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Claremont Colleges

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker Jun 2015

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the TRENDS terrorism futures series focuses on trends in the manufacturing of homemade and printed firearms along with the emergence of remote (teleoperated) firearms. Each of these trends is discussed in turn in this short essay, as are the implications of their cumulative effects on terrorism and insurgency. Ultimately, as will be highlighted in this piece, both physical and cyber forms of terrorism are increasingly merging as a result of firearm and computer components becoming more closely integrated [1].


Use And Potentials Of Counter-Optical Lasers In Riots And Terrorism., Robert J. Bunker Apr 2015

Use And Potentials Of Counter-Optical Lasers In Riots And Terrorism., Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the TRENDS counter-terrorism futures series focuses on LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) effects on human vision and activities in the context of riots and terrorism. Both the use and potentials of counter-optical lasers—that is, lasers utilized so as to disrupt and degrade human vision—will be highlighted with in regard to each of these forms of criminal-political activities. Additionally, a discussion of some of the applicable police and security response (countermeasures) to such laser use will be provided.


Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker Mar 2015

Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The variation in human borne suicide bomb types used by terrorist organizations is much broader than is typically realized due to a number of iterations that have taken place over the course of decades. In this installment of the terrorism futures series, the more specialized close to the body and body cavity types will be focused upon. In addition, HAZMAT (hazardous materials) variants will be discussed along with the future potentials of these devices and the increased security interest in detecting them.


Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker Feb 2015

Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the terrorism futures series will highlight the emergence of fifth dimensional battlespace, its implications for both the conduct of terrorism and counterterrorism operations, and, to some extent, interactions with terrorist disruptive targeting capabilities. Additionally, the larger civilizational context in which a dynamic yet little recognized terrorism and counterterrorism ‘fifth dimensional capabilities race’ that is taking place will be highlighted. While initially this concept may seem abstract, the importance of understanding its implications will become apparent.


Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This short terrorism futures essay will focus upon differing forms of targeting and their effects, that is, destructive versus disruptive, and the interrelationship between these and the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements, highlighting the differences between legitimate state use of coercion and the illegitimate use of disruptive targeting—and the subsequent magnification of the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements—when employed by terrorists. It will conclude with a discussion of the counter-threat implications of acknowledging terrorism as a form of disruptive targeting and the need for states to focus on new counter-threat protocols that go beyond ...


Gendered Disparities In The German Workforce: Development Of Female Labor Union Participation And Current Challenges, Kelly Ancharski Jan 2015

Gendered Disparities In The German Workforce: Development Of Female Labor Union Participation And Current Challenges, Kelly Ancharski

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

With an increasing global female presence in political and economic representation, the continuation of a gendered division of labor and the rise of market flexibility draws into question how historical policies and decision making influence sociocultural-value systems, mobility, and market access in Germany. This paper explores the German labor market through the critical lens of labor union formulation, the dynamics within a German-European Union relationship, and social policy reforms to uncover the reasoning and rationale behind the reinforcement of female labor as precarious. An inclusive discourse on correcting imbalances within the formal/public and informal/private spheres must include the ...


Terrorist And Insurgent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Use, Potentials, And Military Implications, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Terrorist And Insurgent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Use, Potentials, And Military Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Books

This manuscript focuses on the present threat posed by terrorist and insurgent use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as well as associated future threat potentials. This work presents a counterintuitive analysis in the sense that armed drones are typically viewed as a component of America’s conventional warfighting prowess—not a technology that would be used against U.S. troops deployed overseas or against civilians back home. The emerging threat of such UAV use against the United States is investigated, and the unique analysis and creative approach related to the threat scenario variants generated are very informative. Hopefully, the larger ...


Narco-Submarines. Specially Fabricated Vessels Used For Drug Smuggling Purposes, Byron Ramirez, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Narco-Submarines. Specially Fabricated Vessels Used For Drug Smuggling Purposes, Byron Ramirez, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Narcotics are moving at sea in relatively sophisticated nautical craft beneath the waves – we need to understand their capabilities and intent. This volume is a fine start. For several decades, law enforcement agencies and the militaries in the Western hemisphere have focused on developing strategies that will allow them to thwart the efforts of drug trafficking organizations and mitigate the flow of drugs into our great nation. In close partnership with its allies, the United States has acquired a rich store of experience in activities aimed at disrupting the activities of criminal organizations. In spite of the success of Operation ...


Shuttling More Than Goods: Collective Support Among Turkish-Bulgarian Shuttle Traders, Nikolina Stoykova Jan 2015

Shuttling More Than Goods: Collective Support Among Turkish-Bulgarian Shuttle Traders, Nikolina Stoykova

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

Given that the European Union is a free trade, market-oriented economic zone that should, theoretically, eliminate market distortions that fuel the informal economy, why are we seeing continued participation in the informal economy, specifically, the shuttle trade between Bulgaria and Turkey? Many scholars frequently cite price distortions, market gaps, lucrative exchange rates, and economic survival as prominent reasons, however, these explanations do not suffice in explaining why the shuttle trade thrives 25 years after the communist collapse in Bulgaria. Through the use of meta-linguistic analysis of the interviews and analysis of the individuals that I interviewed, I argue that, in ...


