Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 61

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Book Review: Courtrooms And Classrooms: A Legal History Of College Access, 1860-1960, Mark A. Addison Jun 2018

Book Review: Courtrooms And Classrooms: A Legal History Of College Access, 1860-1960, Mark A. Addison

Journal of College Access

Issues of college access are increasingly met with resolutions within social and economic contexts. Models such as cost of production output, and race and socioeconomic-conscious strategies form the basis of such analyses (Jenkins & Rodriguez, 2013; Henriksen, 1995; Treager Huber, 2010; Schmidt, 2012). We can expect retooling and reinventing of such models with increasing college costs and changes in student demographics.


The Effects Of Repealing The Estate Tax And Reducing The Corporate Tax Rate Coupled With A Repatriation Act, Trenton Vanderlende Dec 2017

The Effects Of Repealing The Estate Tax And Reducing The Corporate Tax Rate Coupled With A Repatriation Act, Trenton Vanderlende

Honors Theses

Given that significant U.S. federal tax reform is taking place for the first time in over 30 years, this paper examines how changing specific tax provisions may affect the average individual taxpayer as well as the wealthiest 1% of Americans. Three potential federal tax law changes are addressed: repealing the estate tax, reducing the corporate statutory income tax rate, and offering a repatriation holiday for remitting the foreign profits earned by U.S. businesses. These changes are analyzed using publicly available data from U.S. Congressional hearings, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS ...


Analyzing The Legislative Productivity Of Congress During The Obama Administration, Zachary Hunkins Dec 2017

Analyzing The Legislative Productivity Of Congress During The Obama Administration, Zachary Hunkins

Honors Theses

Our nation looks to Congress to solve problems by producing legislation. Four congressional sessions took place during the eight years of the Obama administration; these were the 111th (2009-2011), 112th (2011-2013), 113th (2013-2015), and 114th (2015-2017). These four congressional sessions were often labeled and stigmatized as some of the least productive sessions in our nation’s history. This raises the questions, what explains legislative productivity? What variables effect it? Were the four sessions that took place during the Obama administration that ineffective? How do these sessions compare to sessions that took place during past presidential administrations ...


Allied Paper Landfill, A Case Study Of Superfund, Kaitlin Braunschweig Apr 2016

Allied Paper Landfill, A Case Study Of Superfund, Kaitlin Braunschweig

Honors Theses

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980), more commonly known as Superfund, delegates the responsibility for cleanup of more than 1,300 hazardous waste sites to the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This thesis is designed as a case study to investigate the Superfund program through the lens of the Allied Paper Landfill portion of the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site. Through interviews with key stakeholders an evaluation was completed based on the following research questions: 1) are the current goals of Superfund appropriate, 2) is the funding mechanism sufficient to fulfill the goals of Superfund, and 3) is ...


Do Parties Matter? A Political Model Of Monetary Policy In Open Economies, Hulya Unlusoy Apr 2016

Do Parties Matter? A Political Model Of Monetary Policy In Open Economies, Hulya Unlusoy

Dissertations

In this doctoral dissertation, I present an original political model of monetary policy in open economies that reframes the Mundell-Fleming model when party politics and long-term interest rates are examined with the three economic variables (monetary policy autonomy, capital mobility, fixed exchange rate) that form the basis of the Mundell-Fleming model. The Mundell-Fleming model explains that there is no monetary policy autonomy in the short term under high capital mobility and a fixed exchange rate system. To see whether I arrive at a different conclusion than the Mundell-Fleming model, I pose the following two research questions: 1. What explains variations ...


Why Abstain? Trends In And Origins Of Indifference And Estrangement In The United States, 1968-2012, Christopher R. Keeler May 2015

Why Abstain? Trends In And Origins Of Indifference And Estrangement In The United States, 1968-2012, Christopher R. Keeler

Master's Theses

Abstention rates have remained quite high in the United States for the last several decades. This thesis explores the trends in and origins of the nonvoters from 1968 to 2012 using a statistical model of abstention in presidential elections. The objective is to determine why nonvoters have chosen to abstain and who are they?

