Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Richmond

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 318

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Studies On Documented Historical Cases Of Civil And War Heroism: A Mini-Review, Hannes Rusch Jul 2018

Studies On Documented Historical Cases Of Civil And War Heroism: A Mini-Review, Hannes Rusch

Heroism Science

This mini-review identifies and briefly describes a total of 12 published studies investigating aspects of war and civil heroism by analyzing larger data sets on documented historical cases of such behavior. Eleven of these studies focus on either Carnegie Medal or Medal of Honor recipients. These two most prominent data sources are briefly characterized and directions for future research are pointed out.


Intergenerational Land Conflict In Northern Uganda: Children, Customary Law And Return Migration, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2018

Intergenerational Land Conflict In Northern Uganda: Children, Customary Law And Return Migration, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Northern Uganda is in transition after the conflict that ended in 2006. While its cities are thriving and economic opportunities abound, the social institutions governing land access are contested, the land administration system is changing, and the mechanisms available to address conflicts over resources have themselves become a venue for authority claims. This article examines the intergenerational nature of land conflicts in northern Uganda, focusing on the interplay of customary law, return migration and the development of a market in land. There are three contributions to existing literature: (1) a discussion of children's property rights under customary and statute ...


Sturm, Ruger & Co And The U.S. Firearms Industry, Eryn Berquist, Julian Cha, Jeffrey S. Harrison, Kelsey Heady, Lindsay Kennedy, Will Macllwiane, Bikram Saini, Natalie Schmidt, Jason Werst Jan 2018

Sturm, Ruger & Co And The U.S. Firearms Industry, Eryn Berquist, Julian Cha, Jeffrey S. Harrison, Kelsey Heady, Lindsay Kennedy, Will Macllwiane, Bikram Saini, Natalie Schmidt, Jason Werst

Robins Case Network

Ruger is one of the largest domestic gun and ammunition manufacturers in the United States, and also one of the most successful. Ruger makes very high quality guns at reasonable prices. The company also emphasizes research and development. With no debt and high gross profit margins, one would expect Ruger to be an outstanding investment. However, the U.S. gun industry is extremely volatile and also very competitive. Due to mass shootings, terrorism, and other highly visible events, there is ever increasing pressure for new regulation and restrictions on gun ownership and use. However, the industry has a very powerful ...


Realignment, Region And Race: Presidential Leadership And Social Identity, George R. Goethals Jan 2018

Realignment, Region And Race: Presidential Leadership And Social Identity, George R. Goethals

Bookshelf

The Trump presidency may well be the first phase of a new American political alignment deeply rooted in identity politics. Now more than ever, it seems especially important to understand how leaders compete to engage different human motivations—how presidents, presidential candidates, and other political leaders appeal to potential followers' needs for economic well-being, safety, self-esteem, and a sense of significance. It is time to come to terms with the roles of race and region in US political history.

In Realignment, Region, and Race, George R. Goethals addresses this challenge head-on, exploring the place of racial dynamics in American politics ...


Limits On The Application Of Motivational Homogeneity In The Work Of Buchanan And The Virginia School, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart Jan 2018

Limits On The Application Of Motivational Homogeneity In The Work Of Buchanan And The Virginia School, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

At its founding, the set of ideas that came to be known as Virginia Political Economy originated from the work of Rutledge Vining, James Buchanan, Warren Nutter, Ronald Coase, and Gordon Tullock. In terms of scholarly stature, that short list comprises two Nobel Prize winners (Buchanan and Coase) and a recipient of the American Economic Association Distinguished Fellow award (Tullock). It also includes an economist (Nutter) who, in the midst of the Cold War, described the Soviet economy more accurately than any of the major experts in that field. Virginia Political Economy was characterized by four foundational principles: the endogeneity ...


Hong Kong Youth Identity And Self-Presentation In The New Territories: A Qualitative Study On Letters From Youth And Teachers To An Ngo Internship Progrm, Robert W. Spires Jan 2018

Hong Kong Youth Identity And Self-Presentation In The New Territories: A Qualitative Study On Letters From Youth And Teachers To An Ngo Internship Progrm, Robert W. Spires

School of Professional and Continuing Studies Faculty Publications

Hong Kong youth issues have gained increased attention in recent years, particularly in light of youth protests and political involvement. In Hong Kong, NGOs are one avenue of intervention to address youth issues. This study examines the letters of youth from the New Territories, as well as their supporting secondary school teachers, to a Hong Kong NGO in order to gain placement in an NGO internship program. These letters are explored for issues of youth identity using the lens of dialogical self theory to better understand the impact of globalization on youth identity development. How the youth and their teachers ...


