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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Psychological Vulnerabilities And Propensities For Involvement In Violent Extremism, Randy Borum Dec 2013

Psychological Vulnerabilities And Propensities For Involvement In Violent Extremism, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

Research on the psychology of terrorism has argued against the idea that most terrorist behavior is caused by mental illness or by a terrorist personality. This article suggests an alternative line of inquiry – an individual psychology of terrorism that explores how otherwise normal mental states and processes, built on characteristic attitudes, dispositions, inclinations, and intentions, might affect a person’s propensity for involvement with violent extremist groups and actions. It uses the concepts of “mindset” – a relatively enduring set of attitudes, dispositions, and inclinations – and worldview as the basis of a psychological “climate,” within which various vulnerabilities and propensities shape ...


Informing Lone-Offender Investigations, Randy Borum Dec 2012

Informing Lone-Offender Investigations, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

This article examines the current research on targeted violence by lone offenders to inform intelligence and criminal investigations. It begins by analyzing the definitions and nature of lone offender attacks, discusses the role of "radicalization," and the ways in which mental illnesses may or may not be relevant.


Radicalization Into Violent Extremism Ii: A Review Of Conceptual Models And Empirical Research, Randy Borum Jan 2012

Radicalization Into Violent Extremism Ii: A Review Of Conceptual Models And Empirical Research, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

Over the past decade, analysts have proposed several frameworks to explain the process of radicalization into violent extremism (RVE). These frameworks are based primarily on rational, conceptual models which are neither guided by theory nor derived from systematic research. This article reviews recent (post-9/11) conceptual models of the radicalization process and recent (post-9/11) empirical studies of RVE. It emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between ideological radicalization and terrorism involvement, though both issues deserve further empirical inquiry.Finally, it summarizes some recent RVE-related research efforts, identifies seven things that social science researchers and operational personnel still need to know ...


Radicalization Into Violent Extremism I: A Review Of Social Science Theories, Randy Borum Jan 2012

Radicalization Into Violent Extremism I: A Review Of Social Science Theories, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

In discourse about countering terrorism, the term "radicalization" is widely used, but remains poorly defined. To focus narrowly on ideological radicalization risks implying that radical beliefs are a proxy—or at least a necessary precursor—for terrorism, though we know this not to be true.Different pathways and mechanisms of terrorism involvement operate in different ways for different people at different points in time and perhaps in different contexts. This article explores the problems in defining radicalization and radicalism, and suggests that radicalization—and more specifically, involvement in terrorism—might best be viewed as a set of diverse processes. It ...


Rethinking Radicalization, Randy Borum Jan 2012

Rethinking Radicalization, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


A Dimensional Approach To Analyzing Lone Offender Terrorism, Randy Borum, Robert Fein, Bryan Vossekuil Dec 2011

A Dimensional Approach To Analyzing Lone Offender Terrorism, Randy Borum, Robert Fein, Bryan Vossekuil

Randy Borum

The challenge of “lone offender” terrorism is a serious one for law enforcement and security services around the world. Though the tactic has been used for hundreds of years, the rising number—in some countries—and diversity of “lone” attacks are increasingly troublesome. Attempts to clearly define the phenomenon, however, have been rather elusive. In this review, we suggest that viewing the dimensions of lone offender terrorism along a continuum, rather than forcing categorical distinctions, may provide a useful approach for classifying or analyzing lone offender attacks. We introduce three dimensions as a starting point for discussion—Loneness, Direction, and ...


Behavioral Science Guidelines For Assessing Insider Threats, Denise Bulling, Mario Scalora, Randy Borum, Jill Panuzio, Andrew Donica Dec 2011

Behavioral Science Guidelines For Assessing Insider Threats, Denise Bulling, Mario Scalora, Randy Borum, Jill Panuzio, Andrew Donica

Randy Borum

This brochure presents a framework to view threats made by an insider that are targeted or intentional (as opposed to negligent or unintentional) and that involve some degree of deliberation (as opposed to those that may be considered impulsive). The framework was developed with the assumption that it must: Be applicable for both anonymous and known subjects Recognize interactions and patterns of behavior Allow for investigation with whatever information is immediately available Recognize that behaviors or warning activity may shift, decrease, or be emboldened by protective or organizational actions Insider attacks are often handled internal to an organization and are ...