Using data from the American National Elections Studies, four groups of nonvoters are identified – voters who are both alienated and indifferent, voters who are neither alienated nor indifference, voters who are only alienated, and voters who are only indifferent. The two groups exclusively analyzed are the ...


Mediated Homestyle: Congressional Strategy And Local Press Relations In The 111th House Of Representatives, Michael K. Romano Aug 2014

Mediated Homestyle: Congressional Strategy And Local Press Relations In The 111th House Of Representatives, Michael K. Romano

Dissertations

For over thirty years, research on Congressional behavior has provided evidence of a link between constituent opinions and the ways in which members publically conduct themselves. Homestyle (Fenno, 1978: pg. 32), the way members “cultivate their constituencies,” has emphasized that personal encounters between members and their constituents is an effective strategy for decreasing the level of uncertainty members have about their approval. Homestyle, however, overlooks the fact that members of Congress cannot directly interact with their constituents on a daily basis. The mass media, specifically local media outlets, help legislators by transmitting relevant information about political events and legislators’ actions ...


Like Oil And Water: How Federalism Muddies The Waters Of Interest Group Decision-Making, Melissa Shaffer-O’Connell Jun 2014

Like Oil And Water: How Federalism Muddies The Waters Of Interest Group Decision-Making, Melissa Shaffer-O’Connell

Dissertations

Federalism often creates additional decisions for interest groups in determining how best to advocate for their policy recommendations in the legislative process. Should they focus their advocacy at the local, state, or national level of government? What activities should they use at each level of government? This dissertation examines interest group behaviors in water quality policy in the Great Lakes region from 1940 to 2000, in oil policy in the Beaufort Sea region from 1970 to 2000, and in both policy areas in 2010-2013. I evaluate the reasons for interest group decisions in choice of tactics and targeted level of ...


Specialists, Generalists, And Policy Advocacy By Charitable Nonprofit Organizations, Heather Macindoe, Ryan Whalen May 2013

Specialists, Generalists, And Policy Advocacy By Charitable Nonprofit Organizations, Heather Macindoe, Ryan Whalen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Previous research finds modest levels of engagement in policy advocacy by charitable nonprofits, despite legal regulations permitting nonprofit advocacy and the significance of public policy to nonprofit constituencies. This paper examines nonprofit involvement in policy advocacy using survey data from Boston, Massachusetts. Nonprofit participation in policy advocacy is associated with professionalization, resource dependence, features of the institutional environment, and organizational characteristics such as size and mission. Drawing from population ecology theory, we examine an additional aspect of organizational mission: whether a nonprofit serves a specialized or general population. We find that nonprofits serving specialized populations are more likely to participate ...


Fear Vs. Facts: Examining The Economic Impact Of Undocumented Immigrants In The U.S., David Becerra, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, Jason T. Castillo Dec 2012

Fear Vs. Facts: Examining The Economic Impact Of Undocumented Immigrants In The U.S., David Becerra, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, Jason T. Castillo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Undocumented immigration has become a contentious issue in the U.S. over the past decade. Opponents of undocumented immigration have argued that undocumented immigrants are a social and financial burden to the U.S. which has led to the passage of drastic and costly policies. This paper examined existing state and national data and found that undocumented immigrants do contribute to the economies of federal, state, and local governments through taxes and can stimulate job growth, but the cost of providing law enforcement, health care, and education impacts federal, state, and local governments differently. At the federal level, undocumented immigrants ...


Imagining Women In U.S. Politics: The Problem Of Sisterhood In The Long 1960s, Sara Bijani Jun 2012

Imagining Women In U.S. Politics: The Problem Of Sisterhood In The Long 1960s, Sara Bijani

The Hilltop Review

The gendered expectations of the masculinist political establishment of the long 1960s made it difficult for women to define their own unique terrain as politicians. Even with the guarantee of formal political rights firmly in place, women's status as second class citizens persisted throughout the long 1960s. Often, women were forced into frames that defined their political interests around their embodied sex, rather than the needs of their constituents. This imagined construction of women as a separate subject class established a fundamentally unequal platform for women's participation as first class citizens of the United States. While ideological differences ...


