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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Government Respect For Human Rights And Their Relation To Shadow Economic Activity, Christopher Gahagan Jan 2019

Government Respect For Human Rights And Their Relation To Shadow Economic Activity, Christopher Gahagan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shadow economic activity can have detrimental effects on many aspects of a society including trust in government policies, quality of public institutions, government revenues, and economic growth. Empirical studies have generally employed a rational actor approach and focused on economic factors. Most studies in this literature claim that when individuals do not receive the right economic stimuli from the government, it damages the relationship between individuals and the state and citizens opt to move into the shadow economy. A small but growing body of research, however, suggests that certain political factors can also lead to shadow economic activity because of ...


Appropriate Adjective: Executive Authority And The Classification Of Enemy Combatants, Taraleigh Davis Jan 2019

Appropriate Adjective: Executive Authority And The Classification Of Enemy Combatants, Taraleigh Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Is the term enemy combatant an established legal category of persons under international law? Has the President exceeded his constitutional authority in classifying United States citizens who are suspected terrorists as enemy combatants? In 2018 a U.S. citizen was released after being held for 13 months as an enemy combatant. He was detained without being charged with a crime and without the ability to challenge the legality of his detention. This thesis serves two purposes. First, it will seek to trace the history of the term enemy combatant and highlight the evolution of its use by the executive branch ...


Comparative Analysis Of The Relationship Between State Security And Ethnic Minority Oppression, Grayson Lanza Jan 2019

Comparative Analysis Of The Relationship Between State Security And Ethnic Minority Oppression, Grayson Lanza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research investigates the relationship between the state economic outlook, state security apparatus and the presence of ethnic minority oppression within the state's borders. Modern states have developed extensive security apparatuses as they have developed their economies and this research intended to identify the possibility of a connection between the development of these aspects of the state in relation to ethnic minority repression. The research is broken up into a research design and introductory section, a case study section, and a final analysis and conclusion section. Each of the four case studies studied a and ethnic minority relationship, and ...


How Political Violence Helps Explain Organized Crime: A Case Study Of Mexico's "War On Drugs", Alanna Fulk Jan 2019

How Political Violence Helps Explain Organized Crime: A Case Study Of Mexico's "War On Drugs", Alanna Fulk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines research from the disciplines of political science and criminal justice to develop a theory that explains geographic variation in violence related to organized crime. Large-scale organized crime violence exhibits characteristics of both ordinary crime violence and political violence, but these subjects are generally analyzed separately. However, as large-scale organized crime has become more prevalent and violent in recent years, most notably in Latin America, studies, including this one, have attempted to cross disciplinary boundaries in order to better explain trends in organized crime onset, termination and violence. This thesis argues that although the overall goal of organized ...


Political Knowledge And Political Engagement In The United States, Brittany Shaul Jan 2019

Political Knowledge And Political Engagement In The United States, Brittany Shaul

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined the impact of political knowledge on forms of political engagement in the United States. Prior literature has established a relationship between political knowledge and political engagement, where those with higher political knowledge were more likely to engage politically through acts such as voting. This study distinguished between the various forms of political engagement and political knowledge, and seeks to provide relevant data on who is more likely to have political knowledge, and what impact having political knowledge has. This served to reexamine trends found in past literature, in order to see if these trends have persisted or ...


The African Puzzle: A Study Of Democratic Backsliding In Sub Saharan Africa, Ailbhe Rice Jan 2018

The African Puzzle: A Study Of Democratic Backsliding In Sub Saharan Africa, Ailbhe Rice

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The following study examines the future of democratization and the apparent trend towards autocratization within the context of democratic backsliding in Sub-Saharan Africa. Initially, the findings indicate that regionally, backsliding is not acting fundamentally different in Sub-Saharan Africa when compared to other regions. The analysis finds that regime duration and civil conflict are both significant when it comes to the study of democratic backsliding. The variable for the prior military regime's is extremely significant in all of the models and is, therefore, a strong indicator of backsliding in Africa. The chief takeaway from the study is in the variable ...


