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Making Deliberation Work: Testing Theories Of Deliberation, Christina Ladam Jan 2019

Making Deliberation Work: Testing Theories Of Deliberation, Christina Ladam

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In this project, I address three questions concerning the design and implementation of deliberative institutions in the United States. First, how do institutional choices in recruitment affect the pool of willing participants? I argue that people will express greater interest in taking part in deliberation when it is presented in a nonpartisan manner. Using a series of online experiments, I demonstrate that invitations from nonpartisan conveners illicit interest from politically diverse groups. Second, what factors affect participants' behavior during deliberative sessions? A common critique of deliberative democracy is that it cannot overcome the well-documented biases in people's information processing ...


Issue Salience And Lawmaking: How Public Attention Drives Lawmaker Behavior, Joseph Colin Zamadics Jan 2019

Issue Salience And Lawmaking: How Public Attention Drives Lawmaker Behavior, Joseph Colin Zamadics

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation advances issue salience as a theoretical concept in lawmaking. Often, issue salience is used as a control or omitted from analyses that focus on other concepts in lawmaking such as public opinion, constituent demographics, and lawmaker characteristics. I argue that the field's theoretical understanding of lawmaking is incomplete without considering issue salience. In order to insert issue salience into current models of lawmaking, the concept must be better defined. I uncover various nuances in issue salience by parsing out differences in issues and the lawmaking entity that is the receiver of the signal. I do so by ...


Pacifying The Peacekeepers: How State Involvement In U.N. Peacekeeping Reduces Military Threats To Democracy, Timothy James Alexander Passmore Jan 2019

Pacifying The Peacekeepers: How State Involvement In U.N. Peacekeeping Reduces Military Threats To Democracy, Timothy James Alexander Passmore

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

What explains why countries undergoing transitions to democracy are major contributors of personnel to United Nations peacekeeping operations? In recent decades, the provision of such personnel has been adopted largely by weak or nascent democracies. In the same period, the world has witnessed a decline in military coup activity. I argue that new democracies use peacekeeping to reduce the threat posed by the military during the years of transition and thereby increase the likelihood of democratic consolidation. In the short term such governments can credibly commit to maintaining the military since peacekeeping offers a variety of private benefits, while its ...


The Morality Of National Defense: An Aristotelian-Thomist Account, Craig M. White May 2018

The Morality Of National Defense: An Aristotelian-Thomist Account, Craig M. White

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In current just war theory debates, some scholars claim that a moral right to defend a nation cannot be demonstrated. Others claim that any case for the morality of even defensive war must reflect standards of interpersonal morality. This dissertation goes back to the natural law tradition behind just war theory to offer a moral argument in favor of national defense that is not based on an individualist account, but also rejects absolute accounts of national sovereignty, with its attendant problems. National defense is usually but not always just.

I defend arguing from “a tradition” in MacIntyre’s sense, and ...


Identity, Civic Duty And Electoral Participation: Causes Of Variation In Electoral Participation, Matthew Fitzgerald Foster Jan 2018

Identity, Civic Duty And Electoral Participation: Causes Of Variation In Electoral Participation, Matthew Fitzgerald Foster

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

What causes variation in the turnout of an individual from election to election? Most individual level predictors of turnout can account for the propensity of an individual to vote but fail to account for changes in turnout behavior. Broad aggregate factors can account for variation in turnout trends from election to election but fail to account for changes in turnout at the individual level. In this dissertation I argue that civic duty can capture the variation that typical predictors of voter turnout cannot. Civic duty can account for variation in the turnout of high and low propensity voters, as well ...


Pocketbook In Private? How Observability Causes Individuals To Behave Sociotropically In Political Economy, James Michael Pripusich Jan 2018

Pocketbook In Private? How Observability Causes Individuals To Behave Sociotropically In Political Economy, James Michael Pripusich

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Why do individuals engage in political economy egocentrically at some times and sociotropically at others? I claim that human beings will be more likely to demonstrate attitudes and behaviors that are in their own self-interest when in private, and those that are in the interests of others when in public. A survey of the research in mass political economy shows a major divide over whether individuals are selfish actors or hold strong motivations to benefit the collective. While there is merit to both of these approaches, neither is a panacea. Furthermore, I demonstrate that conflicting findings in existing research need ...


