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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Indigenous Knowledge And The Development Debate In Africa, Fidelis Ewane, Samson Ajagbe Oct 2018

Indigenous Knowledge And The Development Debate In Africa, Fidelis Ewane, Samson Ajagbe

International Journal of African Development

This research employs Bourdieu’s theory of habitus to explain the disposition of the donor community to integrate indigenous knowledge systems and practices into development projects. The theory’s objectivist perspective specifies the mechanism that links structural conditioning to social practice and regularities. It holds that power is culturally and symbolically created, and it is constantly re-legitimized through the interplay of agency and structure. This facilitates an analysis of the development field as social space characterized by indigenous and donor power relations. It argues that the reinforcement of indigenous knowledge as the main channel for development will generate transferable local ...


Why Abstain? Trends In And Origins Of Indifference And Estrangement In The United States, 1968-2012, Christopher R. Keeler May 2015

Why Abstain? Trends In And Origins Of Indifference And Estrangement In The United States, 1968-2012, Christopher R. Keeler

Master's Theses

Abstention rates have remained quite high in the United States for the last several decades. This thesis explores the trends in and origins of the nonvoters from 1968 to 2012 using a statistical model of abstention in presidential elections. The objective is to determine why nonvoters have chosen to abstain and who are they?

Using data from the American National Elections Studies, four groups of nonvoters are identified – voters who are both alienated and indifferent, voters who are neither alienated nor indifference, voters who are only alienated, and voters who are only indifferent. The two groups exclusively analyzed are the ...


The Masaryks Of Czechoslovakia: Contributions In Sociology, Social Welfare And Politics, Rebecca L. Hegar May 2013

The Masaryks Of Czechoslovakia: Contributions In Sociology, Social Welfare And Politics, Rebecca L. Hegar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article profiles contributions to sociology, social welfare and politics by members of the Masaryk family of Czechoslovakia, with primary emphasis on the career of Alice G. Masaryk (or Masarykovd), an applied sociologist and founder of Czech social work. As the daughter of Tomdi G. Masaryk, an academic philosopher and early sociologist who became the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918, her life and work are inextricably linked with the country's history and with one of the remarkable families of their era. Research for this articlei nvolved searchingl iteraturef rom several disciplines and reviewing historical publications and documents from ...


Citizen-Informed Performance Measurement And Reporting In Local Government: Key Factors For Effective Democratic Governance, Eileen L. Pierce Jan 2011

Citizen-Informed Performance Measurement And Reporting In Local Government: Key Factors For Effective Democratic Governance, Eileen L. Pierce

Dissertations

Citizen engagement and performance measurement are concepts inherently in conflict with each other. Local government values citizen input and good governance. Simultaneously, the pressure of local government to be efficient and effective utilizing managerial techniques common in the private sector is intense. Due to challenges associated with the integration of performance measurement and active citizen involvement, initiatives in this area are sparse.

This study, using a mixed methods analysis, explored the research questions through examination of thirty-six units of local government that participated in the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation‘s Government Trailblazer Program. This program provided a unique opportunity for ...


What Role For Ethnicity? Political Behavior And Mobilization In Post-Conflict Sierra Leone And Liberia, Fodei Joseph Batty May 2010

What Role For Ethnicity? Political Behavior And Mobilization In Post-Conflict Sierra Leone And Liberia, Fodei Joseph Batty

Dissertations

This dissertation examines political behavior in Sierra Leone and Liberia following the end of their civil wars. Dominant theories on politics in African societies suggest that ethnic interests underpin political behavior and elections are mere censuses of ethnic support for co-ethnic party elites. Yet, while using a proportional representation electoral system that is expected to result in splintered vote shares for multiple political parties, Sierra Leone's elections in 2002 concentrated votes around one presidential candidate and political party. Conversely Liberia's elections in 2005, held using a first-past-the-post electoral system that expectedly discourages multiple vote shares, diffused votes among ...


