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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

How To Arrive At Peace In Deeply Divided Societies? Using Deliberation To Refine Consociational Theory, Jürg Steiner, Maria Clara Jaramillo Dec 2019

How To Arrive At Peace In Deeply Divided Societies? Using Deliberation To Refine Consociational Theory, Jürg Steiner, Maria Clara Jaramillo

Journal of Public Deliberation

In the 1960s, consociational theory was developed to explain how deeply divided societies can arrive at peace. The theory had, on the one hand, an institutional component with an emphasis on power-sharing institutions and, on the other, a cultural component stressing the importance of a spirit of accommodation. Initially, the theory was based on case studies of countries like Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland, which allowed dealing with both institutional and cultural aspects. Later on, when the theory was tested with a large sample of countries, the cultural aspect was increasingly neglected, because it was difficult to empirically operationalize ...


A New Leaf For Public Deliberation, Nicole Curato, André Bächtiger, Kim Strandberg Dec 2019

A New Leaf For Public Deliberation, Nicole Curato, André Bächtiger, Kim Strandberg

Journal of Public Deliberation

The Journal of Public Deliberation is turning over a new leaf. This short introduction maps new directions for the journal and invites readers to continue engaging the vibrant field of deliberative democracy.


Power And Citizen Deliberation: The Contingent Impacts Of Interests, Ideology, And Status Differences, Markus Holdo Dec 2019

Power And Citizen Deliberation: The Contingent Impacts Of Interests, Ideology, And Status Differences, Markus Holdo

Journal of Public Deliberation

Both advocates and critics of deliberative theory have regarded power relations as problems for public deliberation. Three aspects—interests, ideology and status differences—have been thought to distort deliberative processes. This article discusses a growing body of case studies that indicate that these “problems” may actually, under certain conditions, help facilitate inclusion and equality in deliberation. The crucial task is to specify the mechanisms that explain such unexpected outcomes and the conditions under which they may appear in other cases. This article specifies three such mechanisms that help explain positive outcomes in a number of case studies. The argument for ...


Democratic Self-Determination And The Intentional Building Of Consensus, Valeria Ottonelli Apr 2019

Democratic Self-Determination And The Intentional Building Of Consensus, Valeria Ottonelli

Journal of Public Deliberation

This paper defends two fundamental but under-theorized insights coming from the theory of deliberative democracy. The first is that consensus is valuable as a precondition of democratic collective self-determination, since it ensures that democratic decisions display an adequate degree of integrity and consistency and therefore that the polity can act as a unified agent. The second is that consensus in this integrity-building role is essential if citizens need to act as decision-makers; it ensures that the decisions that issue from the exercise of their political rights are meaningful, and that they are so as the intended result of their joint ...


Recognition And Deliberation: A Deliberative Corrective To Liberal Multicultural Policies, Nicolas Pirsoul Apr 2019

Recognition And Deliberation: A Deliberative Corrective To Liberal Multicultural Policies, Nicolas Pirsoul

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article establishes theoretical and practical distinctions between the theory of recognition and liberal multiculturalism. Five potential issues with multicultural policies are identified. The article argues that an increase in deliberative practices could solve many pitfalls of liberal multicultural policies and highlights how a “deliberative turn” could reconcile identity-related policies with the philosophical roots of the theory of recognition. The paper also highlights some challenges arising from a deliberative approach to recognition.


Psychological Mechanisms Of Deliberative Transformation: The Role Of Group Identity, Luisa Maria Batalha, Simon Niemeyer, John S. Dryzek, John Gastil Apr 2019

Psychological Mechanisms Of Deliberative Transformation: The Role Of Group Identity, Luisa Maria Batalha, Simon Niemeyer, John S. Dryzek, John Gastil

Journal of Public Deliberation

Democratic deliberation has been shown to lead to shifts in people’s preferences for particular issues. The psychological mechanisms that underpin such shifts are not well understood. Against the backdrop of a deliberative forum we examined participants’ preferences for various types of political systems, how these preferences changed as deliberations proceeded and how the final preferences were associated with different levels of inclusiveness of a social identity. The results showed that at the end of the deliberations people’s preferences moved in the direction of satisfaction with the political system, and that this preference was positively associated with identification with ...