From Justice To Fairness: Does Kant's Doctrine Of Right Imply A Theory Of Distributive Justice?, Michael Nance, Jeppe Von Platz Jan 2018

From Justice To Fairness: Does Kant's Doctrine Of Right Imply A Theory Of Distributive Justice?, Michael Nance, Jeppe Von Platz

Philosophy Faculty Publications

The fact that Kant does not articulate a theory of distributive justice has not kept political philosophers from citing Kant as inspiration and support for whatever theory of distributive justice they favor - including those who argue that the notion of distributive justice is itself mistaken. This widespread reliance on Kant invites the question, "Does the Doctrine of Right imply a theory of distributive justice?"

To address this question, we discuss Paul Guyer's argument that Kant's Doctrine of Right implies, roughly, the principles of distributive justice as found in Rawls's justice as fairness. Guyer's argument is that ...


Perspective: Arabia Infelix: The War Devouring Yemen, Sheila Carapico Dec 2017

Perspective: Arabia Infelix: The War Devouring Yemen, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

For many centuries, European cartographers labeled the southwest corner of the otherwise mostly desert Arabian Peninsula as Arabia Felix, or “Happy Arabia.” It was a place where towering mountains trapped clouds blown in from the Indian Ocean so that twice-annual monsoon rains blessed terraced slopes and lowland wadis with plentiful crops. Sadly, since fighting engulfed the country in late March 2015, Yemen has never been less felix.


Ethnic Violence, Local Security And Return Migration: Enclave Communities In Kosovo, Sandra F. Joireman Sep 2017

Ethnic Violence, Local Security And Return Migration: Enclave Communities In Kosovo, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

Forced migration has become commonplace in the international political landscape. In 2015, 60 million people were displaced by violence, more than ever before recorded (UNHCR, 2015). While we know that violence leads to displacement, we know little about return migration after conflict – who comes back and where they settle. This article seeks to engage and supplement the literature on return migration after conflict, advocating for a broader understanding of the security choices made by displaced people. Emphasized here is the importance of a local understanding of safety and the role played by enclave communities in providing a secure context in ...


Protecting Future Rights For Future Citizens: Children’S Property Rights In Fragile Environments, Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2017

Protecting Future Rights For Future Citizens: Children’S Property Rights In Fragile Environments, Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

The property rights of children is an understudied area that straddles the development/humanitarian divide. Access to assets is important to the livelihood choices and economic well-being of adults. Yet, adults’ ability to claim property can be significantly impaired by humanitarian emergencies that occurred in their youth. We typically do not think of children as economic actors because of their age; their property rights are future rights not yet realized. This paper addresses the future rights to property held by children and examines how fragile environments, characterized by conflict, displacement and disease, can undermine their ability to claim those rights ...


Chile's Elites Face Demands For Reform, Jennifer Pribble Jan 2017

Chile's Elites Face Demands For Reform, Jennifer Pribble

Political Science Faculty Publications

An estimated one million Chileans took to the streets in August 2016 to demand reform of the country’s privatized pension system, calling for an end to individualized retirement savings accounts, which were created in 1981 during General Augusto Pinochet’s military dictatorship. The mobilization, involving around 5 percent of the country’s population, was the largest since Chile’s return to democracy in 1990. Demonstrations of growing discontent have become common in Chile of late. The pension protests came in the wake of more than five years of student mobilization aimed at forcing a reform of the Pinochet-era education ...


Politica Y Efectividad De Las Institutciones Municipales En Chile, Jennifer Pribble Jan 2017

Politica Y Efectividad De Las Institutciones Municipales En Chile, Jennifer Pribble

Political Science Faculty Publications

Uno de los hallazgos centrales en la obra de Valenzuela (1977) sobre política chilena a nivel local, es que el cargo municipal a menudo constituía el primer escalón hacia la elección en uno de mayor prestigio a nivel nacional, como diputado o senador. Una mirada a la política chilena posterior a 1970 sugiere que esta tendencia es menos común en la actualidad. A pesar del poder relativo y la relevancia de los alcaldes, especialmente en municipalidades urbanas de bajos ingresos, solo un puñado de individuos ha seguido una carrera en la política a nivel nacional2. Aun así, muchos ediles ...