Political Freedoms And Productive Firms: Exporters And Their Effect On Trade Policy In Democracies And Autocracies, Megan Elizabeth Roosevelt Jan 2018

Political Freedoms And Productive Firms: Exporters And Their Effect On Trade Policy In Democracies And Autocracies, Megan Elizabeth Roosevelt

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

What explains variation in trade policy openness across countries? Past explanations have hinged on individual-level preferences expressed through a voting channel, especially to account for more liberal trade policy in democracies, but recent survey data calls the plausibility of this mechanism into question. In this three-paper dissertation, I focus on firm-level variation in preferences for free trade or protection, rooted in a New New Trade Theory (NNTT) framework. This theoretical response to classic and new trade theories emphasizes the heterogeneity of firms, and particularly the fundamental differences between exporting firms and domestically-oriented or import-competing firms.

Before proceeding with a firm-level ...


Another Pathway To Foreign Direct Investment: Diaspora Engagement Policies, Seungbin Park Jan 2018

Another Pathway To Foreign Direct Investment: Diaspora Engagement Policies, Seungbin Park

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In the post-Washington consensus world, developing countries consider foreign direct investment (FDI) economically beneficial. Although these capital-scarce countries have competed for FDI to promote economic development, they have not attracted much FDI. Instead, FDI has been concentrated in certain countries. Recently, an increasing number of developing countries have employed various diaspora engagement policies (DEPs) for the promotion of FDI, yet these policies' impact on FDI is not well understood. Hence, in this dissertation, I examine the role of DEPs in promoting FDI. I propose three questions. First, do DEPs increase FDI into developing countries? Second, how do DEPs increase FDI ...


Beyond Secularism: Radical Orthodoxy In Conversation With Radical Democracy, Matthew Raymond Bradney Jan 2017

Beyond Secularism: Radical Orthodoxy In Conversation With Radical Democracy, Matthew Raymond Bradney

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In my dissertation, I set for myself three basic tasks. First, I try to show that much radical democratic theory results in nihilism. Second, I draw out the consequences of nihilism. Put briefly, the major consequence of nihilism is the unreasonable character of almost all of our deeply held moral and political beliefs, such as the dignity of human beings, the value of democracy, the importance of rights, and so forth. The nihilistic conclusion, then, is that the West cannot justify its own values. Third, and most importantly, I examine how the conclusion of nihilism might be avoided. Is there ...


The Morality Of National Defense: An Aristotelian-Thomist Account, Craig Michael White Jan 2017

The Morality Of National Defense: An Aristotelian-Thomist Account, Craig Michael White

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In current just war theory debates, some scholars claim that a moral right to defend a nation cannot be demonstrated. Others claim that any case for the morality of even defensive war must reflect standards of interpersonal morality. This dissertation goes back to the natural law tradition behind just war theory to offer a moral argument in favor of national defense that is not based on an individualist account, but also rejects absolute accounts of national sovereignty, with its attendant problems. National defense is usually but not always just.

I defend arguing from “a tradition” in MacIntyre’s sense, and ...


Judicial Reform Amid Violence In Latin America, Erin Terese Huebert Jan 2017

Judicial Reform Amid Violence In Latin America, Erin Terese Huebert

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

My dissertation investigates the puzzle of rising crime across Latin America amidst improvements in human development and democratic governance. While efforts have been made to reform the criminal justice system, we do not know the conditions under which judicial reform effectively deters homicide. Drawing on four months of fieldwork in Mexico as well as a novel cross-national dataset and a sub-national design in Mexico, I find that criminal procedure reforms aimed at improving due process are not sufficient for deterring homicide in places where non-state actors (i.e. drug cartels) effectively challenge the state’s monopoly of violence. In these ...


Insulating For Investment: Regulatory Institutions And The Multinational Firm In Infrastructure Industries, Andrew Frazer Hart Jan 2017

Insulating For Investment: Regulatory Institutions And The Multinational Firm In Infrastructure Industries, Andrew Frazer Hart

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Why do some countries obtain more foreign direct investment (FDI) in infrastructure industries than others? Previous explanations for FDI have emphasized that host states mustprovide foreign investors with a credible commitment to alleviate concerns about political risks. Building on this insight, this project argues that countries’ sectoral regulatory institutions – a frequently overlooked factor in FDI research – can help states produce this commitment. The main argument is that sectoral regulatory agencies that are designed to be politically independent insulate foreign investors in the telecommunications and electricity industries from political risks, thereby increasing FDI into these sectors. I also identify that the ...