Looking Back, Thinking Ahead: Reflections On Our Five Years As Editors Of The Journal Of Public Deliberation, Laura W. Black, Timothy J. Shaffer, Nancy Thomas Apr 2019

Looking Back, Thinking Ahead: Reflections On Our Five Years As Editors Of The Journal Of Public Deliberation, Laura W. Black, Timothy J. Shaffer, Nancy Thomas

Journal of Public Deliberation

For the last five years, we have had the honor of serving as editors of the Journal of Public Deliberation. This issue marks the end of our editorial tenure, and we take this opportunity to both look back and think ahead. In this brief essay, we reflect on what we’ve seen during our time as editors. We begin by describing three important special issues that reflect the state of our field, then provide some details about how we have facilitated JPD’s growth over the past five years, including publication statistics and article download rates. We conclude by discussing ...


Strengthening Democracy By Design: Challenges And Opportunities, Nancy L. Thomas, J. Kyle Upchurch Dec 2018

Strengthening Democracy By Design: Challenges And Opportunities, Nancy L. Thomas, J. Kyle Upchurch

Journal of Public Deliberation

In 2014, the Journal of Public Deliberation published an essay, “Democracy by Design,” a framework for a more aspirational, stronger democracy and approach to civic learning. Here, the authors update and reissue Democracy by Design along with a report on the status of the four foundational attributes of a strong democracy, one that is participatory, free and equal, educated and informed, and accountable and justly governed. The authors argue that American democracy faces multiple challenges reflecting declines in democratic norms and practices, for example, growing inequality, weak and unequal civic education, widening polarization, and the rise of undemocratic forces in ...


Habermas With A Whiff Of Tear Gas: Nonviolent Campaigns And Deliberation In An Era Of Authoritarianism, Peter Levine Dec 2018

Habermas With A Whiff Of Tear Gas: Nonviolent Campaigns And Deliberation In An Era Of Authoritarianism, Peter Levine

Journal of Public Deliberation

Authoritarianism is gaining around the world. Statistics show that deliberation shrinks when authoritarianism grows. In the face of authoritarian repression, directly promoting and organizing deliberation is likely to fail. However, Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan (2011) find that nonviolent campaigns have a strong record of success against authoritarian states. Although nonviolent campaigns are not themselves deliberative or aimed at building deliberative democracy, I argue that some of the reasons that make them successful also stand to benefit public deliberation. Thus the most promising strategy for expanding deliberation in an increasingly authoritarian world is to support nonviolent campaigns and to ...


Review Of Political Translation: How Social Movement Democracies Survive By Nicole Doerr (Cambridge University Press, 2018), Peter Levine Jun 2018

Review Of Political Translation: How Social Movement Democracies Survive By Nicole Doerr (Cambridge University Press, 2018), Peter Levine

Journal of Public Deliberation

In Political Translation: How Social Movement Democracies Survive, Nicole Doerr uncovers the role of translators as a “third voice within deliberation," neither participants nor facilitators but advocates for specific individuals to be heard and understood. Her empirical research on translation of various types and in various settings also raises broader theoretical issues about direct versus representative democracy.


Political Deliberation, Interest Conflict, And The Common Knowledge Effect, C. Daniel Myers Jun 2018

Political Deliberation, Interest Conflict, And The Common Knowledge Effect, C. Daniel Myers

Journal of Public Deliberation

Deliberation depends on the ability of deliberators to learn from each other through the exchange of information. However, the Common Knowledge Effect (CKE) finding, a well-established phenomenon affecting small-group discussion, shows that when people talk in groups they tend to ignore novel information and instead discuss commonly known information; things that everyone knew before discussion started. Some theorists have worried that the CKE makes small group discussion - one of the most common features of recent democratic innovations - a poor tool for making deliberative democracy a reality. However, most research on the CKE is limited to situations where group members share ...


The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood And Ikhwanweb: Deliberative Ethic/Voice In A Counterpublic’S Rhetoric?, Soumia Bardhan Jun 2018

The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood And Ikhwanweb: Deliberative Ethic/Voice In A Counterpublic’S Rhetoric?, Soumia Bardhan

Journal of Public Deliberation

Using counterpublic theory as framework and situating the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (MB) as a counterpublic, counterpublics being alternative, non-dominant publics who voice their oppositional needs and values through diverse discursive practices, the goal of this study is to: (a) Examine, in the context of the years preceding the 2011 Egyptian uprising, whether the Egyptian MB, as a counterpublic, portrays a deliberative ethic/voice in its cyber rhetoric; (b) Explore whether traditional/Western ideas of deliberation are upheld or challenged in the cyber rhetoric of the Egyptian MB; and (c) Comment on the role of Ikhwanweb, as a counterpublic sphere, in ...