Do Muslim Village Girls Need Saving? Critical Reflections On Gender And Childhood Suffering In International Aid, Rania Kassab Sweis Jan 2017

Do Muslim Village Girls Need Saving? Critical Reflections On Gender And Childhood Suffering In International Aid, Rania Kassab Sweis

Sociology and Anthropology Faculty Publications

Without contesting the idea that many Muslim girls around the world do constitute victims in very real ways. In this chapter, I want to raise a different set of questions. What does it mean when powerful actors in western-based international NGOs recognize the Muslim village girl as the ultimate savable victim? What gendered and racialized logics are at play in this category's strategic deployment, and what are their tangible effects for both NGOs and village girls who receive aid?


Wealth Inequality And Activism: Perceiving Injustice Galvanizes Social Change But Perceptions Depend On Political Ideologies, Crystal L. Hoyt, Aaron J. Moss, Jeni L. Burnette, Annette Schieffelin, Abigail Goethals Jan 2017

Wealth Inequality And Activism: Perceiving Injustice Galvanizes Social Change But Perceptions Depend On Political Ideologies, Crystal L. Hoyt, Aaron J. Moss, Jeni L. Burnette, Annette Schieffelin, Abigail Goethals

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

What motivates people to engage in activism against wealth inequality? The simple answer is, perceiving injustice. However, the current work demonstrates that these perceptions depend on political ideologies. More specifically, for political liberals who frequently question the fairness of the economic system, messages simply describing the extent of the inequality (distributive injustice) are enough to motivate activism (Study 1). For political conservatives, who are inclined to believe that inequality results from fair procedures, messages must also detail how the system of economic forces is unjust (procedural injustice; Studies 2 and 3). Together, these studies suggest perceiving injustice can galvanize social ...


African Americans In White Suburbia: Social Networks And Political Behavior, Ernest Mcgowen Iii Jan 2017

African Americans In White Suburbia: Social Networks And Political Behavior, Ernest Mcgowen Iii

Bookshelf

Despite decades of progress, African Americans living in largely white affluent suburbs still often find themselves caught between the two worlds of race and class. High economic status has afforded them considerable employment opportunities and political resources—but not necessarily neighbors, coworkers, or local candidates or office holders who share or even understand their concerns. How does such an environment affect the political behavior of African Americans who have strong racial identifications and policy preferences? This is the question Ernest B. McGowen III asks in African Americans in White Suburbia.

McGowen uses a combination of surveys to understand the attitudes ...


Partidos Políticos Y Estado De Bienestar En América Latina, Jennifer Pribble Jan 2017

Partidos Políticos Y Estado De Bienestar En América Latina, Jennifer Pribble

Bookshelf

El Estado de bienestar se construyó con el objetivo de ofrecer protección social a todas las personas, especialmente a los grupos más pobres y vulnerables de la sociedad. Sin embargo, no todos los sistemas de protección social son iguales. Históricamente, los sistemas de protección social en América Latina registran grandes brechas de cobertura y altos niveles de desigualdad en la distribución de los beneficios. Desde fines de los años noventa, varios países de la región tratan de afrontar estos retos promulgando una serie de reformas en salud pública, asistencia social y política educativa. Si bien algunas de estas iniciativas han ...


The Dream Is Lost: Voting Rights And The Politics Of Race In Richmond, Virginia, Julian Maxwell Hayter Jan 2017

The Dream Is Lost: Voting Rights And The Politics Of Race In Richmond, Virginia, Julian Maxwell Hayter

Bookshelf

Once the capital of the Confederacy and the industrial hub of slave-based tobacco production, Richmond, Virginia has been largely overlooked in the context of twentieth century urban and political history. By the early 1960s, the city served as an important center for integrated politics, as African Americans fought for fair representation and mobilized voters in order to overcome discriminatory policies. Richmond’s African Americans struggled to serve their growing communities in the face of unyielding discrimination. Yet, due to their dedication to strengthening the Voting Rights Act of 1965, African American politicians held a city council majority by the late ...