The Politicization Of Ethnicity As A Prelude To Ethnopolitical Conflict: Croatia And Serbia In Former Yugoslavia, Agneza Bozic-Roberson Jun 2001

The Politicization Of Ethnicity As A Prelude To Ethnopolitical Conflict: Croatia And Serbia In Former Yugoslavia, Agneza Bozic-Roberson

Dissertations

This interdisciplinary research develops a framework or a model for the study of the politicization of ethnicity, a process that transforms peaceful ethnic conflict into violent inter-ethnic conflict. The hypothesis investigated in this study is that the ethnopolitical conflict that led to the break up of former Yugoslavia was the result of deliberate politicization of ethnicity. The model consists o f three variables— ethnic entrepreneurs as actors, and mass media and political rhetoric as their tools for politicization of ethnicity. Ethnic entrepreneurs, with a conscious interest in mobilizing ethnicity, are given this opportunity in transitional societies in which politicized ethnicity ...


Legislators' Perceptions About Poverty: Views From The Georgia General Assembly, Elizabeth L. Beck, Deborah M. Whitley, James L. Wolk Jun 1999

Legislators' Perceptions About Poverty: Views From The Georgia General Assembly, Elizabeth L. Beck, Deborah M. Whitley, James L. Wolk

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study sought to explore legislators perspectives about causes of poverty. Members of the Georgia General Assembly rated the importance of 10 behavioral and structural explanations of poverty, and indicated whether they thought poor women and children would be better served under AFDC or TANF. Whereas all groups of legislators found behavioral explanations moderately important, there was significant variation by race, gender, and political party about the importance of structural explanations of poverty. Support for several structural explanations of poverty correlated with a preference for AFDC, but no correlations were found with behavioral explanations. This study holds implications for affecting ...


The Framing Of Political Advocacy And Service Responses In The Crime Victim Rights Movement, Frank J. Weed Sep 1997

The Framing Of Political Advocacy And Service Responses In The Crime Victim Rights Movement, Frank J. Weed

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper analyses two major aspects of the mobilizing frames found among local organizations in the crime victim rights movement. A national survey of 301 organizations demonstrated that organizations shape their service/action responses in terms of three conceptualizations of the "victim problem." These conceptualizations clearly influence the pattern of service programs found in different types of organizations. In addition it is shown that some types of organizations are more oriented to political advocacy than others; yet all types of organizations are more apt to be involved in political action if their staff members are oriented to "victim rights" framed ...


The Political Activity Of Social Workers: A Post-Reagan Update, Mark Ezell Dec 1993

The Political Activity Of Social Workers: A Post-Reagan Update, Mark Ezell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article reports the findings of a survey that examined the political activism of social workers and what changes may have occurred in their political participation during the Reagan years. Social workers are politically active largely by writing letters to public officials but also by discussing political issues with friends, by belonging to politically active organizations and by attending political meetings. In addition, a substantial proportion of social workers make campaign contributions and get involved in candidate elections. Among social workers, those with the highest educational degrees, those who are NASW members, those who are in macro type jobs, and ...


Assassination In Modern America: Political Participation Through A Gun Barrel?, Richard Grossenbacher Dec 1993

Assassination In Modern America: Political Participation Through A Gun Barrel?, Richard Grossenbacher

Master's Theses

Assassination has been a constant companion of the world's societies from the beginning of recorded history. Only relatively recently have social scientists begun empirical study of these acts in an effort to reveal any commonalties and possible predictive traits. Investigation of the assassination phenomenon assumed a special urgency in America as violence seemed to escalate in the 1960s, which resulted in some notable research.

The present research collected data of presidential and non-presidential assassinations and attempts that occurred from 1969 through 1992 and compared the findings with the results of earlier studies.

The data indicate that presidential assaults increased ...