Ethnic Exclusion & Conflict In The Caspian: Comparing Kazakhstan & Azerbaijan, Danny Krikorian Jan 2018

Ethnic Exclusion & Conflict In The Caspian: Comparing Kazakhstan & Azerbaijan, Danny Krikorian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Political science explains various motives for political violence. This research focuses on a particular kind of motivation: ethnicity. The 20th century has seen many instances of ethnic violence, and this research seeks to understand why it occurs in one place and time and not the other. Traditionally the literature on ethnic violence reflects on economic conditions, regime type, geopolitics and historical context as significant variables. This research posits that Kazakhstan managed to avoid ethnic violence because it is more politically developed. The existence of an accommodative legislative assembly, which assures the rights of ethnic minorities, is an example of Kazakhstan ...


Anti-Capitalism In The Contemporary Age: The Case Of The United Socialist Party Of Venezuela, William Maddens Jan 2018

Anti-Capitalism In The Contemporary Age: The Case Of The United Socialist Party Of Venezuela, William Maddens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the popularity of anti-capitalist parties around the world has fallen. However, there are still surviving anti-capitalist political parties that survived this fall. In examining these parties, it must be determined whether they have any fresh ideas to overcoming the challenges of transitioning to a socialist society, and if they have any answers to the problems that plagued past attempts at socialism. One such party that has enjoyed much electoral success is the United Socialist Party of Venezuela. When taking a look at party programs, platforms, and statements made by party leaders ...


A Theory Of Cultural Tolerance For Preventing Ethnic Conflict: Evidence From Former Soviet States, Ajara Boulibekova Jan 2018

A Theory Of Cultural Tolerance For Preventing Ethnic Conflict: Evidence From Former Soviet States, Ajara Boulibekova

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The prevention of ethnic conflict has been examined and debated upon within the Political Science community; studies involving economic standing, government structure, and historical background have been credited with reducing or preventing ethnic conflict. In the years leading up to the demise of the Soviet Union ethnic conflict was felt heavily throughout the Socialist Republics. After the fall of the U.S.S.R. scholars were certain that ethnic conflict would arise in Kazakhstan but alas it did not, while other post-Soviet states, such as Moldova and Russia, had experienced ethnic conflict. What prevents ethnic conflict from occurring in one ...


Determinants Of Terrorist Target Selection: A Quantitative Analysis, Taylor Haywood Jan 2017

Determinants Of Terrorist Target Selection: A Quantitative Analysis, Taylor Haywood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Existing research on the subject of terrorism is vast, spanning causes of terrorism, the membership of terrorist groups, types of terrorist attacks, and more. One area of terrorism research, though, has received only limited consideration: terrorist target selection. What research does exist explains target selection almost exclusively as a function of ideology (Asal et al. 2009, 270 and 274; Drake 1998b, 54-56 and 58). However, such a limited causal focus obscures other possible, and probable, explanations of terrorist target selection. This paper proposes an alternative explanation of terrorist target selection that includes ideological and terrorist group capability variables, as well ...


Youth Labor Market Conditions And The Neet Population In The Eu: Do Poor Labor Market Opportunities Discourage Youth?, Jennifer Hudson Jan 2017

Youth Labor Market Conditions And The Neet Population In The Eu: Do Poor Labor Market Opportunities Discourage Youth?, Jennifer Hudson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines how poor labor market opportunities discourage youth between the ages of 15 and 24 and 15 to 29 from participating in the labor market in the European Union between 2005 and 2013. A critical portion of inactive NEETs (youth not in employment, education, or training) reports to be discouraged due to a recognized "lack of opportunities in the labor market." Despite indications from descriptive analyses that the conditions that drive the distinct subsets of the NEET population vary, empirical examinations of the effects of these conditions on the rates of different NEET groups across countries and over ...


Rivalry-Prone Dyads? Interstate Religious Differences And Military Conflict, Manar Elkhaldi Jan 2016

Rivalry-Prone Dyads? Interstate Religious Differences And Military Conflict, Manar Elkhaldi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The link between religion and interstate military conflict has attracted a lot of attention among scholars of international relations and also foreign policy makers and religious organizations. This study examines whether religious differences between states in a dyad may partly affect various types of militarized conflict. It is argued in the literature that religion promotes stronger loyalty and sense of obligation than other cultural identities (Juergensmeyer, 1993); I argue that religious identity may be used by states effectively to mobilize people by means of rhetoric to generate and sustain popular support for conflict with other states. Thus I expect that ...


