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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker Jun 2015

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the TRENDS terrorism futures series focuses on trends in the manufacturing of homemade and printed firearms along with the emergence of remote (teleoperated) firearms. Each of these trends is discussed in turn in this short essay, as are the implications of their cumulative effects on terrorism and insurgency. Ultimately, as will be highlighted in this piece, both physical and cyber forms of terrorism are increasingly merging as a result of firearm and computer components becoming more closely integrated [1].


Use And Potentials Of Counter-Optical Lasers In Riots And Terrorism., Robert J. Bunker Apr 2015

Use And Potentials Of Counter-Optical Lasers In Riots And Terrorism., Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the TRENDS counter-terrorism futures series focuses on LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) effects on human vision and activities in the context of riots and terrorism. Both the use and potentials of counter-optical lasers—that is, lasers utilized so as to disrupt and degrade human vision—will be highlighted with in regard to each of these forms of criminal-political activities. Additionally, a discussion of some of the applicable police and security response (countermeasures) to such laser use will be provided.


Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker Mar 2015

Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The variation in human borne suicide bomb types used by terrorist organizations is much broader than is typically realized due to a number of iterations that have taken place over the course of decades. In this installment of the terrorism futures series, the more specialized close to the body and body cavity types will be focused upon. In addition, HAZMAT (hazardous materials) variants will be discussed along with the future potentials of these devices and the increased security interest in detecting them.


Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker Feb 2015

Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the terrorism futures series will highlight the emergence of fifth dimensional battlespace, its implications for both the conduct of terrorism and counterterrorism operations, and, to some extent, interactions with terrorist disruptive targeting capabilities. Additionally, the larger civilizational context in which a dynamic yet little recognized terrorism and counterterrorism ‘fifth dimensional capabilities race’ that is taking place will be highlighted. While initially this concept may seem abstract, the importance of understanding its implications will become apparent.


Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This short terrorism futures essay will focus upon differing forms of targeting and their effects, that is, destructive versus disruptive, and the interrelationship between these and the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements, highlighting the differences between legitimate state use of coercion and the illegitimate use of disruptive targeting—and the subsequent magnification of the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements—when employed by terrorists. It will conclude with a discussion of the counter-threat implications of acknowledging terrorism as a form of disruptive targeting and the need for states to focus on new counter-threat protocols that go beyond ...


The Emergence Of Feral And Criminal Cities: U.S. Military Implications In A Time Of Austerity, Robert J. Bunker Apr 2014

The Emergence Of Feral And Criminal Cities: U.S. Military Implications In A Time Of Austerity, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This Land Warfare Paper considers the nature of the emerging global security environment. With the spread of economic liberalism that gained foothold after the conclusion of the Cold War, one might think that the 21st century is the perfect time for the modern democratic state to be a ubiquitous institution. However, between power vacuums developing in formerly autocratic states and economic troubles becoming more prevalent, the atmosphere of the world is increasingly toxic to the values upheld in Western democracy. With that being the case, nation building, and even city building, is presently beyond the scope of the diminishing resources ...


Op-Ed: Not Your Grandfather's Insurgency - Criminal, Spiritual, And Plutocratic, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2014

Op-Ed: Not Your Grandfather's Insurgency - Criminal, Spiritual, And Plutocratic, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

...Quite possibly, while it now finds itself in a reflective mood, the corporate Army will be more receptive to some of the insights provided herein, concerning the new forms of insurgencies. But first, before delving into how new insurgency forms are “new,” we must ask the question what insurgencies were like in your grandfather’s day.


Book Review: Routledge Handbook Of Transnational Organized Crime, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Book Review: Routledge Handbook Of Transnational Organized Crime, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a book review.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note #20: Rpg-29 Anti-Armor Munitions, David A. Kuhn, Anikh Wadhawan, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note #20: Rpg-29 Anti-Armor Munitions, David A. Kuhn, Anikh Wadhawan, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Note—Up until recently, weapons that provide for armor and bunker defeat capability at the levels that the RPG-29 is capable of, have not been seen in the hands of the Mexican cartels. The fact that they have successfully obtained them—and the origin and mechanism by which they were obtained should be of extreme concern to everyone.


Vbieds In The Mexican Criminal Insurgency, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan Jan 2013

Vbieds In The Mexican Criminal Insurgency, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

At least 130,000 people have been killed in the ongoing Mexican “crime war,” and many more have been kidnapped or simply gone missing. Yet despite the significance of these numbers, official reports and news accounts frequently underreport the toll of this war.


Film Review: Narco Cultura – A Tale Of Three Cities, John P. Sullivan, Khirin A. Bunker, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Film Review: Narco Cultura – A Tale Of Three Cities, John P. Sullivan, Khirin A. Bunker, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a film review.


New Realities: Energy Security In The 2010s And Implications For The U.S. Military, Robert J. Bunker, John D. Colwell Jan 2013

New Realities: Energy Security In The 2010s And Implications For The U.S. Military, Robert J. Bunker, John D. Colwell

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Narco Armor: Improvised Armored Fighting Vehicles In Mexico, Robert J. Bunker, Byron Ramirez Jan 2013

Narco Armor: Improvised Armored Fighting Vehicles In Mexico, Robert J. Bunker, Byron Ramirez

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The introduction of this work analyzes the types and evolution of cartel IAFVs in Mexico. To this analysis can be added “vehicle number 24” in the picture gallery, which highlights fixed 50 cal. sniper rifles and machine guns found in or on various vehicles seized from the cartels. These represent multiple 50 cal. sniper rifles and heavy machine guns on fixed mounts inside vehicles and, in one instance, on the back of a vehicle with armored gun shield protection. While we have seen no photographic evidence of an organic (main) gun placed on cartel IAFVs as of yet, these weapons ...