Offense Perceived, Appropriate Actions And Possible Solutions: A Research Of Censorship, Sharon K. Van Poolen Jun 1993

Offense Perceived, Appropriate Actions And Possible Solutions: A Research Of Censorship, Sharon K. Van Poolen

Master's Theses

Students at Western Michigan University were asked via a survey to read lyrics and indicate an offensiveness rating. Lyrics containing vulgar or sexual language or derogatory statements about religion received higher offensive ratings. Actions deemed acceptable in response to offensive lyrics include picketing and boycotting. Prevalent themes identified in the lyrics are antagonism toward religion, sexism and unhealthy sexual relations. Groups cited most frequently as potentially harmed by lyrics are children 5-12, adolescents and women. Respondents were questioned about participation in certain activities and what alternatives to direct censorship are acceptable. Most would prefer to be involved indirectly, for example ...


Changes In Poverty, Income Inequality And The Standard Of Living During The Reagan Years, Robert D. Plotnick Mar 1992

Changes In Poverty, Income Inequality And The Standard Of Living During The Reagan Years, Robert D. Plotnick

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The record of economic well-being in the 1980s belied Reagan's claim that Americans would be better off if they scaled back the welfare state and cut tax rates. Though the standard of living rose, its growth was no faster than during 1950-1980. Income inequality increased. The rate of poverty at the end qf Reagan's term was the same as in 1980. Cutbacks in income transfers during the Reagan years helped increase both poverty and inequality. Changes in tax policy helped increase inequality but reduced poverty. These policy shifts are not the only reasons for the lack of progress ...


Poverty And Electoral Power, Richard A. Cloward, Frances Fox Piven Dec 1989

Poverty And Electoral Power, Richard A. Cloward, Frances Fox Piven

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The poverty of the American underclass cannot be overcome by any single strategy. But surely it will not be reduced without new government interventions in education, training, employment, housing, and social welfae. That raises the question of how the electoral power-especially electoral power exercised by the underclass itself-can be mobilized to win new public policies.


A Comparison Of Selected Old And New Right Wing Groups: Involvement With Law Enforcement, Elvin W. Keith Iii Aug 1989

A Comparison Of Selected Old And New Right Wing Groups: Involvement With Law Enforcement, Elvin W. Keith Iii

Master's Theses

This study has determined that current right wing extremist groups in the U.S. have no greater propensity for damage to the national security than older right wing groups.

Although right wing groups are dangerous due to the popularity of conservative causes and the proliferation of modern weaponry, an examination reveals that dedication and increased military capability are offset by more efficient law enforcement response and lack of support by the general populace.

A careful examination of the American right wing, both old and new shows the disparity between the two groups. Emphasis is placed on exploring the old right ...


Registering The Poor To Vote: Lessons From The 1984 General Election, Ira Colby Sep 1987

Registering The Poor To Vote: Lessons From The 1984 General Election, Ira Colby

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Voter registration and educational programs for the poor and moderate income groups were a dominant political strategy embraced by a number of social welfare organizations during the 1984 general election. This article reviews one such project that registered 4,124 individuals and implemented a follow-up survey of 500 new registrants. Based on the survey, the author identifies a number of voting and nonvoting behaviors that should be considered in future voter registration and education projects. The author also identifies critical policy issues that impede voter participation among the poor.


Harry Lurie's Assessment And Prescription: An Early View Of Social Workers' Roles And Responsibilities Regarding Political Action, Joe M. Schriver May 1987

Harry Lurie's Assessment And Prescription: An Early View Of Social Workers' Roles And Responsibilities Regarding Political Action, Joe M. Schriver

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Harry Lawrence Lurie's recommendations and analyses concerning social workers' involvement in political action are reviewed. By reviewing some of Lurie's concerns and activities from the 1930's into the 1950's in this area, it is possible to gain helpful guidance and insight into contemporary concerns about social workers in the political arena. Lurie argued consistently for greater involvement by social workers in political action as individuals, as members of professional organizations, and in coalition with other groups outside of social work who were concerned with progressive social change. Lurie also articulated many of the conditions preventing effective ...


