position within American democracy. On one hand, it is an institution that seemingly lacks democratic legitimacy, and on the other, it is an institution that dutifully gives meaning to the nation's democratic values. The uniqueness and possibly the grandeur of the American Supreme Court is that it has historically been able to successfully combine these two apparently contradictory aspects in such a manner as to expand upon the nation's traditional sense of individualism--the whole notion of an individual's inalienable right to life, liberty, and property.

Using legal ...


The Politics Of Hiv/Aids And Implications For Democracy In Kenya, Wambuii Henry Kiragu Jun 2004

The Politics Of Hiv/Aids And Implications For Democracy In Kenya, Wambuii Henry Kiragu

Dissertations

Democratic consolidation in newly transitioned democracies has traditionally been attributed to widely accepted political and legal mechanisms, like elections and constitutions. Existing literature on democratization in sub-Saharan Africa is preoccupied with these mechanisms as prime indicators for democratic takeoff in specific countries. Hardly any attention has been paid to other less openly political mechanisms, such as the response to external shocks, as potential sources of institutional development that could advance democratic practices.

Yet national response to any external shock can entail a host of actions with potentially far ranging political implications, including transformation of the form and means of political ...


Official Discourse And Public Opinion In Post-Communist Societies: The Role Of Government-Affiliated Intellectuals, Ekaterina M. Levintova Jun 2004

Official Discourse And Public Opinion In Post-Communist Societies: The Role Of Government-Affiliated Intellectuals, Ekaterina M. Levintova

Dissertations

Post-Communist countries are unique in the sense that they are undergoing not a single, but multiple transitions. The extent of social change underway inthis region is truly monumental and researchers are faced with the daunting task of studying the extent of this transformation. Change is most evident when one studies formal institutions. But lies beneath, on the level of value orientations? The answer to this question helps us understand the real progress of post-Communist countries towards the goals of their transitions.

What were the political, ideological, economic, foreign policy, and ethnic relations attitudes of the post-Communist Russian and Polish elites ...


Formal And Informal Institutions: Gender And Participationin The Panchayati Raj, Aparna Thomas Jun 2004

Formal And Informal Institutions: Gender And Participationin The Panchayati Raj, Aparna Thomas

Dissertations

In April 1993, the Parliament of India passed the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, reforming the structure of local governments. The amendment mandated that the composition of local councils include at least one-third women. This study explores the effects of the 1993 Indian women's reservation bill in changing policies at the local government level in ways that address women's interests. Specifically, the research addresses the following questions: (1) Are women really participating in panchayati raj politics, or are they merely present? (2) Do quotas as institutional mechanisms make a difference in agenda setting and policy outcomes? Although it may be ...


Islam And Democracy: An Empirical Examiniation Of Muslims' Political Culture, Moataz Bellah Mohamed Abdel Fattah Jun 2004

Islam And Democracy: An Empirical Examiniation Of Muslims' Political Culture, Moataz Bellah Mohamed Abdel Fattah

Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the following empirical puzzle: do the attitudes of ordinary educated Muslims stand as an obstacle toward the adoption of democracy? This research question calls for empirical/behavioral methodological tools that bring into focus contemporary Muslims' attitudes rather than ancient jurists' contributions. In other words, the dissertation shifts attention from ancient Islamic texts to contemporary Muslims' mindsets through written and web-bases surveys in 32 Muslim societies.

At the aggregate level, Muslim societies perplex with two types of sub-cultures: the culture of "dictator, but..." and the culture of "democracy-as-a-must." The former is the sub-couture of two groups of ...