Authority And Deliberative Moments: Assessing Equality And Inequality In Deeply Divided Groups, Rousiley C. M. Maia, Danila Cal, Janine K. R. Bargas, Vanessa V. Oliveira, Patrícia G. C. Rossini, Rafael C. Sampaio Nov 2017

Authority And Deliberative Moments: Assessing Equality And Inequality In Deeply Divided Groups, Rousiley C. M. Maia, Danila Cal, Janine K. R. Bargas, Vanessa V. Oliveira, Patrícia G. C. Rossini, Rafael C. Sampaio

Journal of Public Deliberation

The notion of equality is central to public deliberation, but few researches have examined how participants construct interactions in face-to-face group discussion involving unequal conditions of authority. This study analyses discussion between slum residents and police officers in Brazil, focusing on both reciprocal and hierarchical relationships in the flow of deliberation. It contributes to explain that the expression of authority is far from straightforward. Looking at a range of authority sources (expertise, functional position, tradition, life experience) that serve to situate and re-situate participants in relation to each other in discussion dynamics helps clarifying what goes on in deliberative moments ...


Explaining Political Efficacy In Deliberative Procedures - A Novel Methodological Approach, Brigitte Geissel, Pamela Hess Nov 2017

Explaining Political Efficacy In Deliberative Procedures - A Novel Methodological Approach, Brigitte Geissel, Pamela Hess

Journal of Public Deliberation

So far, not much research has been done explaining the change of political efficacy in deliberative procedures, and case studies or experiments prevail in the field. Quantitative, systematic studies of real-life cases are missing. This article contributes to filling this gap. It identifies factors which lead to increased group-related political efficacy in deliberative procedures applying an almost novel method, i.e. a quantitative meta-synthesis combining and aggregating data from case studies. The study focuses exemplarily on Germany. The findings indicate that an improvement of political efficacy is more likely when deliberative procedures take place in a municipality, which has institutionalized ...


Review Of Democracy , Deliberation And Education By Robert Asen (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2015), Stacie Molnar-Main Apr 2017

Review Of Democracy , Deliberation And Education By Robert Asen (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2015), Stacie Molnar-Main

Journal of Public Deliberation

Review of Democracy , Deliberation and Education by Robert Asen (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2015)


Reason, Deliberation, And Democracy In Divided Societies: Perspectives From The Jafari School Of Thought, Nicolas Pirsoul Apr 2017

Reason, Deliberation, And Democracy In Divided Societies: Perspectives From The Jafari School Of Thought, Nicolas Pirsoul

Journal of Public Deliberation

In this article I argue that because of its emphasis on the use of reason, the Jafari Islamic school of thought is not only compatible with, but even promotes certain forms of deliberative democracy. I particularly focus on how this characteristic offers a valuable conceptual tool to promote peace and justice in deeply divided societies. My argument is grounded in traditional Shia theology and history but develops a political framework embedded within contemporary political theory. I distinguish this democratic political framework from the theocratic model of Wilayat-ul-Faqih, the political system currently being applied in Iran, and argue that an emphasis ...


A Randomly Selected Chamber: Promises And Challenges, Pierre-Etienne Vandamme, Antoine Verret-Hamelin Apr 2017

A Randomly Selected Chamber: Promises And Challenges, Pierre-Etienne Vandamme, Antoine Verret-Hamelin

Journal of Public Deliberation

This paper explores the idea of a randomly selected chamber of representatives (RSC) through an appreciation of the promises it offers and the challenges it would face. We identify two main promises: a RSC could offset the aristocratic character of elections, thereby increasing the legitimacy of the political system; and it could increase democracy’s epistemic potential, thanks to gains in terms of diversity, deliberations, humility, and long-term perspective. We then discuss four key challenges. First, participation: how can the chamber have diversity without mandatory participation or heavy sanctions? Second, how can we conceive or build legitimacy for this non-elected ...


Affinity Groups, Enclave Deliberation, And Equity, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael Oct 2016

Affinity Groups, Enclave Deliberation, And Equity, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael

Journal of Public Deliberation

There is growing appreciation for the value of holding enclave dialogue and deliberation among marginalized peoples in their own affinity groups, as one stage in a larger conversation with the broader public or with public officials. These enclaves may be disempowered by enduring political inequalities, or in relation to a particular issue under discussion, or by the act of deliberation itself. Recent research and practice has demonstrated that well-structured dialogue and deliberation in enclaves can increase the inclusion, participation, and influence of members of society who have been excluded from public discourse, while avoiding the dangers of coercion, sectarianism, conformism ...


