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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Microsociety® Model: An Assessment Of Civic Engagement Outcomes Amongst Fourth And Fifth Grade Students, Jewel Hurt May 2019

The Microsociety® Model: An Assessment Of Civic Engagement Outcomes Amongst Fourth And Fifth Grade Students, Jewel Hurt

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Despite existing as a democratic country, America has wavered in prioritizing civics education in schools. This thesis analyzes the work of MicroSociety® as one program that helps students ‘learn by doing’ in the enactment of a school-wide community simulation. To test the program outcomes, a reliable survey was administered to fourth and fifth grade students at two different MicroSociety schools. The results showed that MicroSociety students reported higher average levels of civic engagement when compared to a national sample. The positive results were also consistent across both MicroSociety samples despite stark differences in the demographic profiles of each school. This ...


Second Class Citizens - A Comparative Analysis Of Lgbtq Quality Of Life, Paige Stuart Moody May 2019

Second Class Citizens - A Comparative Analysis Of Lgbtq Quality Of Life, Paige Stuart Moody

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The following thesis explains the differences between the Quality of Life of LGBTQ individuals within the European Union and the United States of America. Looking at the specific Quality of Life index factors of employment and healthcare, this thesis focuses on four regions: Malta, Germany, California and Texas.

Overall, the European Union was found to have a higher Quality of Life for LGBTQ individuals than the United States of America in the realms of employment and healthcare. This is due to Germany and Malta having inclusive laws and regulations put in place that protect LGBTQ individuals, whereas there is various ...


Battle For The Minds: Use Of Propaganda Films In Stalinist Russia And Nazi Germany, David Rosenblum May 2019

Battle For The Minds: Use Of Propaganda Films In Stalinist Russia And Nazi Germany, David Rosenblum

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Since the end of the Second World War, scholars and experts have examined the use of cinema in spreading totalitarian propaganda. Nazi Germany, in particular, has caught the most attention. However, most of these studies focus exclusively on one nation, and relatively few studies have tried to directly compare the cinematic propaganda of different countries. This study aims to directly compare cinematic propaganda of Stalinist-era Russia and Nazi Germany and find out who utilized the medium of film more effectively. To accomplish this, this study will examine and directly compare several critical components, such as industry structure and artistic merits ...


How Does Media Coverage Of Oil Pipelines Affect Governmental Response?, Haley Walter May 2019

How Does Media Coverage Of Oil Pipelines Affect Governmental Response?, Haley Walter

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This study’s purpose was to first explore the significance of agenda-setting, framing, and inference, which assert that the media’s daily coverage of event significant impact the way it is understood by the public. Then, I aimed to apply this understanding specifically to media coverage of the oil pipeline process of Dakota Access Pipeline.

To this end, I conducted a content analysis of articles from The Bismarck Tribune, the Associated Press, The New York Timesand The Wall Street Journal between January 1st, 2015 and January 1st, 2016, and July 25th, 2016 and October 1st ...


Post-Civil War Peace Durability: The Role Of Domestic Infrastructure And Military, Alexandra Wilson May 2019

Post-Civil War Peace Durability: The Role Of Domestic Infrastructure And Military, Alexandra Wilson

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Since 1945, approximately half of the world’s states have been engaged in some type of civil conflict. The aim of this research is to understand why some post-civil war states fail to establish peace durability while others thrive. Through quantitative research of civil wars globally and a qualitative analysis of Iraq, this thesis argues for the necessity of post-civil war policy to focus on the renewal of domestic infrastructure in addition to military investment which suppresses grievance-driven violence. A logistical regression model of all civil wars since 1945 shows that variables, such as healthcare, are evidently associated with more ...