The Politics Of Local Privatization: Privatized Service Delivery And The Strength Of Local Democracy, Ryan C. Dawkins Jan 2017

The Politics Of Local Privatization: Privatized Service Delivery And The Strength Of Local Democracy, Ryan C. Dawkins

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Privatized service delivery is an increasingly prominent feature of local governance, especially as local governments across the country are seeking greater efficiency in the face of perpetual fiscal crisis. However, as local governments outsource more of its responsibilities to private companies, many argue that it shrinks the size of the public sphere, attenuates the bonds that tie people to their governments, and ultimately undermines the quality of local representative government. While democratic theorists have long warned against the dangers of privatization, such warnings have often lacked empirical support. In other words, relatively little is known about the effect that privatization ...


It Takes More Than A Village: Governance & Public Services In Developing Countries, Alan Zarychta Jan 2016

It Takes More Than A Village: Governance & Public Services In Developing Countries, Alan Zarychta

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Many developing countries face persistent challenges in providing public services to poor, rural communities: health clinics do not have the doctors or medications needed to treat patients, teachers do not show up on a regular basis, and environmental resources are left unmanaged. In response, development organizations have prescribed various public sector governance reforms. These reforms, the most prominent of which is decentralization, aim to improve services by shifting authorities, responsibilities, and resources away from locally-elected governments and toward a multitude of organizations and individuals forming broader governance systems. This dissertation investigates the social, institutional, and relational factors that shape the ...


Untested Membership: Reputation, Ambiguity And International Relations, Thomas Richard Cook Jan 2016

Untested Membership: Reputation, Ambiguity And International Relations, Thomas Richard Cook

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

International actors face a dilemma. While agreements with other states can yield substantial benefits, actors are often left uncertain as to whether their potential partners will follow-through on their commitments. Actors attempt to reduce this uncertainty by assessing their partners reputation. Scholars characterize a states reputation with an international actor as the outcome of a specific sequence of events wherein the state (1) joins an agreement (2) demonstrates compliance or non-compliance with its obligations under the agreement (3) is observed demonstrating compliance/non-compliance by the international actor and (4) comes to have a reputation for reliability with that actor.

But ...


Limits To Human Rights Protection: Regime Type And Asylum Recognition, Leslie Ochreiter Jan 2016

Limits To Human Rights Protection: Regime Type And Asylum Recognition, Leslie Ochreiter

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Why do states provide protection to asylum seekers? Throughout the literature, regime type and human rights are consistently related: democracies are better at protecting and promoting human rights, both at home and abroad. Yet, little is known about how states engage in human rights protection when the externalities of rights violations abroad, asylum seekers, arrive at a state’s borders seeking its protection and assistance in a formal legal capacity. In spite of the existence of several international instruments pertaining to refugees and political asylum, considerable variation in the acceptance of refugees exists across host states. My research explores the ...


Advanced Search Than Others?: An Explanation For Pta Bargaining Delay, Kim-Lee Grant Tuxhorn Jan 2016

Advanced Search Than Others?: An Explanation For Pta Bargaining Delay, Kim-Lee Grant Tuxhorn

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Why do some trade agreements take longer to conclude than others? PTAs have increasingly grown in number over the last 30 years, and nearly every country is member to one, if not dozens. Yet despite the popularity and the associated costs of interstate bargaining, substantial variation exists in the length of negotiation times. Some preferential trade agreement (PTA) negotiations take over a decade to conclude while others are implemented in less in two years. More puzzling, my data show that on average PTA negotiations require more time to conclude than World Trade Organization (WTO) rounds. This finding runs contrary to ...


The Political Determinants Of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Cody Daniel Eldredge Jan 2016

The Political Determinants Of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Cody Daniel Eldredge

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Over the past half-century, roughly one-quarter of states in the international system have created Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs). As a case of sovereign states investing public money mostly in private markets across borders, it is not altogether clear why SWFs have proliferated to this extent. What explains their spread in recent decades? In this dissertation, I argue that states create SWFs as a type of insurance against external risks that arise from participating in global markets. I reason that relatively vulnerable, medium powers presided over by secure leaders are the states most likely to create this type of institution. This ...