Public Opinion And The President's Use Of Executive Orders: Aggregate- And Individual-Level Analyses Across Time, Brett Jones Jan 2016

Public Opinion And The President's Use Of Executive Orders: Aggregate- And Individual-Level Analyses Across Time, Brett Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Presidential approval ratings are a political resource that presidents and their advisors hope to influence through strategic action in order to achieve their policy goals (McAvoy 2008, 284). Through 1999, scholarly literature had largely ignored the president's use of unilateral powers. Since Moe and Howell (1999a, 1999b), however, the literature on the unilateral presidency has expanded rapidly. Despite the rapid growth of literature examining the unilateral presidency, and 45 years of presidential approval ratings literature, literature examining the link between the president's use of unilateral powers and subsequent presidential approval ratings is virtually nonexistent. Existing research has not ...


Ideas, Beliefs, Strategic Culture, And Foreign Policy: Understanding Brazil's Geopolitical Thought, Marcos Rosas Degaut Pontes Jan 2016

Ideas, Beliefs, Strategic Culture, And Foreign Policy: Understanding Brazil's Geopolitical Thought, Marcos Rosas Degaut Pontes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Brazil is an important player both at regional and global levels, figuring prominently in almost all lists of emerging states and regional powers. It is one of the world's largest democracies, the fifth most populous country in the world, the world's seventh-largest economy, and Latin America's largest economy, accounting for approximately 60% of South America's GDP, 47% of South America's territory and 49% of South American population, a G20 member, and an active contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations. However, despite being usually depicted as a "monster country" which would help shape global affairs, Brazil ...


An Empirical Analysis Of The Association Between Types Of Interventions And Civil War Onset, Melinda Mellott Jan 2015

An Empirical Analysis Of The Association Between Types Of Interventions And Civil War Onset, Melinda Mellott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantitative studies have focused on economics, social structures, and lack of political freedoms as being elemental factors for civil war onset. However, these studies have neglected the possibility of a civil war being an unintended consequence of international military intervention. I conduct an empirical analysis of the association between military intervention and civil war onset by collecting data for twenty countries within the Middle East/North African regions from 1980 to 2000. Using the International Military Intervention data set, I categorized “international intervention” into nine different types, all of which were regressed with intrastate war data derived from the Correlates ...


Sexism And Women: The Implications Of Female Gender Resentment, Christine Regnier-Bachand Jan 2015

Sexism And Women: The Implications Of Female Gender Resentment, Christine Regnier-Bachand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Do women suffer from a societal Stockholm Syndrome which leads them to display high levels of modern and traditional sexist behavior? Does a woman*s level of modern or traditional sexist behavior influence her political choices? Female gender resentment and sexist biases are an understudied area of the extant literature on sexism. Typically the focus is placed on men*s sexist attitudes and treatment of women, but is it possible that women also contribute to the subordination of their gender through sexist practices? These are questions which this thesis attempts to answer. The findings indicate that working women under the ...


Reconciling Ex Ante Expectations With The Ex Post Reality: A Look At The Effectiveness Of Third-Party Diplomatic Interventions In Civil Wars, Matthew Benchimol Jan 2015

Reconciling Ex Ante Expectations With The Ex Post Reality: A Look At The Effectiveness Of Third-Party Diplomatic Interventions In Civil Wars, Matthew Benchimol

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research has begun to focus on the role third-party diplomatic intervention plays in the length of civil conflicts. Diplomatic interventions by a third-party actor are assumed to help resolve or alleviate violence over time. Is this really the case? Hypotheses relating to these aspects of civil wars are proposed to test this long-standing assumption. This thesis uses statistical analysis to observe the relationship between diplomatic interventions and civil war duration and then observe the relationship between duration and civil war violence. The data incorporates approximately 150 civil wars from 1945 to 1999, 101 of which had outside interventions. This thesis ...


Risk Perceptions Of Climate Change In International Environmental Negotiations, Christine Dellert Jan 2015

Risk Perceptions Of Climate Change In International Environmental Negotiations, Christine Dellert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change poses an unprecedented risk to global human security and future generations. Yet actions to mitigate or adapt to the changing climate system vary greatly among countries and their constituencies. Despite mounting evidence detailing the economic, social, and ecological risks of climate change, many scholars agree that the greatest threats associated with climate change involve delaying or ignoring necessary action. Using theorizing of “risk society” from Ulrich Beck and others, this thesis examines how countries, environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and business interests construct the risk of climate change and how their respective discourses conflict in international environmental negotiations. This ...


