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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Fighting Exclusion With Culture And Art. Examples From Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Fighting Exclusion With Culture And Art. Examples From Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article demonstrates that artistic activity is an important tool for deepening democracy, because it provides a vehicle for the excluded to reach the public sphere, thus making it more heterogeneous. As artists, they become active citizens and step out of the invisibility into which racism and exclusion has forced them.


Education Reform, Race, And Politics In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Education Reform, Race, And Politics In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article discusses the main findings and conclusions from my field research evaluating education reform in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data collection was done during two exploratory research trips to Salvador, the state capital, in 2001 and in 2005. The Bahian Education Reform, initiated by the state government in 1999 and funded to a great extent by the World Bank, has achieved some very significant goals, most importantly the expansion of high school education and the broadening of access to primary education in areas where access was far from universal. My research nevertheless points to some sever shortcomings, namely ...


Embracing Hip Hop As Their Own: Hip Hop And Black Racial Identity In Brazil, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell Jan 2014

Embracing Hip Hop As Their Own: Hip Hop And Black Racial Identity In Brazil, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell

Bernd Reiter

The article examines the positive relationship between listening to Hip Hop music and racial consciousness among younger generations of Afro-Brazilians. The authors observe that Brazilian Hip Hop culture has maintained a strong role in shaping racial and political consciousness. Additionally, they explain that Hip Hop has become a useful instrument to express the struggles faced by poor, urban Afro-Brazilian youth. They also claim that by listening to Hip Hop lyrics, more and more young poor Afro-Brazilians are increasingly aware of the ideologies and normalizing powers that hold them.


A Genealogy Of Black Organizing In Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

A Genealogy Of Black Organizing In Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article argues that the vast literature on “new social movements” misrepresents the historicity of identity-based organization in Latin America. Such organizing is indeed much older than the literature suggests. To prove this argument, I provide a genealogy of black, identitybased organizing in Brazil. This genealogy makes clear that black organizing started when Africans first arrived in Brazil. To explain the ebbs and flows of this organizing, the theoretical frameworks of Sidney Tarrow and Susan Epstein, who focus on political opportunities and changing repertoires, respectively, prove to be more useful.


The Dialectics Of Citizenship: Exploring Privilege, Exclusion, And Racialization, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Dialectics Of Citizenship: Exploring Privilege, Exclusion, And Racialization, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

What does it mean to be a citizen? What impact does an active democracy have on its citizenry and why does it fail or succeed in fulfilling its promises? Most modern democracies seem unable to deliver the goods that citizens expect; many politicians seem to have given up on representing the wants and needs of those who elected them and are keener on representing themselves and their financial backers. What will it take to bring democracy back to its original promise of rule by the people? Bernd Reiter’s timely analysis reaches back to ancient Greece and the Roman Republic ...


Pracatum: Escola Profissionalizante De Músicos De Rua, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Pracatum: Escola Profissionalizante De Músicos De Rua, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


The Shortcomings Of Democratic School Management In Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Shortcomings Of Democratic School Management In Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article analyses the limits of community involvement in Bahian public schools. Despite the explicit legal requirement to actively involve parents and neighborhoods in the democratic management of schools, parental and community participation remains very limited in most Bahian public schools. Exploratory research carried out in 2001 in six public schools in Bahia’s capital Salvador points to two main reasons for this shortcoming: both the municipal and the state administrations were reluctant to effectively shift over power to parents and communities and secondly, a very ingrained and “structural” racism was responsible for portraying local poor communities as dangerous places ...


The Limits Of Popular Participation In Salvador, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Limits Of Popular Participation In Salvador, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article focuses on the changing nature of state--society interactions in the state of Bahia, Brazil and on the factors that condition democratic participation. During several research trips, conducted between 2001 and 2006, I collected data on participatory budgeting and on participatory urban planning in the city of Salvador. I was therefore able to compare two thematic sites where local states interacted with society in general, and with civil society specifi cally. In both cases, I found a very wide gap between the de jure mandate of citizen participation and the de facto state of affairs. The examined empirical cases ...


The Democratic Challenge. Democratization And De-Democratization In Global Perspective, Bernd Reiter, Jorge Nef Jan 2014

The Democratic Challenge. Democratization And De-Democratization In Global Perspective, Bernd Reiter, Jorge Nef

Bernd Reiter

This text provides a critical but systematic overview of democratic theory and practice in the contemporary world. The authors show that recent developments are more complex than admitted by proponents of the idea of a democratic world with, what they call, de-democratization of various forms running in parallel with democratization.