Seven Pillars Of Small War Power, Randy Borum Jun 2011

Seven Pillars Of Small War Power, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

We may need to modify our traditional “center of gravity” analysis to accommodate multiple centers of gravity in an asymmetric diffusion of power. Insurgencies and movements of resistance are dynamic, living systems powered by social dynamics.65 Successful insurgent movements leverage their available sources of power to gain the sympathy of the broader population and to mobilize a small cadre of armed forces. For the insurgent, these dynamics—the power of rising expectations, the power of the people, the power of the underdog, the power of agility, the power of resistance, the power of security, and the power of belonging ...


Psychology Of Terrorism, Randy Borum Dec 2009

Psychology Of Terrorism, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Understanding Terrorist Psychology, Randy Borum Dec 2009

Understanding Terrorist Psychology, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


The Science Of Interpersonal Trust, Randy Borum Dec 2009

The Science Of Interpersonal Trust, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

Interpersonal trust - a willingness to accept vulnerability or risk based on expectations regarding another person’s behavior – is a vitally important concept for human behavior, affecting our interactions both with adversaries and competitors as well as with allies and friends. Indeed, interpersonal trust could be said to be responsible in part for nudging competitors towards becoming allies, or – if betrayed – leading friends to become adversaries.

This document summarizes the state of the art (and science) in interpersonal trust research, describing how researchers define trust and its components, exploring a range of theories about how people decide whether to trust, and ...


Crisis Intervention Teams May Prevent Arrests Of People With Mental Illnesses, Randy Borum, Stephanie Franz Dec 2009

Crisis Intervention Teams May Prevent Arrests Of People With Mental Illnesses, Randy Borum, Stephanie Franz

Randy Borum

Historically, as many as 7–10% of US police contacts have involved persons with mental illnesses, with a disproportionate amount of these encounters resulting in arrest, usually for minor offenses. Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) were created, and have proliferated, to ameliorate this problem by offering a specialized response and serving – at least informally – as a liaison between mental health services and police departments. Because preventing unnecessary arrests is one of CIT’s principal objectives, this study examined the arrest rates of persons with mental illnesses and the number of arrests that might have been prevented after the implementation of a ...


What Can Be Done About School Shootings?: A Review Of The Evidence, Randy Borum, Dewey Cornell, William Modzeleski, Shane Jimerson Dec 2009

What Can Be Done About School Shootings?: A Review Of The Evidence, Randy Borum, Dewey Cornell, William Modzeleski, Shane Jimerson

Randy Borum

School shootings have generated great public concern and fostered a widespread impression that schools are unsafe for many students; this article counters those misapprehensions by examining empirical evidence of school and community violence trends and reviewing evidence on best practices for preventing school shootings. Many of the school safety and security measures deployed in response to school shootings have little research support, and strategies such as zero tolerance discipline and student profiling have been widely criticized as unsound practices. Threat assessment is identified as a promising strategy for violence prevention that merits further study. The article concludes with an overview ...


Insights From Past Experience With Human Dynamics In Military Operations, Randy Borum Jan 2009

Insights From Past Experience With Human Dynamics In Military Operations, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Interview And Interrogation: A Perspective And Update From The Usa, Randy Borum, Michael Gelles, Steven Kleinman Dec 2008

Interview And Interrogation: A Perspective And Update From The Usa, Randy Borum, Michael Gelles, Steven Kleinman

Randy Borum

With a renewed interest in, and reliance on, human intelligence (HUMINT), an opportunity exists for the USG to re-examine its policies and practices for interviewing and interrogation to discern whether or not it is relying on best practices that are consistent with American values, international human rights and legal requirements. It is clear that, to protect national security interests, the USG is now – and for the foreseeable future will be – required to gather information form human sources either for purposes of intelligence gathering or for investigations that may lead to criminal prosecution. Broadly speaking, the purpose of these interviews and ...