How Much Is That War In The Window? An Investigation Into The Costs Of War, Spencer Miller Jan 2015

How Much Is That War In The Window? An Investigation Into The Costs Of War, Spencer Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the effects of war on a state's economy. The Liberal Theory of international relations maintains that there are costs to war in terms of trade; in line with this argument, many researchers have suggested that trading partners are less likely to war with each other out of a fear of disrupting their trade, which would in turn disrupt their economies. Due to issues of elasticity and substitution, however, overall trade may not significantly decline during war. Additionally, there are known economic costs of war, such as debt. If war truly does have costs, then, it must ...


Environmentalism And Environmental Constitutional Ballot Initiatives In Florida: The Elements Of Support For Amendment One In 2014 In The Context Of Current Environmental Attitudes., Michael Jones Jan 2015

Environmentalism And Environmental Constitutional Ballot Initiatives In Florida: The Elements Of Support For Amendment One In 2014 In The Context Of Current Environmental Attitudes., Michael Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Americans express support for “the environment” with environmental support cutting across political and demographic differences and cleavages. In the past 15 years, however, period effects, political sorting, and the emergence of a powerful anti-environmental movement have lessened the generalized levels of environmental support. Using the 2012 CCES survey, the expressed attitudes regarding multiple environmental issues found significant differences in levels of environmental support nationally by party, Tea Party attitudes, ideology, and certain demographic characteristics. For Floridians, the differences between the most pro-environmental respondents and the most anti-environmental are narrower; partisan identification itself is not significant in environmental attitudes; but ideology ...


A Reassesment Of The Presidential Use Of Executive Orders, 1953-2008, Graham Romich Jan 2015

A Reassesment Of The Presidential Use Of Executive Orders, 1953-2008, Graham Romich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantitative studies of the presidential use of executive orders have attempted to determine whether presidents are more prone to resort to unilateral action when faced with legislative opposition. To date, the results have been mixed however, with studies demonstrating that the type of executive order is an important factor in understanding the conditions under which presidents will resort to unilateral action. Despite this advancement in theory, there has been little consensus regarding the actual conditions under which presidents will issue the different types of executive orders that have been identified in the literature. This thesis addresses this puzzle through an ...


Welcome To The Club: Igo Socialization And Dyadic Arms Transfers, Joseph Dimino Jan 2015

Welcome To The Club: Igo Socialization And Dyadic Arms Transfers, Joseph Dimino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines whether intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) can socialize member states by testing the effect of shared IGO memberships on dyadic arms transfers. IGO socialization is one of many proposed causal mechanisms by which IGO memberships might reduce interstate conflict. This thesis argues that the institutional socialization hypothesis (ISH), which asserts that shared IGO memberships will lead to interest convergence between member states, uses an invalid conceptualization and measurement of socialization. Instead, socialization is re-conceptualized as increased trust between member states, and re-operationalized using dyadic arms transfers as a proxy for trust. The study uses linear regression with cross-sectional panel ...


A Generational Perspective On The Development Of The Political History Of Modern Iran, Gregory Mcdowall Jan 2015

A Generational Perspective On The Development Of The Political History Of Modern Iran, Gregory Mcdowall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mark Twain once remarked, "History doesn't repeat itself, but it does rhyme." If such recurrences happen with some discernible periodicity it would support the view that society develops cyclically. Though still controversial, this perspective has found a home in the long wave cycle theories of economics and international relations. For decades, international relation theorists have argued over which factor has primarily driven the interstate system, but this paradigm transforms that debate into a query over which of them serves as the medium for carrying waves of social change, be it war, trade, class, or gender relations. William Strauss and ...


Economic Inequality And Democratic Representative Institutions Across Western Industrialized Democracies, Donald Plungis Jan 2014

Economic Inequality And Democratic Representative Institutions Across Western Industrialized Democracies, Donald Plungis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the effects of political representation on economic inequality across western industrialized democracies. I explore an explanation of increases in economic inequality as a consequence of less representative democratic institutions. Explaining economic inequality in this manner is a shift from to the Transatlantic Consensus that attributes increased economic inequality to globalization. I expect to find that more representative electoral and governments institutions will be associated with lower levels of economic inequality. The analysis takes place across twenty-three countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) over the past forty years using a cross-sectional longitudinal model. Variables ...