A Conversation With Jane J. Mansbridge And Martha Mccoy, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael Oct 2016

A Conversation With Jane J. Mansbridge And Martha Mccoy, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael

Journal of Public Deliberation

Jane J. Mansbridge, Charles F. Adams Professor of Political Leadership and Democratic Values, and Martha McCoy, Executive Director of Everyday Democracy, discuss deliberative equity and equality in theory and practice. They identify potential tensions and trade-offs between the two values and between these values and other deliberative aims. They discuss how practitioners have attempted to promote equal and equitable deliberative processes and the challenges of measuring these concepts in deliberative settings. Their conversation provides insights into best practices for enabling marginalized groups to engage in deliberation and the persistent challenges that remain. Together, Mansbridge and McCoy outline opportunities for future ...


Ideals Of Inclusion In Deliberation, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael Oct 2016

Ideals Of Inclusion In Deliberation, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael

Journal of Public Deliberation

Building on prior thinking about political representation in democratic deliberation, we argue for four ideals of inclusion, each of which is most appropriate to a different situation. These principles of inclusion depend not only on the goals of a deliberation, but also on its level of empowerment in the political system, and its openness to all who want to participate. Holistic and open deliberations can most legitimately incorporate and decide for the people as a whole if they are open to all who want to participate and affirmatively recruit perspectives that would be underrepresented otherwise. Chicago Community Policing beat meetings ...


Taking The Goals Of Deliberation Seriously: A Differentiated View On Equality And Equity In Deliberative Designs And Processes, Edana Beauvais, Andre Baechtiger Oct 2016

Taking The Goals Of Deliberation Seriously: A Differentiated View On Equality And Equity In Deliberative Designs And Processes, Edana Beauvais, Andre Baechtiger

Journal of Public Deliberation

Deliberation must be immunized against coercive power by a baseline of equality. But what does the requirement of equality mean, in practice, for organizers designing deliberative events and forums? This question is complicated by the fact that equality is fundamentally about two—at times contradictory—values. On the one hand, the value of universal moral equality, which requires abstracting from social circumstances. On the other hand, the value of equity, which requires attending to social circumstances. Deliberative institutions vary in their capacity to promote one value over the other, or in their capacity to compromise between the two. We argue ...


Equality And Equity In Deliberation: Introduction To The Special Issue, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael Oct 2016

Equality And Equity In Deliberation: Introduction To The Special Issue, Carolyne Abdullah, Christopher F. Karpowitz, Chad Raphael

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article introduces the special issue focused on equality and equity in deliberative democracy. The essay proposes some initial working definitions of equity and equality and offers reasons why scholars and practitioners should attend to both. We outline the basic structure of the issue's three sections and preview the contributors’ articles, with special attention to the opportunities and the challenges of achieving equality and equity within the deliberative system.


Leaders’ Response To Terrorism: The Role Of Epideictic Rhetoric In Deliberative Democracies, Eirik Vatnoey Dec 2015

Leaders’ Response To Terrorism: The Role Of Epideictic Rhetoric In Deliberative Democracies, Eirik Vatnoey

Journal of Public Deliberation

New initiatives in deliberative democracy theory allow for a broader understanding of the different rhetorical practices that influence deliberation in real life settings. This solves the “problem” rhetoricians have long had with deliberative theory: that political communication is reduced to rational deliberation, disregarding a lot of non-deliberative forms of communication that are essential for the formation of public opinion and political decisions. This article elaborates on the role of epideictic rhetoric and provides an example as to how we might benefit from combining the two theoretical traditions. Often reduced to ceremonial practice, the epideictic genre has long been overlooked in ...


Review Of From Deliberation To Demonstration: Political Rallies In France, 1868-1939, By Paula Cossart, Trans. Clare Tame (Colchester, Uk: Ecpr Press, 2013)., Alex Lovit May 2015

Review Of From Deliberation To Demonstration: Political Rallies In France, 1868-1939, By Paula Cossart, Trans. Clare Tame (Colchester, Uk: Ecpr Press, 2013)., Alex Lovit

Journal of Public Deliberation

Review of From Deliberation to Demonstration: Political Rallies in France, 1868-1939, by Paula Cossart, trans. Clare Tame (Colchester, UK: ECPR Press, 2013).