Preserving The Integrity Of Courts: Can State Courts Influence Public Knowledge And Perceptions Of The Judicial Branch?, Corey Michael Barwick Jan 2016

Preserving The Integrity Of Courts: Can State Courts Influence Public Knowledge And Perceptions Of The Judicial Branch?, Corey Michael Barwick

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Although the total number of incoming cases at the federal-level in 2013 was over 350,000, the total number of incoming cases at the state-level hovered between 90 and 100 million. To say that state courts are important to the American political system is an understatement. They determine, to paraphrase former Justice William Brennan, whether the United States truly lives up to the ideal of equal justice for all. It is therefore surprising that very little research has examined what people know or how people feel about these institutions. In this dissertation, I attempt to uncover the extent of the ...


Local Economies And National Politics: How Members Of Congress Respond To Economic Crisis, Adam Forrest Cayton Jan 2016

Local Economies And National Politics: How Members Of Congress Respond To Economic Crisis, Adam Forrest Cayton

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the nature of dyadic representation in the House of Representatives during the contemporary era of elite polarization and nationalized political conflict. Members of the House are each accountable to a unique geographic constituency but face pressures from polarized national parties. How do lawmakers balance these competing pressures? I argue that members of Congress are responsive to the needs of their districts, but that the nature of the representational relationship depends on the characteristics of the district, level of intra-party consensus on the issue at hand, and the visibility of the behavior in question. I have compiled a ...


Education Inequality: An Examination Of The Political And Economic Factors Associated With Educational Disparities Around The World, Nichole Marie Torpey-Saboe Jan 2016

Education Inequality: An Examination Of The Political And Economic Factors Associated With Educational Disparities Around The World, Nichole Marie Torpey-Saboe

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Education is broadly recognized as a human right and is critical to the achievement of other individual and social goods. Yet despite widespread recognition of the importance of education, access is still very uneven. In some countries, education is available to all on a fairly equal basis, while in others, only the elite are educated. What explains this variation? While much attention has been paid to income inequality, education inequality is less understood. Drawing from theories on human capital and income inequality, I hypothesize that education inequality is shaped by the forces of modernization, globalization, and democratization. I construct a ...


Networks And Legislative Politics In Brazil: Exploring The Causes And Consequences Of Political Networks For Parties And Legislators, Stefan J. Wojcik Jan 2015

Networks And Legislative Politics In Brazil: Exploring The Causes And Consequences Of Political Networks For Parties And Legislators, Stefan J. Wojcik

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Do political and legislative ties matter as much as conventional partisan or institutional factors for parties, candidates, and legislative voting? Scholars frequently think of parties as more or less discrete, stable political entities which form and compete in elections. Similarly, when they talk about influence between legislators, they tend to talk about institutional sources of influence - such as leadership influence, constituent influence, or party influence; but scholars often ignore social sources of influence - influence due to actors' embeddedness in social networks. In this dissertation, I develop theories of legislative network formation and legislative influence; and leverage network-analytic techniques to empirically ...


Explaining A New Foreign Aid Recipient: The European Union's Provision Of Foreign Aid To Regional Trade Agreements, 1995-2013, Brandy J. Jolliff Jan 2015

Explaining A New Foreign Aid Recipient: The European Union's Provision Of Foreign Aid To Regional Trade Agreements, 1995-2013, Brandy J. Jolliff

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

What explains the emergence of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) as recipients of foreign aid? I argue that foreign aid provision to IGOs is a significant development in the foreign policy of the European Union and explain this phenomenon by modifying the traditional donor interest versus recipient need framework for understanding aid allocations, where aid giving to IGOs, rather than states, is a new tool of aid allocation for the purpose of recipient need rather than the pursuit of donor interests. Using original data on European Commission foreign aid allocations to PTAs from 1995-2013, I test the argument that EU aid allocations ...


International Institutions And Domestic Commitments In Non-Democratic Regimes, Jia Chen Jan 2015

International Institutions And Domestic Commitments In Non-Democratic Regimes, Jia Chen

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Conventional wisdom holds that countries ruled by non-democratic regimes are less likely to join international organizations. But scholars have been unable to explain why some of the non-democratic states are involved in international institutions more than others. This dissertation furthers a theoretical explanation for the variation in non-democratic regimes' international cooperation behavior and presents quantitative evidences that support it. I argue that non-democratic regimes will participate more in international cooperation when the domestic political economic structure allows the autocrat to use international institutions to secure their political tenure at home. The biggest threat to the political survival of autocrats stems ...