The Supreme Court: A Decade Of Opinion, Matthew A. Bahleda Apr 2011

The Supreme Court: A Decade Of Opinion, Matthew A. Bahleda

Honors Theses

Conventional wisdom would have us believe that the Bush v. Gore (2000) decision marked a large change in public approval of the Supreme Court. To analyze this claim, a series of landmark cases for the years 2000-2010 will be reduced to a data set that will allow for the observation of specific variables and the roles each variable may play in determining the change in public opinion. From there, conclusions are made that substantively explicate the relations between the indicated relevant variables and the change in opinion. Ultimately, the Bush v. Gore decision is found to have not had the ...


Learning Organization Principles: The Impact On A Midwest State Government As Perceived By Its Employees, Rosalee Billingslea Rush Jan 2011

Learning Organization Principles: The Impact On A Midwest State Government As Perceived By Its Employees, Rosalee Billingslea Rush

Dissertations

This study sought to determine the extent to which learning organization constructs influence performance in state government. The overarching purpose was to examine the relationship between Peter Senge’s five learning disciplines and organizational performance.

The study utilized an ex post facto survey design. The sample population was composed of supervisors and professional and administrative staff within the 19 agencies of a Midwestern state government. Participants were administered an instrument that asked them to rate their perception of the organization and its performance along seven dimensions of learning. Of the randomly selected 381 participants, 110 (or 28.9%) returned the ...


Deference Of Defiance? Principal-Agent Theory And The Us Courts Of Appeals During The Rehnquist And Burger Courts, Nathaniel R. Vanden Brook Apr 2008

Deference Of Defiance? Principal-Agent Theory And The Us Courts Of Appeals During The Rehnquist And Burger Courts, Nathaniel R. Vanden Brook

Master's Theses

By examining cases from the Courts of Appeals in several issue areas between 1969 and 2002 (e.g., the Burger and Rehnquist Courts), this research examines both the fear of reversal from the high court (judicial impact theory) and whether this results in differences in response from these courts to Supreme Court precedent (principal-agent theory). The study finds that when the Supreme Court grants review to a decreasing number of lower court cases and thus gives a longer leash to these courts that instead of deferring to their principal, the appellate courts often defy the high court and seek to ...


Who Voted?: Social Class And Participation In United States Presidential Elections, Uisoon Kwon Apr 2005

Who Voted?: Social Class And Participation In United States Presidential Elections, Uisoon Kwon

Dissertations

Low turnout remains a persistent problem in American politics. The decline in turnout has been studied in various ways. In some cases scholars analyze aggregate turnout data and compare turnout in election districts with high and low concentrations o f particular ,social groups (Neimi and Weisberg, 1993). In other cases, surveys provide an opportunity to examine the causes and correlates o f turnout at the individual level. Various researchers find that socio-economic factors are related to turnout. People with more education vote at much higher rates than those with less education, higher income and middle class people are more likely ...


Presidents, Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between The Pre- & Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?, Richard K. Caputo Sep 2004

Presidents, Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between The Pre- & Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examined profits, productivity, and poverty in the United States from 1961 through 2002. Results indicated that the "great divide" thesis regarding the U.S. economy before and after the Reagan administration depends on which measure of the economy is the focus of attention. In addition, on some measures where before and after differences were detected, the nature of those differences was paradoxical. Corporate profits as a share of national income, for example, were highest in Democratic rather than Republican administrations and despite the increased income inequality of the post-Reagan years, individual and family poverty rates remained relatively constant ...


The United States Supreme Court And American Individualism, Gary C. Roberts Aug 2004

The United States Supreme Court And American Individualism, Gary C. Roberts

Dissertations

The United States Supreme Court occupies an unusual, oftentimes paradoxical position within American democracy. On one hand, it is an institution that seemingly lacks democratic legitimacy, and on the other, it is an institution that dutifully gives meaning to the nation's democratic values. The uniqueness and possibly the grandeur of the American Supreme Court is that it has historically been able to successfully combine these two apparently contradictory aspects in such a manner as to expand upon the nation's traditional sense of individualism--the whole notion of an individual's inalienable right to life, liberty, and property.