Electoralism, Mobilization And Strategies For The 80s: An Assessment Of Organizing Trends In The Mid-Decade, Steve Burghardt Sep 1986

Electoralism, Mobilization And Strategies For The 80s: An Assessment Of Organizing Trends In The Mid-Decade, Steve Burghardt

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Community organizers in the United States have two tasks today: a short-term defensive one of holding back the rightward assault against both the social welfare state and the working class in general; and a long-term, mobilizing task of building a constituency strong enough to transform the welfare state itself. We cannot lose sight of this latter goal, for the method and objectives we set for ourselves in the short-run will greatly determine the feasibility of our long-term goals.

This is no small matter, for the assault on the welfare state is as fundamental to the restructuring of class and social ...


Social Work Pac's And State Social Work Associations Purpose, History, And Action Strategies, Gary Mathews May 1983

Social Work Pac's And State Social Work Associations Purpose, History, And Action Strategies, Gary Mathews

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Social work as a profession has only recently become politically active. One consequence of this interest in the political process has been the proliferation of political action committees as creatures of the National Association of Social Workers and its state chapters. Social work PAC's are a key ingredient necessary to enable the profession to influence public policy. Perhaps because political action committees are new to NASW, or perhaps because NASW is new to politics, very little has been written about the history, purpose or strategic implications of these committees.

This paper will trace the development and operation of PAC ...


An Advocacy Approach For More Effective Program Delivery And Coordination: A Case Study Of Maine's Housing Rehab Techs, Kenneth K. Ahn, James F. Horan, G. Thomas Taylor May 1983

An Advocacy Approach For More Effective Program Delivery And Coordination: A Case Study Of Maine's Housing Rehab Techs, Kenneth K. Ahn, James F. Horan, G. Thomas Taylor

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A detailed case analysis of the Maine Housing Rehabilitation Project provides an exploratory observation of the innovative use of human resources at the federal, state and regional levels through an evolutionary development process of housing rehabilitation technicians. Functioning largely as advocate planners and human service delivery administrators through self-expanded roles, these individuals were able to promote change in the context of this intergovernmental environment. The analysis presented here reveals findings of intrastate regional differences between the urban and rural areas. Low income citizens appear to be the main beneficiaries of a proactive style of leadership that was performed by the ...


Alternative Service Delivery Strategies: Factors In States' Decision Making, Harold W. Demone Jr., Margaret Gibelman May 1983

Alternative Service Delivery Strategies: Factors In States' Decision Making, Harold W. Demone Jr., Margaret Gibelman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article focuses on the range of choices and factors affecting state level decision making about how human services are to be delivered. In light of the dual thrusts of decentralization and privatization, the viability of public-private partnerships through contracting for services is explored. Among the significant factors affecting decisions about alternative forms of service delivery are: political and fiscal preferences; the strength of organized labor; the role and availability of the private service sector and history with purchase of service. The advantages and disadvantages attributed to a contracting model for delivering services are unlikely to be argued from an ...


Representatives In Government - A Role For Social Planning Councils , Alan Cohen Jan 1974

Representatives In Government - A Role For Social Planning Councils , Alan Cohen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Excerpt from the full-text article:

I have referred to a key problem of how to make individual and group concerns known to the decision makers without ignoring the weakly organized and unorganized-and without putting both the legislators and administrators in the position of merely ratifying bargaining negotiated between these interest groups. I have suggested non-governmental Social Planning Councils have a potentially significant role to play in the changing need for representativeness for the myriad of strong, weak and unorganized groups and individuals.

This role recognizes the feedback benefits resulting from the proposition that people learn to participate by participating, and ...


The Relation Backgrounds, Ideological Orientations, And Perceptions Of The Judicial Role To Variation In Criminal Sentencing, Maureen E. Mccully Aug 1971

The Relation Backgrounds, Ideological Orientations, And Perceptions Of The Judicial Role To Variation In Criminal Sentencing, Maureen E. Mccully

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.