Reconstruction After Genocide: An Analysis Of The Justice System For The Women Victims Of Genocidal Rape In Post-Conflict Bosnia, Hannah E. Gardenswartz Jan 2015

Reconstruction After Genocide: An Analysis Of The Justice System For The Women Victims Of Genocidal Rape In Post-Conflict Bosnia, Hannah E. Gardenswartz

Scripps Senior Theses

In the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina, one of the critical elements of the ethnic cleansing regimes was rape and impregnation of women. When the international justice system was created to criminally try the perpetrators of the atrocities, including the rape victims was a new development. Looking at the tribunals and court system from a gendered perspective reveals that the efforts to include rape victims have not taken into account their specific needs, stemming from their trauma. A critical look the ICTY and other criminal courts are presented, as well as recommendations for improving inclusivity and reconciliation.


Soft Power Played On The Hardwood: United States Diplomacy Through Basketball, Joseph Bertka Eyen Jan 2015

Soft Power Played On The Hardwood: United States Diplomacy Through Basketball, Joseph Bertka Eyen

Pitzer Senior Theses

This thesis demonstrates the importance of basketball as a form of soft power and a diplomatic asset to better achieve American foreign policy, which is defined and referred to as basketball diplomacy. Basketball diplomacy is also a lens to observe the evolution of American power from 1893 through present day. Basketball connects and permeates foreign cultures and effectively disseminates American influence unlike any other form of soft power, which is most powerfully illustrated by the United States’ basketball relationship with China. American basketball diplomacy will become stronger and connect with more countries with greater influence, and exist without relevant competition ...


Implementing (Environmental) Justice: Equity And Performance In California's S.B. 535, Meagan Tokunaga Jan 2015

Implementing (Environmental) Justice: Equity And Performance In California's S.B. 535, Meagan Tokunaga

Pomona Senior Theses

This thesis evaluates the equity performance of a recent state environmental justice policy, California’s Senate Bill 535 (S.B. 535). “Environmental justice” refers to the disproportionate environmental harm imposed on low-income and minority communities. S.B. 535 uses competitive grants to provide funding to these communities. The research is centered around two questions: (1) to what extent has S.B. 535 experienced successful implementation in its first year of operation, and (2) how can policy actors improve implementation while balancing performance and equity goals? In regards to the first question, I utilize a case study of the policy’s ...


Let's Talk About Sex: The Failure Of Abstinence-Only Policies In America's Public Schools, Sloan Caldwell Jan 2015

Let's Talk About Sex: The Failure Of Abstinence-Only Policies In America's Public Schools, Sloan Caldwell

CMC Senior Theses

Sexual education has been a much-debated topic in the United States since it was instated in light of the HIV/AID pandemic of the 1980s. The debate has always centered on the role of sexual education: should it act to objectively relay the facts about sexual health? Or should it be utilized as a moral purveyor of teen’s sexual behavior? During the second Bush Administration it seemed as if the conservative right had won and sexual education adopted a role policing teen’s morality with $1.5 billion in federal funding for abstinence-only education. This study aims to provide ...


Not Our Fight Alone: An Analysis Of The Us Strategy Combating The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria, James E. Kelly Jan 2015

Not Our Fight Alone: An Analysis Of The Us Strategy Combating The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria, James E. Kelly

CMC Senior Theses

The recent policies of former Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, combined with the collapse of the Syrian state in 2011, created conditions that led to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, or “ISIS.” As of November 2014, ISIS controls large areas of western and northern Iraq and northern and eastern Syria, an area roughly the size of Belgium. The rise of ISIS in the past three years has caught the attention of every major nation, especially the United States, and world leaders are justified in fearing a strong ISIS in the Middle East.

The purpose of ...


South Korean Men And The Military: The Influence Of Conscription On The Political Behavior Of South Korean Males, Hyo Sung Joo Jan 2015

South Korean Men And The Military: The Influence Of Conscription On The Political Behavior Of South Korean Males, Hyo Sung Joo

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis evaluates the effects of compulsory military service in South Korea on the political behavior of men from a public policy standpoint. I take an institutional point of view on conscription, in that conscription forces the military to accept individuals with minimal screening. Given the distinct set of values embodied by the military, I hypothesize that the military would need a powerful, comprehensive, and fast program of indoctrination to re-socialize civilians into military uniform, trustable enough to be entrusted with a gun or a confidential document. Based on the existence of such a program and related academic literature, I ...