Donald Trump Did A “Very Good” Job: A Rhetorical Analysis Of Candidate Trump’S Campaign Speeches, Caroline Mohan May 2019

Donald Trump Did A “Very Good” Job: A Rhetorical Analysis Of Candidate Trump’S Campaign Speeches, Caroline Mohan

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Since mid-2015, Donald Trump has shaken the political arena with an unprecedented yet effective public rhetorical repertoire. Regardless of alleged scandals, frequent social media usage, and extemporaneous and fiery rally speeches, the president’s approval ratings remain steady and he continues to move forward in his international and local political endeavors. Though these factors often posed large obstacles for past presidents, Trump has overcome them by use of audience identification, transparency, honorific pandering, and shrewd control of a vulnerable political sphere. In this study, rhetorician Kenneth Burke’s fantasy-theme and cluster criticisms are used to analyze Trump’s overall rhetorical ...


Unintended Consequences: U.S. Interference In El Salvador, The Salvadoran Diaspora, And The Role Of Activist Community Organizations In Establishing A Salvadoran-American Community In Los Angeles, Blake Bergstrom May 2019

Unintended Consequences: U.S. Interference In El Salvador, The Salvadoran Diaspora, And The Role Of Activist Community Organizations In Establishing A Salvadoran-American Community In Los Angeles, Blake Bergstrom

Masters Theses

The U.S. intervention in El Salvador had a number of unintended consequences, some negative and some positive, that still have a great impact on the U.S., El Salvador, and the international community as a whole today. Although the focus of the mass media is on the negative unintended consequences, the positive really outweigh the negative. These so-called unintended consequences began with a massive increase in immigration to escape the violent human rights violations and political persecutions of El Salvador’s Civil War. This migration to the U.S. in the 1980s is referred to as the Salvadoran Diaspora ...


Lobbying The Regulatory State: An Examination Of Regulation And Revolving Door Lobbying, Charles Lowrance Iii Apr 2019

Lobbying The Regulatory State: An Examination Of Regulation And Revolving Door Lobbying, Charles Lowrance Iii

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The prominence of lobbying activity in Washington, D.C., is well-known and often discussed by pundits and legislators alike. For those familiar with the practice of lobbying, it is not a secret that many former government employees become lobbyists and vice versa in a phenomenon often called the revolving door. Yet to be determined, however, is what leads to these so-called revolving door lobbyists and what factors contribute to a heightened number of them working on similar issues.

This study sought to determine if there is a relationship between the degree to which the federal government regulates a certain industry ...


Special Issue, December 2018 Jan 2019

Special Issue, December 2018

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

5 – 7 Terry Beitzel, Gjylbehare Muharti, and Hysen Nimani, Responsibility in the Balkans: Justice, Media and Arts.

8 – 22 Mujë Ukaj and Qendresa Jasharaj, International Criminal Responsibility in Kosovo: Establishment of the International Criminal Court - de lege lata, de lege ferenda.

23 – 41 Avdullah Robaj and Sabiha Shala, Responsibility in Building Rule of Law: Kosovo Challenges.

42 – 54 Mujë Ukaj, The Irresponsible Persons: the Imposition and Execution of the Mandatory Treatment Measures on Criminal Procedure of Kosovo.

55 – 64 Gani Asllani, Bedri Statovci, and Gentiana Gega, Development and Protection of Economic Competition in Kosovo.

65 – 87 Saranda Leka and ...


Volume 1, Issue 2 May 2018

Volume 1, Issue 2

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

Introduction: Terry Beitzel, Types of Responsibility: Challenges and Opportunities

3 – 5 Howard Zehr, Restorative Justice and the Gandhian Tradition.

6 – 26 Richard E. Rubenstein, Responsibility for Peacemaking in the Context of Structural Violence.

27 – 64 Marc Pufong, Terror, Insecurity, State Responsibility and Challenges: Yesterday and Today?

65 – 77 Ron Kraybill, Responsibility, Community and Conflict Resolution in an Age of Polarization.

78 – 96 John Fairfield, Beyond non-violence to courtship.

97 – 98 Call for papers for forthcoming issues of the International Journal on Responsibility and instructions for authors.