Using legal ...


The National Domestic Workers Union And The War On Poverty, Elizabeth Beck Dec 2001

The National Domestic Workers Union And The War On Poverty, Elizabeth Beck

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article explores values, strategies, and tensions found within the War on Poverty and examines a War on Poverty-supported initiative, the National Domestic Workers Union (NDWU). The article makes the argument that the NDWU is illustrative of the War on Poverty in that each held structurally based descriptions of poverty and individually based prescriptions. The article explores the relationship of domestic service to the institutions of racism, classism, and sexism and how the ND WU strategies of training, service, and, advocacy-like those of the War on Poverty-sought to address the needs of individual domestic workers while circumventing larger and more ...


Declarations Of Dependency: The Civic Republican Tradition In U.S. Poverty Policy. Alan F. Zundel Dec 2001

Declarations Of Dependency: The Civic Republican Tradition In U.S. Poverty Policy. Alan F. Zundel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Alan E Zundel, Declarations of Dependency: The Civic Republican Tradition in U. S. Poverty Policy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000. $16.95 papercover.


The Federal Election Commission: An Analysis Of Administrative Behavior, Maurice C. Sheppard Dec 2000

The Federal Election Commission: An Analysis Of Administrative Behavior, Maurice C. Sheppard

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Mitigating The Defects Of Pluralism: Interest Group Coalitions Before The Supreme Court, Jason Frederick Jagemann Jun 2000

Mitigating The Defects Of Pluralism: Interest Group Coalitions Before The Supreme Court, Jason Frederick Jagemann

Dissertations

This project examines interest group coalitional activity before the Supreme Court in affirmative action cases between 1971 and 1995. First, I address the characteristics and dynamics of amicus participants over time. Second, I examine the extent to which organizations with a smaller base of resources, in terms of staff and the number of years that organizations have been on the scene, engage in coalitional activity. I find that organizations with smaller staffs are more likely to participate in coalitions, and, contrary to my expectations, organizations that have been on the scene longer are more likely to engage in coalitional activity ...


Thomas Jefferson And The United States Constitution: A Comparative Study Of Jefferson As Maturing Political Thinker To Jefferson The Political Operative, Thomas A. Parker Dec 1998

Thomas Jefferson And The United States Constitution: A Comparative Study Of Jefferson As Maturing Political Thinker To Jefferson The Political Operative, Thomas A. Parker

Master's Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to use historical, qualitative, and comparative methods of research in studying the life of Thomas Jefferson, his views on governance, and his impact on the highest law of our land, the United States Constitution. Thomas Jefferson's constitutional thoughts and theories evolved first as a maturing political thinker and later as a political operative on the state, national and international stage. His beliefs were shaped by many factors including Jefferson's own principles and character, his scholarship via learned men and life experiences, American and overseas events in and out of his control, titles ...


The Supreme Court, Judicial Review, And American Democracy, Gary C. Roberts Aug 1996

The Supreme Court, Judicial Review, And American Democracy, Gary C. Roberts

Master's Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to find some rational justification for the existence of the Supreme Court and its power of judicial review within a democratic framework of government. The avenue I take to complete this task involves two aspects: (1) questioning the validity of American democracy, and (2) examining the effectiveness of various influences or restraints on the power of the Court.

My conclusions are somewhat mixed. First of all, I feel it more accurate to refer to American government not as a democracy but as a constitutional democracy. In that respect, we are a government with limited ...


The Unprepossessing Mr. Ryan: Understanding Exemplary Legislative Leadership, Barbara A. K. Adams Aug 1994

The Unprepossessing Mr. Ryan: Understanding Exemplary Legislative Leadership, Barbara A. K. Adams

Dissertations

This study focuses on the character attributes, philosophy, political skills, policy agenda, and administrative activities of William A. Ryan, Speaker of the Michigan House of Representatives from 1969 through 1974 and a House member from 1958 through 1982. The case study is embedded in a history of Michigan’s political culture, which is characterized by moralistic and individualistic strands often in conflict with one another.