Overcoming Coloniality: The Potential Of South-South Dialogue About Citizenship, Participatory Democracy, And Development Between Brazil And India, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Overcoming Coloniality: The Potential Of South-South Dialogue About Citizenship, Participatory Democracy, And Development Between Brazil And India, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This chapter argues that North-South dialogue is heavily influenced by the colonial past and burdened by extreme power inequalities. Former colonizing nations control many of the agendas of such dialogue, exposing it to the risks of paternalism, post-colonialism, and tutelage. As a result, coloniality is a condition difficult to escape in north-south dialogue. South-south dialogue, on the other hand, is less implicated by this burden, thus offering a platform for a potentially free - and freeing – critical interchange of ideas and empirical examples that reflect subaltern experiences and provide opportunities for mutual learning. One area where this dialogue is particularly promising ...


What’S New In Brazil’S New Social Movements?, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

What’S New In Brazil’S New Social Movements?, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The concept of “new social movements,” characterized by a focus on identity, cannot readily be transferred to a Latin American context. Latin America never experienced the postmaterialist turn that led some to call certain European social movements “new.” In addition, as the case of black organizing in Brazil demonstrates, identity-based Latin American social movements are much older than the literature suggests. What was indeed a Latin American novelty of the 1980s was the massive emergence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In the case of Brazil, these organizations emerged in response to new financial opportunities provided by international donors and the coercive ...


Review Of Wampler, Brian. 2007. “Participatory Budget In Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation And Accountability”, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Review Of Wampler, Brian. 2007. “Participatory Budget In Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation And Accountability”, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The article reviews the book "Participatory Budgeting in Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation, and Accountability," by Brian Wampler.


Reforma Educacional, Exclusão E Racismo Na Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Reforma Educacional, Exclusão E Racismo Na Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Este artigo apresenta os achados principais da nossa pesquisa, desenvolvida durante o período de junho 2001 a janeiro 2002 sobre a reforma educacional em Salvador - Bahia. Concluimos que dois fatores principais impedem o maior sucesso desta reforma. Primeiro, detectamos um sistema de racismo estrutural, responsável por nortear as percepções que professores, diretores e administradores tinham sobre o alunado pobre e negro nas escolas pesquisadas, no sentido de esperar e exigir pouco desses alunos. Baixas expectativas resultavam em baixo empenho. Segundo, encontramos que a educação pública, mesmo melhorando, ainda não pode competir com a educação privada. Como consequência, escolas públicas continuam ...


Portugal: National Pride And Imperial Neurosis, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Portugal: National Pride And Imperial Neurosis, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Points out that Portugal's journey, from a minor colonizing power to a member of the European Union, transformed its sense of national belonging and citizenship. African colonial possessions later disavowed, along with those Africans who had become Portuguese citizens under the earlier arrangement; Failure of Portugal to recognize the existence within its borders of a black community, its history and its exclusion.


Defendendo Privilégio: Os Limites Da Participação Popular Em Salvador, Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Defendendo Privilégio: Os Limites Da Participação Popular Em Salvador, Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Este estudo enfoca as mudanças das relações Estadosociedade no estado da Bahia, e os fatores que condicionam uma participação democrática. A partir de trabalho de campo realizado durante várias viagens entre 2001 e 2006 à Salvador, BA, coletei dados sobre a qualidade da participação comunitária na gestão de escolas públicas, no processo de planejamento urbano (PDDU) e no orçamento participativo, iniciado em janeiro de 2005 naquela cidade. Comparei três áreas de interação entre o governo local e a sociedade em geral, sociedade civil especificamente. Este artigo é enfocado nas duas últimas áreas da política, mas, em todos os casos observados ...


Inequality And School Reform In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Inequality And School Reform In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil’s extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author’s research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates ...


Review Of Fikes, Kesha. 2009. “Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction”, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Review Of Fikes, Kesha. 2009. “Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction”, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Continuidade E Mudança No Brasil: Os Legados Do Bacharelismo, João Batista De Castro Júnior, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Continuidade E Mudança No Brasil: Os Legados Do Bacharelismo, João Batista De Castro Júnior, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

In this article, we discuss some of the literature on the development of the Portuguese colonial legacy called "bacharelismo and seek to provide an answer to the question why clientelism and patronage are still such pervasive forces in Brazilian politics and indeed in broader society. By tracing back the ways how certain groups have conquered, maintained, and defended privilege vis-`a-vis popular sectors of Brazilian society and by following this process of defending inherited privilege all the way to contemporary times, we seek to support our main argument, which is that Brazilian society has never been sufficiently re-structured in order ...