The Psychology Of Leaking National Security Secrets: Implications For Homeland Security, Randy Borum, Scott Shumate, Mario Scalora Dec 2005

The Psychology Of Leaking National Security Secrets: Implications For Homeland Security, Randy Borum, Scott Shumate, Mario Scalora

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Middle Eastern Mindset: Operational Analysis And Implications, Scott Shumate, Randy Borum, James Turner Dec 2005

Middle Eastern Mindset: Operational Analysis And Implications, Scott Shumate, Randy Borum, James Turner

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Interviewing Al-Qaeda-Related Subjects: A Law Enforcement Perspective, Michael Gelles, Robert Mcfadden, Randy Borum, Bryan Vossekuil Dec 2005

Interviewing Al-Qaeda-Related Subjects: A Law Enforcement Perspective, Michael Gelles, Robert Mcfadden, Randy Borum, Bryan Vossekuil

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Anarchist Direct Actions: A Challenge For Law Enforcement, Randy Borum Dec 2004

Anarchist Direct Actions: A Challenge For Law Enforcement, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Al-Qaeda's Operational Evolution: Behavioral And Organizational Perspectives, Randy Borum, Michael Gelles Dec 2004

Al-Qaeda's Operational Evolution: Behavioral And Organizational Perspectives, Randy Borum, Michael Gelles

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Operational Research In Counterterrorism, Randy Borum, Robert Fein, Bryan Vossekuil, Michael Gelles, Scott Shumate Dec 2003

The Role Of Operational Research In Counterterrorism, Randy Borum, Robert Fein, Bryan Vossekuil, Michael Gelles, Scott Shumate

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Psychology Of Terrorism, Randy Borum Dec 2003

Psychology Of Terrorism, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Terrorist Mindset, Randy Borum Dec 2002

Understanding The Terrorist Mindset, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Profiling Hazards: Profiling In Counterterrorism And Homeland Security, Randy Borum Dec 2002

Profiling Hazards: Profiling In Counterterrorism And Homeland Security, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Comparing Outcomes Of Major Models Of Police Responses To Mental Health Emergencies, Randy Borum Dec 1999

Comparing Outcomes Of Major Models Of Police Responses To Mental Health Emergencies, Randy Borum

Randy Borum

OBJECTIVE: The study compared three models of police responses to incidents involving people thought to have mental illnesses to determine how often specialized professionals responded and how often they were able to resolve cases without arrest. METHODS: Three study sites representing distinct approaches to police handling of incidents involving persons with mental illness were examined-Birmingham, Alabama; and Knoxville and Memphis, Tennessee. At each site, records were examined for approximately 100 police dispatch calls for "emotionally disturbed persons" to examine the extent to which the specially trained professionals responded. To determine differences in case dispositions, records were also examined for 100 ...


Assessing Threats Of Targeted Group Violence: Contributions From Social Psychology, Randy Borum, M. Pynchon Dec 1998

Assessing Threats Of Targeted Group Violence: Contributions From Social Psychology, Randy Borum, M. Pynchon

Randy Borum

No abstract provided.


Detection Of Deception In Law Enforcement Applicants: A Preliminary Investigation, Randy Borum, Harley Stock Mar 1993

Detection Of Deception In Law Enforcement Applicants: A Preliminary Investigation, Randy Borum, Harley Stock

Randy Borum

Using the MMPIand the IPI, the present study examined the differences in psychometric defensiveness between two groups of law enforcement applicants: applicants identified as being deceptive and a comparison group of candidates for whom no deception was indicated. Significant differences were found on the traditional validity (minimization) scales for both instruments as well as several supplemental scales and indexes from the MMPI. A new index (Es-K) from the MMPI showed a highly significant difference between groups and good classification accuracy. The results suggest that deceptive applicants show more defensiveness on psychometric testing and that test results may assist in raising ...