Study Abroad And Track Ii Diplomacy, Makena Rafferty-Lewis May 2018

Study Abroad And Track Ii Diplomacy, Makena Rafferty-Lewis

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Track II diplomacy, or person-to-person diplomacy is one of the most basic, but also most important types of international relations. Track II diplomacy requires not just effective legislature to be in place, but also requires individuals to have cross-cultural competency. One question that arises is how is this type of connectivity between cultures is formed. One of the most direct links can be found in students. As the political environment changes, young minds and rising experts will be the people who need to handle future international problems, that are possibly different from what we have seen in the past. How ...


El Viaje Desde Centroamérica A Los Estados Unidos: How Us Foreign Policy Impacts Migration From Central America To The United States, Cecilia Cerja May 2018

El Viaje Desde Centroamérica A Los Estados Unidos: How Us Foreign Policy Impacts Migration From Central America To The United States, Cecilia Cerja

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

In the face of ever increasing civil conflict in Central America, the United States is attempting to grapple with immigration reform as the number of refugees continues to rise. Though the dominant narrative seems to indicate that people are flocking to the United States for economic opportunity, upon further analysis it seems that there are a variety of push and pull factors for migration to the United States. In this thesis three case studies of Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala are analyzed to determine the push and pull factors causing migration to the United States. After examining the push and ...


The Subjective Well-Being Of Ethnic Albanians In Macedonia, Peggy Brozi May 2018

The Subjective Well-Being Of Ethnic Albanians In Macedonia, Peggy Brozi

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Macedonia is a multiethnic country that gained independence peacefully from Yugoslavia. Tensions between the Albanian minority (which represents approximately a quarter of the population) and Macedonians led to an eight-month insurgency in 2001 started by a group of Albanian insurgents. The conclusion of the Ohrid Framework Agreement, designed to improve minority rights, ended the conflict. Besides ethnic tension, Macedonia has faced other challenges like grand corruption, unemployment, brain drain, and more. This study examines demographic and socio-economic variables affecting the subjective well-being (SWB) of eight well-educated and well-connected Albanians from Macedonia. Through a qualitative (i.e. Skype interviews) and quantitative ...


Nigerian Terror: The Rise Of Boko Haram, Kelly Moss May 2018

Nigerian Terror: The Rise Of Boko Haram, Kelly Moss

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria was the world’s deadliest terrorist group of 2014, second deadliest in 2015, and is one of the most perplexing terrorist groups to arise in the past 50 years. This study sought to identify how Boko Haram rose to power in Nigeria, and found the following factors to be explanatory: Nigeria’s weak state capacity stemming from colonialism and poor post-colonial governance, the politicization of religion, and Boko Haram’s relationship with other terrorist organizations such as Al-Shabab, Al-Qaeda, and Daesh. This study further analyzed domestic and international responses to Boko Haram, up to ...


International Post-Conflict Peacebuilding In Bosnia And Herzegovina And Cambodia, Mia Fisher May 2018

International Post-Conflict Peacebuilding In Bosnia And Herzegovina And Cambodia, Mia Fisher

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The end of the Cold War brought many changes to the international system, including a rise in intrastate armed conflict and violence against civilians. Consequently, the international community performed increasingly complex and multidimensional peace support operations, and peacebuilding advanced onto the international agenda during the 1990s. Despite the increased attention on peacebuilding in recent decades, most operations have been relatively unsuccessful, and local and international actors continue to struggle with how to implement effective policies to rebuild post-conflict states. The purpose of this research paper is to examine how the international community contributes to post-conflict peacebuilding efforts and to better ...


The Presbyterian Enlightenment: The Confluence Of Evangelical And Enlightenment Thought In British America, Brandon S. Durbin May 2018

The Presbyterian Enlightenment: The Confluence Of Evangelical And Enlightenment Thought In British America, Brandon S. Durbin

Masters Theses

Eighteenth-Century British American Presbyterian ministers incorporated covenantal theology, ideas from the Scottish Enlightenment, and resistance theory in their sermons. The sermons of Presbyterian ministers strongly indicate the intermixing of enlightenment and evangelical ideas. Congregants heard and read these sermons, spreading these ideas to the average colonist. This combination helps explain why American Presbyterians were so apt to resist British rule during the American Revolution. Protestant covenantal theology, derived from Protestant reformers like John Calvin and John Knox, emphasized virtue and duty. This covenant affected both the people and their rulers. When rulers failed to uphold their covenant with God, the ...