Deliberation For Reconciliation In Divided Societies, Magdalena Dembinska Dr., Françoise Montambeault Dr. May 2015

Deliberation For Reconciliation In Divided Societies, Magdalena Dembinska Dr., Françoise Montambeault Dr.

Journal of Public Deliberation

Engaging with the literature on deliberative democracy, this article contends that in the context of ethnic group hostilities, deliberative processes where participants have a genuine opportunity to communicate and ‘hear the other side’ can be a way for inter-group dialogue and reconciliation. Separating the deliberative process into three distinct moments, it offers a framework for understanding how unequal and conflicting parties may be brought together to deliberate, how to grasp the micro-politics of deliberation, and to understand the diffusion mechanisms that bring society back in. The approach we propose aims to bridge the normative-macro and the experimental-micro accounts of deliberation ...


Does Culture Matter For Deliberation? Linguistic Speech Cultures And Parliamentary Deliberation In Switzerland, Seraina Pedrini May 2015

Does Culture Matter For Deliberation? Linguistic Speech Cultures And Parliamentary Deliberation In Switzerland, Seraina Pedrini

Journal of Public Deliberation

Even though culture is seen as an important aspect of deliberation, empirical research on culture’s effects on deliberation is almost completely absent. This paper offers one of the first systematic empirical studies of cultural underpinnings on deliberation. It explores two conceptions of culture, namely ‘holistic’ vs. ‘contextual’. In the ‘holistic’ approach, culture is assumed to be a constant, while the ‘contextual’ approach assumes adaptive rationality of actors to different contexts. As an extension of the ‘contextual’ approach, this paper also explores the effects of different compositions of cultural groups on the quality of deliberation. The effects of the two ...


Boosting The Local Economy Of Ashland Ohio, Louise C. Fleming-Dufala Ph.D., Kimberly Field-Springer Ph.D. Dec 2014

Boosting The Local Economy Of Ashland Ohio, Louise C. Fleming-Dufala Ph.D., Kimberly Field-Springer Ph.D.

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article summarizes an initiative to engage citizens in issues of building and supporting a local economy. It includes reasons for engaging the public; steps that were taken; and results of deliberative efforts.


Where Are The Boundaries Of Deliberation And Participation? A Transatlantic Debate, Pau Alarcón, Joan Font Dec 2014

Where Are The Boundaries Of Deliberation And Participation? A Transatlantic Debate, Pau Alarcón, Joan Font

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article uses recent empirical results from a comparative Southern European study to show that the participatory practices commonly developed in this area are quite different from some of the common ideas related to deliberation in the English-speaking world. One of the main differences lies in the characteristics of the promoters, since most of them are top-down experiences organized by public authorities. The other main difference lies in the role played by equality concerns, which are quite marginal in most of these processes. In other aspects, like the role of participation professionals or the existence of important inequalities in the ...


Flexibility, Argumentation And Confrontation. How Deliberative Minipublics Can Affect Policies On Controversial Issues, Stefania Ravazzi, Gianfranco Pomatto Dec 2014

Flexibility, Argumentation And Confrontation. How Deliberative Minipublics Can Affect Policies On Controversial Issues, Stefania Ravazzi, Gianfranco Pomatto

Journal of Public Deliberation

Over the last few decades, deliberative minipublics have been used as inclusive and innovative practices to integrate traditional policy-making. Because of their policy-oriented aim, but also owing to the usually not legally-binding nature, some scholars have recently pointed out the importance of understanding how and to what extent they actually manage to influence the decisions of public authorities, especially when they deal with highly controversial issues, such as locally unwanted land use or ethic matters.

This article has the aim of offering a contribution in this direction, by presenting the findings of a comparative analysis of two deliberative processes promoted ...


On The Westerness Of Deliberation Research, Seong-Jae Min Dec 2014

On The Westerness Of Deliberation Research, Seong-Jae Min

Journal of Public Deliberation

This essay suggests that the issue of culture is vital to advance deliberation theories and practices. After discussing whether deliberative democracy is a Western-specific or universal concept, it argues that current deliberation research is heavily immersed in Western cultural and methodological standards. An empirical portion also suggests that the positive effects of deliberation were greater for Western participants as opposed to non-Western participants. It argues that deliberation theories and research should be expanded so that they can include more cultural sensibilities.