Executive Prerogative: The Constitutionality And Future Implications Of President Barack Obama's 2014 Executive Order Regarding Immigration Law In The United States Of America, Christopher J. Rama Jan 2015

Executive Prerogative: The Constitutionality And Future Implications Of President Barack Obama's 2014 Executive Order Regarding Immigration Law In The United States Of America, Christopher J. Rama

CMC Senior Theses

United States President Barack Obama issued an Executive order on November 20, 2014 to implement new law regarding the American immigration system and deportations. The system has long been skewed, and a polarizing issue among both the general public and of those involved in the United States government. Obama, by issuing this decree, created a law on his own due to congressional deadlock in creating and passing immigration reform legislation. However, the constitutionality of his decision to do so has now become highly debated, with many officials and academics across the country asserting their beliefs in his legal ability to ...


The Effects Of Forestry Regulations On Rural Communities And The Urban-Rural Divide In Oregon, Jennifer Sitton Jan 2015

The Effects Of Forestry Regulations On Rural Communities And The Urban-Rural Divide In Oregon, Jennifer Sitton

CMC Senior Theses

This senior thesis is a study of federal forestry policy in Oregon and its effects on rural communities and the urban-rural division in the state. Looking specifically at the “Timber Wars” of the early 1990s, it delves deeper into the controversy over the protection of the northern spotted owl, the Northwest Forest Plan, and President Clinton’s efforts to solve the conflict between grassroots environmental activists and those with a vested interest in the timber industry. It also analyzes the federal timber payment system created by Congress to solve the problems for rural communities caused by forestry regulations. Lastly, it ...


Coming In From The Cold: Recommendations For United States Arctic Policy, Aseem Chipalkatti Jan 2015

Coming In From The Cold: Recommendations For United States Arctic Policy, Aseem Chipalkatti

CMC Senior Theses

The purpose of this policy report is to elucidate the current Arctic strategies and capabilities of the major Arctic nations – Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the United States – with the aim of identifying American shortcomings in the region and potential policy suggestions to correct these failings. The report first illuminates the potential for resource gain in the Arctic, specifically with respect to oil and natural gas and the potential for commercial growth represented by new Arctic shipping routes. The report also discusses the difficulties associated with reaping the rewards of the Arctic, specifically the lack of maritime infrastructure, the additional ...


Coastal Environmental Policies And Water: Environmental Values In Ghana And Senegal, Molly R. Loftus Jan 2015

Coastal Environmental Policies And Water: Environmental Values In Ghana And Senegal, Molly R. Loftus

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis provides a comparative analysis of the environmental values present in Ghana’s and Senegal’s coastal regions, and the implications that those have for the surrounding environment. The countries approaches to urban farming, mining and oil and gas extraction, fishing, marine debris and municipal waste management are assessed in order to reach a greater understanding of these environmental issues. In undertaking this thesis, I attempted to draw a correlation between the handling of these issues and how people perceive their environment. Through the comparison of environmental degradation and the level of effort to achieve a more sustainable developmental ...


Deconstructing The Third Rail: An Analysis Of The Issue Of Poverty In The United States Through The Lens Of Social Security, Nikita Mehandru Jan 2015

Deconstructing The Third Rail: An Analysis Of The Issue Of Poverty In The United States Through The Lens Of Social Security, Nikita Mehandru

CMC Senior Theses

The ongoing debate over welfare in the United States is rooted in the long-standing tension between the nation’s commitment to providing for its most vulnerable and a deep-seated belief that such support can corrupt its recipients. Social Security has struck this balance and appeals to the masses with its pay-as-you-go system and universally distributed benefits. Yet, the solvency of Social Security is threatening the program that has attempted to guard against old age and disability for the last eighty years. This paper examines how the perception of poverty in the United States is a hindrance when tackling social welfare ...


A Philosophical Analysis Of California Determinate Sentencing, Three Strikes, And Realignment, Madeline Stein Jan 2015

A Philosophical Analysis Of California Determinate Sentencing, Three Strikes, And Realignment, Madeline Stein

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores the relationship between philosophy and policy in the context of three California policies, Determinate Sentencing, Three Strikes, and Realignment. The philosophy portion includes theories of retribution, deterrence, and rehabilitation, focusing on the tensions and conflicts within them.


Climbing The Mountain Of Conflict: Margaret Thatcher's Falklands Crisis, Benjamin F. Waldman Jan 2015

Climbing The Mountain Of Conflict: Margaret Thatcher's Falklands Crisis, Benjamin F. Waldman

CMC Senior Theses

Early in her Prime Ministership, Margaret Thatcher fought an unlikely diversionary war far from home for the ownership of the Falkland Islands. The Islands lie off of Argentina’s coast about 8,000 miles from London, but have been subject to Britain’s rule since 1836. In April 1982, hoping to distract from domestic political and economic turmoil, Argentina’s military dictatorship ordered a surprise invasion of the Islands. Thatcher, Britain’s first female Prime Minister, responded in full force. By early May, a British fleet reached the Islands. By June, despite American efforts to stop a war between its ...