Leadership Distrust, Need For Power, And The Initiation Of Militarized Interstate Disputes, Gary Smith Jan 2014

Leadership Distrust, Need For Power, And The Initiation Of Militarized Interstate Disputes, Gary Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Does a leader's psychology affect his/her likelihood of initiating a militarized interstate dispute? The study of leadership psychology has continuously found support for the central assumption that leaders matter in explaining a state's foreign policy behavior. However, many of these research projects have relied on small-sample case studies and experimental methods that have limited generalizability. In this paper, I use two variables drawn from the research program on leadership trait analysis (distrust and need for power) in a multivariate large-n study to explain the initiation of militarized interstate disputes (MIDs). 1,601 cases are drawn from the ...


The Effects Of State Leader Psychology On Civil War Lethality, Brandon Kelley Jan 2014

The Effects Of State Leader Psychology On Civil War Lethality, Brandon Kelley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Does a state leader's psychology influence lethality in civil wars? This thesis analyzes the aforementioned question during post-1945 civil wars. This particular subject, paying close attention to individual psychology at the state level, is gaining traction amongst scholars, though limited scholarly attention has addressed whether leader psychology is an indicator of conflict severity in terms of lethality. The psychology of the state leader in this thesis is assessed from leadership traits and operational code indices, specifically direction of strategy (I1) and interpretation of the nature of the political universe (P1). The data and cases used are pulled from datasets ...


Positive Political Outcomes From Feminist Islam In Afghanistan: Identifying Development Program Features That Raise The Status Of Women, Margaret Courtney Barnard Jan 2014

Positive Political Outcomes From Feminist Islam In Afghanistan: Identifying Development Program Features That Raise The Status Of Women, Margaret Courtney Barnard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Existing literature establishes a connection between elevating the status of women in less developed countries and positive political outcomes including: increased national stability, decreased likelihood of civil conflict, and international stability. In particular, the literature suggests that working within the dominant cultural framework of a country makes development projects more successful. This thesis expands upon these bodies of literature and examines the outcomes of the work of two major development agencies in Afghanistan, the UN and USAID in the area of women's education and healthcare. The thesis analyzes some specific characteristics that influence the effects of these programs in ...


The Modern Gender Gap In Partisanship And Ideology: A Cross-National Analysis, Tiffany Quick Jan 2014

The Modern Gender Gap In Partisanship And Ideology: A Cross-National Analysis, Tiffany Quick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis updates and expands upon the developmental theory of the gender gap in party and ideological identification originally posited by Norris and Inglehart (2000) to explain why women in advanced industrial nations are more likely to hold more leftist ideological identification than men. A comparative cross-national analysis using data from the World Values Survey (2004-2008) extends Norris and Inglehart's study, with an examination of the gender gap in advanced industrial, post-communist and developing nations. To further explore the nature of the gender gap in the United States, data from the American National Election Study (Cumulative File and 2012 ...


Deadly Premonition: Does Terrorist-Leader Psychology Influence Violence Lethality?, Clayton Besaw Jan 2014

Deadly Premonition: Does Terrorist-Leader Psychology Influence Violence Lethality?, Clayton Besaw

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis seeks to address a theoretical and empirical gap within terrorism studies, and more specially the study of terrorist-group lethality. This research updates a model of terrorist-group lethality by including terrorist-leader psychology as an individual-level variable in predicting terrorist-group lethality. Terrorist-leader statements were analyzed by using two novel coding schemes called Operational Code and Leadership Trait Analysis to create quantified measurements of leader cognitive beliefs and personality traits. The empirical portion of this study utilizes pooled cross-sectional time-series data within the framework of fixed effects and multi-level estimation models. The results find that terrorist-leader psychology, and more specifically Instrumental ...


Explaining State Crisis Behavior Using The Operational Code, William George Jan 2014

Explaining State Crisis Behavior Using The Operational Code, William George

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Does the operational code of a state's leadership have an effect on its behavior during foreign policy crises? Specifically, do states with more conflictual operational codes opt for a more conflictual response to crises, or do systemic and structural variables intervene to limit their significance? While the study of individual level psychology in international relations has been gaining momentum, the causal links between beliefs and behavior have yet to be solidified. This study used ordered logistic regression across three models to determine the effect of the operational code on state crisis behavior while controlling for key domestic and crisis ...