Crime, Morality, And Republicanism, Richard Dagger Jul 2016

Crime, Morality, And Republicanism, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

One of the abiding concerns of the philosophy of law has been to establish the relationship between law and morality. Within the criminal law, this concern often takes the form of debates over legal moralism--that is, "the position that immorality is sufficient for criminalization" (Alexander 2003: 131). This paper approaches these debates from the perspective of the recently revived republican tradition in politics and law. Contrary to what is usually taken to be liberalism's hostility to legal moralism, and especially to attempts to promote virtue through the criminal law, the republican approach takes the promotion of virtue to be ...


Local Ballot Will Be Different, Thomas J. Shields Jun 2016

Local Ballot Will Be Different, Thomas J. Shields

School of Professional and Continuing Studies Faculty Publications

Registered voters in the City of Richmond recently received an envelope from the Registrar’s Office with the words “Notice of Redistricting Changes” printed in red. For the first time since 1992, voters in Richmond and most of eastern Henrico County will not be voting in the 3rd Congressional District.


Diploma Thesis: Do Women Represent Women?, Vladimira Dostalova Apr 2016

Diploma Thesis: Do Women Represent Women?, Vladimira Dostalova

Jepson School of Leadership Studies Research Symposium

There is an implicit assumption behind advocating for women in elected offices that descriptive representation of women lead to a corresponding political output. This would mean that gender is one of the indicators of legislative behavior. To examine the role of gender in the substantial representation of women, I focus on the agenda setting process, which I measure as the sponsorship of group interest legislation. Data include all bills introduced in lower Houses of ten states, which provide necessary variance to control for party effect, overall ranking of the status of women, and level of women’s presence in a ...


Party Capability And The U.S. Courts Of Appeals: Understanding Why The “Haves” Win, John Szmer, Donald R. Songer, Jennifer Barnes Bowie Apr 2016

Party Capability And The U.S. Courts Of Appeals: Understanding Why The “Haves” Win, John Szmer, Donald R. Songer, Jennifer Barnes Bowie

Political Science Faculty Publications

While many studies have examined party capability theory, few have empirically examined the potential causal mechanisms underlying the theory. We do this by combining quantitative analyses with qualitative data drawn from interviews with over 60 US courts of appeals judges. We find that the “haves,” or repeat players, hire better lawyers and that these lawyers independently contribute to the success of the repeat players. We also find that the advantages of the haves extend to all parties, though to a lesser extent than the advantages enjoyed by the US government. These results remain robust after controlling for ideology.


Can Hunger End? (Book Review), Sandra F. Joireman Jan 2016

Can Hunger End? (Book Review), Sandra F. Joireman

Political Science Faculty Publications

In 2007 and 2008, food prices jumped sharply worldwide: wheat more than doubled in price, and rice was up by over half. In many parts of the world, people living on one or two dollars a day were simply unable to purchase the food they needed to survive. David Rieff’s book is framed by that unexpected spike in prices.


Arabia Incognita, Sheila Carapico Jan 2016

Arabia Incognita, Sheila Carapico

Bookshelf

In 2011, millions of Yemenis calling themselves the Peaceful Youth joyfully joined the “Arab Spring.” Four years later, popular aspirations for social justice and a serious attempt at national dialogue were thwarted by deadly domestic power struggles. When the pro-Saudi, US-supported government fled to Riyadh in April 2015, the Kingdom led a multinational military intervention inside Yemen. By December, daily bombardment had killed thousands of fighters and civilians, injured and displaced hundreds of thousands, and decimated homes and infrastructure. A naval blockade cut off access to fuel, medicine, and food for millions. In addition to this humanitarian catastrophe, the ensuing ...


Transnational Capitalism In East Central Europe's Heavy Industry: From Flagship Enterprises To Subsidiaries, Aleksandra Sznajder Lee Jan 2016

Transnational Capitalism In East Central Europe's Heavy Industry: From Flagship Enterprises To Subsidiaries, Aleksandra Sznajder Lee

Bookshelf

Focusing on the steel industry during the post-communist transition from 1989 through 2009, Aleksandra Sznajder Lee traces the transformation of flagship state enterprises in the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia into the subsidiaries of large, international corporations. By analyzing this transformation at the three levels of enterprise, sector, and national-international nexus, she identifies the players—from international investors and European Union members to national labor unions and local industry managers—in the political economy of reform. Even in the midst of the transition to a capitalist, democratic system, Sznajder Lee finds, the state plays a key role in mediating ...