Acknowledgments, Howard S. Carrier Apr 2018

Acknowledgments, Howard S. Carrier

International Journal on Responsibility

Serious work to bring the International Journal on Responsibility to life commenced during the summer of 2015. In the intervening period between conceptualization and publication, many organizations and individuals within James Madison University and the wider community have contributed enormously to bringing the journal to fruition.


Who Is Responsible For Ethical Legal Education, For What And To Whom? Case Of Kosovo, Sabiha Shala, Gjylbehare Muharti Apr 2018

Who Is Responsible For Ethical Legal Education, For What And To Whom? Case Of Kosovo, Sabiha Shala, Gjylbehare Muharti

International Journal on Responsibility

Legal education continues to be one of the most demanded areas of study from the younger generation in Kosovo. As result, the number of law graduates is quite high. On the other hand, the rule of law sector is quite fragile, judges and lawyers are perceived by parts of the society to be ethically dysfunctional. The trust in judicial institutions is quite low. The debate which is going on now is whose main responsibility for such a situation that is. Is the duty of the higher education institutions providing legal education, or is it a responsibility of educational institutions at ...


Resolving The Paradox Of Holding People Responsible, Hal Pepinsky Apr 2018

Resolving The Paradox Of Holding People Responsible, Hal Pepinsky

International Journal on Responsibility

Regardless of justification, it is commonplace throughout the U.S. criminal justice system as in everyday life to teach our offenders and children alike that wrong actions “have consequences,” namely, those authority figures promise to impose upon them. We do so in the name of holding people responsible for their actions, or in legal parlance in civil law, holding them accountable or liable. I noticed that in Norwegian, responsibility, accountability and liability translate into one word, ansvar, which I have translated from Germanic to Latin roots as “responsiveness.” In practice, the state of being responsive to others with whom one ...


Political Flip-Flopping, Political Responsibility, Current Governance, And The Disenfranchised, T.Y. Okosun Apr 2018

Political Flip-Flopping, Political Responsibility, Current Governance, And The Disenfranchised, T.Y. Okosun

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


What Does Responsibility Mean To Me?, Arun Gandhi Apr 2018

What Does Responsibility Mean To Me?, Arun Gandhi

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


Who Is Responsible To Do What For Whom? A Letter From The Editor-In-Chief, Terry Beitzel Apr 2018

Who Is Responsible To Do What For Whom? A Letter From The Editor-In-Chief, Terry Beitzel

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


To Build The Fire Of Revolution, Stephen Roddewig Oct 2017

To Build The Fire Of Revolution, Stephen Roddewig

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Scholarly examinations of naturalism in Jack London’s 1908 short story “To Build a Fire” often overlook the influence of the socialist political movement. After surveying the American Socialist Party movement and London’s activism in “How I Became a Socialist,” this essay uses the frame of Marxist rhetorical criticism to inspect sociopolitical themes in London’s famous story. London’s critiques of Individualism in “How I Became a Socialist” parallel one of his concerns in “To Build a Fire” as his unnamed protagonist progresses through the Yukon with the larger ideals of American society and the capitalist economy guiding ...


Volume 1, Issue 1 Aug 2017

Volume 1, Issue 1

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

1 – 4 Terry Beitzel, Who is Responsible to do what for Whom? A letter from the Editor-in-Chief.

5 – 20 Arun Gandhi, What Does Responsibility Mean to Me?

21 – 42 T.Y. Okosun, Political Flip-flopping, Political Responsibility, Current Governance, and the Disenfranchised.

43 – 54 Hal Pepinsky, Resolving the Paradox of Holding People Responsible.