Scientific Authority: An Epistemic Proceduralist Framework For The Legitimate Authority Of Science In Environmental Policy, Matthew Evan Heller Jan 2015

Scientific Authority: An Epistemic Proceduralist Framework For The Legitimate Authority Of Science In Environmental Policy, Matthew Evan Heller

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The formation and implementation of effective environmental policies by Western liberal democracies are frequently hindered by disagreement over the appropriate role of scientific knowledge. In my dissertation, I argue this obstruction is resolved by recognizing the legitimate authority of science in environmental policy-making. Drawing on David Estlund’s epistemic proceduralist theory of democracy, I demonstrate the compatibility of the authority of scientific knowledge claims about the cause and effect relationships of the biophysical world in environmental policy-making with our normative expectations for the justifications of democratic governance. After defending this approach to understanding the science-policy interface, I demonstrate the feasibility ...


Potential Fighting Capability And State Concessions: A Study Of Violent Rebellion And Nonviolent Resistance, Christopher Joseph Cyr Jan 2015

Potential Fighting Capability And State Concessions: A Study Of Violent Rebellion And Nonviolent Resistance, Christopher Joseph Cyr

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the reasons that some non-state actors choose to engage in nonviolent resistance while others, with similar goals, engage in violent rebellion. I then look why, among groups that do use violence, some see longer and more intense conflicts than others. I argue that the variance in the potential that these groups have to grow in strength during the process of fighting has an impact on all three of these variables, with groups that have less potential being more likely to use violence, and fighting longer and more intense conflicts. I test my hypotheses quantitatively with several indicators ...


Taking The Lead: Congressional Staffers And Their Role In The Policy Process, Sara Lynn Hagedorn Jan 2015

Taking The Lead: Congressional Staffers And Their Role In The Policy Process, Sara Lynn Hagedorn

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The world of congressional staff is largely an unseen one, both in the media and within political science. Little scholarship exists on their role in Congress, with nearly none on their role in the policy process and agenda setting. Most of the research on Congressional agenda setting and policy development ignores the role staff play in the process, assuming members do all of the work themselves and staff handle menial tasks. This dissertation looks at the role Congressional staff play in the agenda setting process in Congress. Using the data acquired from an original survey of over 500 current and ...


Drinking Water Provision In Rural China, Elise Pizzi Jan 2015

Drinking Water Provision In Rural China, Elise Pizzi

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Why do governments succeed in delivering services to some communities but not to others? To assess the factors that explain cross-community variation in public goods provision, I examine government spending on water infrastructure and drinking water outcomes in China. I find that connections from villagers to individuals and officials outside the village affect drinking water provision. Despite the lack of elections and associated need to cater to voter demands, the Chinese government spends more on water provision to the politically dominant ethnic group. I find that the dominant group is favored because officials rely on network connections for policy implementation ...


Lines In The Water: Why Do Some Maritime Disputes Linger While Others Get Resolved?, Benjamin Swift Purser Iii Jan 2015

Lines In The Water: Why Do Some Maritime Disputes Linger While Others Get Resolved?, Benjamin Swift Purser Iii

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

To explore potential policy opportunities for managing the disputes of the South China Sea and the Arctic, this multi-method research combines quantitative and qualitative analysis of the population of all modern maritime disputes (since 1900). This inquiry engages multivariate analysis of a unique data set and comparative case studies in order to examine how different factors (of both the disputed areas and the claimant nation-states) can explain dispute duration, escalation, and resolution. While extant literature treats maritime disputes as the unexplained error term of territorial conflict, this project argues that there are three distinct types of maritime disputes and that ...


Citizens, Governments And Ngos: Is Three A Crowd?, Jami Nelson Nuñez Jul 2014

Citizens, Governments And Ngos: Is Three A Crowd?, Jami Nelson Nuñez

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The exponential growth of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries is highly linked to the belief that NGOs can forward human and economic development while engendering democratic development. The ability of NGOs to simultaneously fulfill these two roles remains an open question. Voices critical of NGOs allege that when NGOs that step in mainly to fill gaps in service provision, they ultimately prevent local governments from developing their own adequate service provision institutions, because citizens stop holding government accountable and local governments fail to the build the necessary capacity for service provision.

These critical concerns are the motivating impetus of ...