Memory, Invention, And Delivery: Transmitting And Transforming Knowledge And Culture In Liberal Arts Education For The Future, Richard Dagger, Christopher Metress, J. Scott Lee Jan 2016

Memory, Invention, And Delivery: Transmitting And Transforming Knowledge And Culture In Liberal Arts Education For The Future, Richard Dagger, Christopher Metress, J. Scott Lee

Bookshelf

In a time when liberal arts education is increasingly under attack, this volume reminds readers that dedicated teachers at colleges and universities are passing on the heritage of liberal education as well as constructing its future. Future citizens, businesswomen and men, scientists, artists and those working in educational or social programs will all benefit from the insights of this volume into historical, ethical, literary and philosophical perspectives provided by core text liberal arts education.


A Long Time Gone: Post-Conflict Rural Property Restitution Under Customary Law, Sandra F. Joireman, Laura S. Meitzner Yoder Jan 2016

A Long Time Gone: Post-Conflict Rural Property Restitution Under Customary Law, Sandra F. Joireman, Laura S. Meitzner Yoder

Political Science Faculty Publications

Mass displacement of people due to violence poses a unique set of challenges for property restitution when people return to their homes after a long absence. This is particularly evident in rural areas where the dominant form of land holding is customary tenure. Violence-induced displacement, unlike voluntary migration, challenges both customary and public legaladministrative structures. The lack of written documentation of customary holdings and the importance of the support of community leaders means that incorporating returnees back into a community can be easier for those who choose to return, while reclaiming property without physical return is nearly impossible. This article ...


Playing Fair With Imprisonment, Richard Dagger Jan 2016

Playing Fair With Imprisonment, Richard Dagger

Political Science Faculty Publications

This chapter rests on two assumptions, at least one of which is controversial. The first is that something is wrong when a society imprisons as many people as the United States now does. According to a widely published columnist, George Will, the rate of imprisonment was about 100 per 100,000 Americans until the 1970s. Since then the rate has shot up, to the point where "700 per 100,000" are now in prison; "America," Will reported in 2013, "has nearly 5 percent of the world's population but almost 25 percent of its prisoners." It is possible, of course ...


Learning From Failure: A Review Of Peter Schuck’S Why Government Fails So Often: And How It Can Do Better (Book Review), David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart Jan 2015

Learning From Failure: A Review Of Peter Schuck’S Why Government Fails So Often: And How It Can Do Better (Book Review), David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Peter Schuck catalogs an overwhelming list of US government failures. He points to both structural problems (culture and institutions) and incentives. Despairing of cultural change, Schuck focuses on incentives. He relies on Charles Wolf ’s theory of nonmarket failures in which “internalities” replace the heavily-studied market failure from externalities (Wolf 1979). Internalities are evidence of a discord between the public goals by which a program is defended and the private goals of its administrators. What might economists contribute? We suggest that economists have neglected internalities because they take group goals as exogenously determined and we defend an alternative tradition in ...


Social Security Disability Insurance And Supplemental Security Income, Jennifer L. Erkulwater Jan 2015

Social Security Disability Insurance And Supplemental Security Income, Jennifer L. Erkulwater

Political Science Faculty Publications

Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) are the foundation of the social safety net for Americans with disabilities. Both provide cash benefits, and because neither program is limited to specific impairments or to workers in particular occupations, as is the case with many public and private disability plans, they are broadly accessible to the American people and the most expensive of the nation's disability benefit programs. Excluding expenditures for health care, DI and SSI combined account for almost three-quarters of annual federal spending on the disabled (U.S. GAO 1999).

Disability benefits policy, though, has ...


Ugandan Politics World War Ii (1939-1949), Carol Summers Jan 2015

Ugandan Politics World War Ii (1939-1949), Carol Summers

History Faculty Publications

World War II shaped Uganda's postwar politics through local understandings of global war.1 Individually and collectively Ugandans saw the war as an opportunity rather than simply a crisis. During the War, the acquired wealth and demonstrated loyalty to a stressed British empire, inverting paternalistic imperial relations and investing loyalty and money in ways they expected would be reciprocated with political and economic rewards. For the 77,000 Ugandan enlisted soldiers and for the civilians who grew coffee and cotton, contributed money and organizational skills, and followed the war news, the war was not a desperate struggle for survival ...