U.S. Foreign Policy In Pakistan: Bringing Pakistan Into Line With American Counterterrorism Interests, Henry E. Appel Jan 2015

U.S. Foreign Policy In Pakistan: Bringing Pakistan Into Line With American Counterterrorism Interests, Henry E. Appel

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis is a review of U.S. foreign policy in Pakistan through a realist lens. It critiques the current state of U.S. policy and recommends that the United States prioritize national security interests, particularly with regards to counterterrorism, over building Pakistani democracy and running civilian aid programs. It then further recommends ways for the United States government to account for ground level dynamics in Pakistani politics in crafting foreign policy aimed at bringing Pakistan into line with U.S. counterterrorism priorities.


Spatial Transgressions, Anxiety, And The Discourse Of Pussy Riot's "Punk Prayer, Katherine Schroeder Jan 2015

Spatial Transgressions, Anxiety, And The Discourse Of Pussy Riot's "Punk Prayer, Katherine Schroeder

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

The 2012 performance of Pussy Riot’s “Punk Prayer” in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow, their subsequent release of an extended and edited video, and their ultimate arrest for committing “hooliganism” generated a large amount of interest both within Russia and on an international scale. While Western accounts and analyses were marked by their tendency to frame the political content, Russian responses were framed by references to tradition and history. Significantly, there was disagreement amongst the latter with regard to the activist value of Pussy Riot. I argue that this ambiguity arises from a profound socio-spatial anxiety ...


The Eu Budget's Impact On Public Opinion, Kai Stern Jan 2015

The Eu Budget's Impact On Public Opinion, Kai Stern

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

Public opinion on the European Union (EU) is significant and therefore a worthwhile topic of consideration. Analyses have identified and ordered the factors that impact public opinion on the EU, as well analyzed the efficacy of EU funds. Yet the confluence of these two lines of inquiry is understudied. Some Member States have surpluses and others deficits relative to the EU budget, which could impact citizens’ perceptions of the EU. To gauge this potential relationship, this article notes deficit and surplus Member States and responses to one Eurobarometer question about trust in the European Commission from 2000-2013. These variables are ...


A Multiracial Republic? The Challenges Faced By The Maghreb Population In France, Anahita Vasudevan, Kevin Ratana Patumwat, Kevin Fulgham Jan 2015

A Multiracial Republic? The Challenges Faced By The Maghreb Population In France, Anahita Vasudevan, Kevin Ratana Patumwat, Kevin Fulgham

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

As European society becomes more multiethnic and multiracial, Member States of the European Union are faced with the need to formulate adequate policy responses to immigration and integration issues. France has had a distinctive history, lasting over five decades, as a recipient country for non-European immigrants from the Maghreb region of Northern Africa. Over time, discrepancies in living conditions between Maghreb immigrants and the wider French society have only deepened. To investigate the current state of the Maghreb community in France, this analytical paper pursues the following questions: How does the persistence of political, economic, and social differences affect the ...


Foreword Jan 2015

Foreword

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


List Of Abbreviations Jan 2015

List Of Abbreviations

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


Euroskepticism’S Many Faces: The Cases Of Hungary And The Uk, Joseph Bebel, Jon Collier Jan 2015

Euroskepticism’S Many Faces: The Cases Of Hungary And The Uk, Joseph Bebel, Jon Collier

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

While increasing numbers of Europeans are skeptical about the EU, the primary causes behind Euroskepticism vary widely from country to country. Our paper examines the differing sources of Euroskepticism within Hungary and the United Kingdom, using these examples as case studies for the broader EU. Hungarian Euroskeptics accuse the EU of suppressing Hungarian culture and violating the country’s national sovereignty, fostering a growing sense that EU membership has not brought the promised benefits. The primary driving forces behind British Euroskepticism, however, are opposition to intra-EU immigration and a sense that the island nation is inherently separate from the Continent ...


Of Uranium And Carbon: Divergence Of Energy Policy In Germany And France, Jie Ming Chong Jan 2015

Of Uranium And Carbon: Divergence Of Energy Policy In Germany And France, Jie Ming Chong

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

After the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, Chancellor Merkel of Germany announced a complete nuclear phase-out in Germany by 2022, while President Hollande of France assured the French government of his commitment to nuclear energy. Fossil fuels, notably lignite and coal, dominated the German energy sector with 47.9% market share of total energy production in Germany; nuclear energy is the leading energy source in France with a market share of 80.9% in 2013. The difference between natural resources’ abundance in Germany and France shaped the development of energy policy in both countries. Huge lignite and coal reserves in Germany ...