The research hypothesis was that administrative virtue in legislative leadership is best described in terms of utilitarian ethics, the ability to control and manage factionalism in the interest of incremental change. The rival hypothesis was ...


The Political Activity Of Social Workers: A Post-Reagan Update, Mark Ezell Dec 1993

The Political Activity Of Social Workers: A Post-Reagan Update, Mark Ezell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article reports the findings of a survey that examined the political activism of social workers and what changes may have occurred in their political participation during the Reagan years. Social workers are politically active largely by writing letters to public officials but also by discussing political issues with friends, by belonging to politically active organizations and by attending political meetings. In addition, a substantial proportion of social workers make campaign contributions and get involved in candidate elections. Among social workers, those with the highest educational degrees, those who are NASW members, those who are in macro type jobs, and ...


Introduction: American Social Policy And The Reagan Legacy, James Midgley Mar 1992

Introduction: American Social Policy And The Reagan Legacy, James Midgley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

With the retirement of Ronald Reagan from active political life; the long term effects of his policies and programs need to be addressed. This introduction to fire special issue on The Reagan Legacy and the. American Welfare State draws on the findings of the various contributors t"' provide an overview of the impact of Reagan administration's policies on various facets of the welfare stale, and an assessment of their likely longer term effects.


Income Maintenance Programs And The Reagan Domestic Agenda, Howard Jacob Karger Mar 1992

Income Maintenance Programs And The Reagan Domestic Agenda, Howard Jacob Karger

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Income maintenance programs are a key feature of the American welfare state. The impact of the Reagan administration’s social welfare policies are examined in this article, which also speculates about the long-term effects of his successes on the future of income maintenance programs. Specifically, this article provides a brief historical background of income maintanence programs, examines Reagan’s ideological and strategic approach to deconstructing the welfare state, evaluates the domestic successes of the Reagan administration, and explores the long-term impact of Reagan’s policies on the future of income maintenance programs.


The Fall Of The Industrial City: The Reagan Legacy For Urban Policy, David Stoesz Mar 1992

The Fall Of The Industrial City: The Reagan Legacy For Urban Policy, David Stoesz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Reagan presidency reversed a half-century of federal aid to cities. Poor minority comnnunities were particularly hard-hit, since this was accompanied by a white flight to the suburbs and the replacement of better paying industrial jobs requiring little education with poorer paying service jobs requiring iore education. Meanwhile wealthy communities prospered. To address urgent social problems, urban politicians are advocating strategies such as industrial policy, public entrepreneurship, and guerrilla welfare.


Changes In Poverty, Income Inequality And The Standard Of Living During The Reagan Years, Robert D. Plotnick Mar 1992

Changes In Poverty, Income Inequality And The Standard Of Living During The Reagan Years, Robert D. Plotnick

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The record of economic well-being in the 1980s belied Reagan's claim that Americans would be better off if they scaled back the welfare state and cut tax rates. Though the standard of living rose, its growth was no faster than during 1950-1980. Income inequality increased. The rate of poverty at the end qf Reagan's term was the same as in 1980. Cutbacks in income transfers during the Reagan years helped increase both poverty and inequality. Changes in tax policy helped increase inequality but reduced poverty. These policy shifts are not the only reasons for the lack of progress ...


Society, Social Policy And The Ideology Of Reaganism, James Midgley Mar 1992

Society, Social Policy And The Ideology Of Reaganism, James Midgley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The complex historical and ideological themes which formed the basis for Reaganism in the 1980s are based on economic individualism, traditionalism and authoritarian populism. By creating an ideological formation which appealed to a wide constituency, right-wing activists sought to reverse the centrist consensus liberalism of the New Deal. These ideas also informed the Reagan administration’s social policies and, although not implemented as intended, have had a major impact on the American welfare state.