55 – 66 Kendra A. Hollern, Dying with Dignity: Where is the Compassion in Compassionate Release Programs?

67 – 82 Sabiha Shala & Gjylbehare Muharti, Who is Responsible for Ethical Legal Education, for what and to whom? Case of Kosovo.

83 Acknowledgments.


Interpreting Submunition Fragmentation Marks On Hard Surfaces For The Survey Of Cluster Munition Strikes, Roly Evans Aug 2017

Interpreting Submunition Fragmentation Marks On Hard Surfaces For The Survey Of Cluster Munition Strikes, Roly Evans

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Submunition fragmentation can produce distinct patterns on hard surfaces that can assist in establishing if a cluster munition has been used. This article will review some of the submunition fragmentation impact patterns seen in current and former conflict zones around the world. It will also underline the risks of misidentifying such patterns and the need to corroborate them with associated evidence such as the submunition fragmentation itself. Trying to accurately identify evidence of cluster munition strikes is an important skill, not just for those surveying contamination for subsequent clearance, but also for journalists and human rights advocates seeking to document ...


From The Director, Kenneth Rutherford Aug 2017

From The Director, Kenneth Rutherford

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

This June, the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) partnered with Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) to facilitate the Southeast Asia Cluster Munition Remnants Survey (CMRS) Workshop in Washington, D.C. This two-day event, hosted by the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM/WRA), brought together a number of organizations working in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam to discuss best

practices in CMRS in the region.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 21.2, Cisr Jmu Aug 2017

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 21.2, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In this issue of The Journal, we also turn our focus to Southeast Asia and the evolving nature of survey. Greg Crowther discusses MAG’s (Mines Advisory Group) work in Burma: building relationships, taking baseline assessments, delivering mine risk education, and conducting community safety mapping. LTC Shawn Kadlec and 1 LT Richard Calvin of the U.S. Army Pacific Command (USARPAC) illustrate the benefits of establishing an effective NGO-military partnership in humanitarian mine action through their work in providing military trainers to assist the Vietnam People’s Army in training International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) certified instructors at the Vietnam ...


Politics V. Religion: A Theory Of The Christian Right, Lucas G. Nordyke May 2017

Politics V. Religion: A Theory Of The Christian Right, Lucas G. Nordyke

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

I would like to thank my committee for assisting me with this project in whatever way they could. Dr. Cohen, Dr. Lubert, and Dr. Gelfand were extremely generous with their expertise and time, always sending helpful comments and insights. I would like to especially thank Dr. Cohen for being my chair and guiding me through every step of this project. This was no small task and I certainly could not have done it on my own.


From Malta To The United States: Addressing Refugee Needs, Elizabeth L. Brannon May 2017

From Malta To The United States: Addressing Refugee Needs, Elizabeth L. Brannon

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

There are currently 21.3 million refugees worldwide, who have been driven from their homes and are searching for a new life. The current refugee crisis has created a sense of controversy over the integration of refugees, making it further imperative to determine what leads to effective integration of refugees into host societies and how organizations can aid in this process. To determine these factors, I completed field research in Malta and Harrisonburg, Virginia, interviewing a total of ten refugee organizations. In this study, I explore the how community connections, adaptability, and funding constraints determine the effectiveness of organizations in ...


Colombian Peace Process Likely To Succeed, Kayla D. Graves May 2017

Colombian Peace Process Likely To Succeed, Kayla D. Graves

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

On 2 October 2016, Colombians voted on a referendum to “end the conflict and establish stable and enduring peace” between Las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, FARC, and Colombia’s democratic government. The referendum was rejected by a narrow margin―49.8% of voters in favor of the peace deal and 50.2% opposed. Following the referendum several terms were revised and the peace accord was approved by Colombian Congress on 30 November 2016. Now, the transition to peace begins.

Structured Analytic Techniques including Analysis of Competing Hypotheses, Scenario Generation, and Red Team Analysis support the conclusion that the Colombian ...