Sociedade Civil, Democratização, E Exclusão Racial No Brasil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Sociedade Civil, Democratização, E Exclusão Racial No Brasil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


The Epistemology And Methodology Of Exploratory Social Science Research: Crossing Popper With Marcuse, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Epistemology And Methodology Of Exploratory Social Science Research: Crossing Popper With Marcuse, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article seeks to propose a rationale for exploratory research in the social sciences. Inspired by the recent debates around qualitative methods (Gerring, 2001; George and Bennett, 2005; Brady and Collier, 2004; Mahoney and Rueschemeyer, 2003; Ragin, 2008; to name just a few), I seek to demonstrate that exploratory research also has a rightful place within the social sciences. In order to live up to its potential, exploratory research needs to be conducted in a transparent, honest, and selfreflexive way – and follow a set of guidelines that ensure its reliability. Exploratory research, if conducted in such a way, can achieve ...


The Hermeneutic Foundations Of Qualitative Research, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Hermeneutic Foundations Of Qualitative Research, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Learning From Brazil And India: The Difference That Inclusion Policies Can Make, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Learning From Brazil And India: The Difference That Inclusion Policies Can Make, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Negotiating Democracy In Brazil: The Politics Of Exclusion, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Negotiating Democracy In Brazil: The Politics Of Exclusion, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Do societal inequalities limit the effectiveness of democratic regimes? And if so, why? And how? Addressing this question, Bernd Reiter focuses on the role of societal dynamics in undermining democracy in Brazil. Reiter explores the ways in which race, class, and gender in Brazil structure a society that is deeply divided between the included and the excluded—and where much of the population falls into the latter category. Tracing the mechanisms of the profound cultural resistance to genuine democratization that he finds dominant among the elite, his theoretically and empirically rich analysis offers an alternative way of understanding both the ...


Framing Non-Whites And Producing Second-Class Citizens In France And Portugal, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Framing Non-Whites And Producing Second-Class Citizens In France And Portugal, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The quality of contemporary democracies hinges on the breadth and depth of the citizenship regimes on which democracy ultimately rests. This article argues that, to assess citizenship, two important dimensions are of crucial interest, namely to what extent formal citizens are able to live and practice substantive citizenship roles and, secondly, how access to citizenship rights is used by different societal groups in order to defend privilege. Having conducted a comparative case study of Portugal and France, I now argue that political elites are contributing to a framing of non-whites as foreigners and immigrants because it serves their purpose and ...


Civil Society And Democracy: Weimar Reconsidered, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Civil Society And Democracy: Weimar Reconsidered, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article argues that such authors as Sheri Berman and Ariel Armony have overstated the importance of the state when explaining the relationship between civil society and democracy. They have done so because no theoretical framework is currently available to assess civil society's democratic potential, which led them to focus rather on the state as the central explanans. Furthermore, Berman's incorrect interpretation of Weimar's civic organizing led her to draw erroneous conclusions about civil society in general. This article seeks to correct this view on Weimar's civil society and offers a theoretical framework able to capture ...


Brazil’S New Racial Politics, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell Jan 2014

Brazil’S New Racial Politics, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Racial Formations: Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Racial Formations: Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


The Perils Of Empire: Nationhood And Citizenship In Portugal, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Perils Of Empire: Nationhood And Citizenship In Portugal, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

After the demise of the Portuguese empire and even more after joining the European Union, the Portuguese state redefined the borders of national belonging. The shift was one from a multi-continental nation, which included parts of Africa, to a more restricted definition of nationhood, one that stressed Portugal's connection to Europe and thus defined belonging by descent. This article, based on research conducted in Lisbon, Portugal in 2003, discusses the impact of this shift on Portuguese citizens of ethnically diverse backgrounds. The Portuguese state, media, academia, and civil society are all involved in constructing, disseminating, and hence consolidating a ...


Art, Culture, And Social Justice: New Strategies Of The Bahian Poor, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Art, Culture, And Social Justice: New Strategies Of The Bahian Poor, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Afro-Descendants, Identity, And The Struggle For Development In The Americas, Bernd Reiter, Kimberly E. Simmons Jan 2014

Afro-Descendants, Identity, And The Struggle For Development In The Americas, Bernd Reiter, Kimberly E. Simmons

Bernd Reiter

Indigenous people and African descendants in Latin America and the Caribbean have long been affected by a social hierarchy established by elites, through which some groups were racialized and others were normalized. Far from being “racial paradises” populated by an amalgamated “cosmic race” of mulattos and mestizos, Latin America and the Caribbean have long been sites of shifting exploitative strategies and ideologies, ranging from scientific racism and eugenics to the more sophisticated official denial of racism and ethnic difference. This book, among the first to focus on African descendants in the region, brings together diverse reflections from scholars, activists, and ...