Book Review: Convergence: Illicit Networks And National Secuirty In The Age Of Globalization, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Book Review: Convergence: Illicit Networks And National Secuirty In The Age Of Globalization, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a book review.


Book Review: Virtual War And Magical Death: Technologies And Imaginaries For Terror And Killing, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Book Review: Virtual War And Magical Death: Technologies And Imaginaries For Terror And Killing, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a book review.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 15: Ied Recovered From Trunk Of Car By Police Station In Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, David A. Kuhn, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 15: Ied Recovered From Trunk Of Car By Police Station In Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, David A. Kuhn, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Op-Ed: The Need For A "Half-Pivot To The Americas", Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Op-Ed: The Need For A "Half-Pivot To The Americas", Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Much discussion has been generated over the still relatively new U.S. strategic “Pivot to Asia” and what this will mean for our national defense policy and force structure. This pivot represents what will become a multi-year shift from the legacy of 9-11, with over a decade’s focus on ground and counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, to a rebalancing of national effort, emphasizing air, naval, and space (both orbital and cyber) forces, focused on a rising China. Concern now exists that China, with the world’s largest population of over 1.3 billion people and the world’s ...


Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, And Strategic Competition Conference, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, And Strategic Competition Conference, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 17: Civil Self-Defense Groups Have Emerged In 11 Mexican States, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 17: Civil Self-Defense Groups Have Emerged In 11 Mexican States, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 14: Anti-Aircraft Mounted .50 Cal. Machine Gun And Surface-To-Air Missile Recovered In 2009, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 14: Anti-Aircraft Mounted .50 Cal. Machine Gun And Surface-To-Air Missile Recovered In 2009, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 12: The Spreading Criminal Insurgencies In Mexico: States With U.S. State Department Travel Advisories, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 12: The Spreading Criminal Insurgencies In Mexico: States With U.S. State Department Travel Advisories, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 9: Decapitated Adult Male With Hands And Feet Removed: Found On Side Of A Dirt Road Near Marana (Pima County) Arizona, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 9: Decapitated Adult Male With Hands And Feet Removed: Found On Side Of A Dirt Road Near Marana (Pima County) Arizona, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Force Protection And Suicide Bombers: The Necessity For Two Types Of Canadian Military Red Teams, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Force Protection And Suicide Bombers: The Necessity For Two Types Of Canadian Military Red Teams, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This article will discuss why the use of two types of red teams - analytical and physical - to identify and then simulate ‘suicide bomber threat scenarios’ is necessary for the force protection training of deploying Canadian military units. Red teaming as a discipline can be divided into two basic forms: (1) analytical red teaming, which is diegetic in nature; that is, based upon descriptive products and decision support functions and (2) physical red teaming, which is mimetic in nature; that is, derived from live-action and role playing-based training with an opposing force (OPFOR) deployed against a friendly military unit. These forms ...


Border School Training Conference Held In California, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Border School Training Conference Held In California, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 12: Forensics Of Recovered Weapons From Piedras Negras Tactical Engagement Between Los Zetas And Gate (Grupo De Armas Y Tácticas Especiales), David A. Kuhn, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 12: Forensics Of Recovered Weapons From Piedras Negras Tactical Engagement Between Los Zetas And Gate (Grupo De Armas Y Tácticas Especiales), David A. Kuhn, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 10: Claymore Anti-Personnel Mine (And Other Military Hardware) Recovered In Zacatecas, David A. Kuhn, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 10: Claymore Anti-Personnel Mine (And Other Military Hardware) Recovered In Zacatecas, David A. Kuhn, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Adversary Weaponry To 2025, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Adversary Weaponry To 2025, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This chapter will provide an overview of adversary weaponry that will be utilized by criminals and opposing forces (OPFORs) which U.S. law enforcement personnel may encounter domestically. The projected time frame will cover the futures period from 2009 through 2025. Criminal weaponry use will be analyzed using a criminal threat continuum that starts with minimal threats and increases in severity. OPFOR weaponry use will be analyzed using a similar continuum. It should be noted that OPFOR threats, like criminal threats, are illicit in nature and derived from individuals and groups that can be designated as engaging in criminal behavior ...


A Crucible Of Conflict: Third Generation Gang Studies Revisited, John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

A Crucible Of Conflict: Third Generation Gang Studies Revisited, John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay briefly recounts the evolution of the gangs that occupy failed communities and states, further discusses and updates the model of third generation street gangs discussed in an earlier Journal of Gang Research article—typically described simply as third generation gangs (3 GEN Gangs), and suggests strategies for coping with and mitigating this evolved form of gang violence. Of note is the lack of impact 3 GEN Gangs studies have had on domestically focused U.S. academic gang research while, at the same time, becoming a dominant model in use by defense analysis and scholars focusing on increasingly politicized ...


Changing Forms Of Insurgency: Pirates, Narco Gangs And Failed States, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Changing Forms Of Insurgency: Pirates, Narco Gangs And Failed States, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The primarily bipolar world that helped to characterize the decades long Cold War has begun to realign itself. The information revolution, increasing globalizations, the ongoing expansion of transnational terrorist and insurgent networks, and many other elements of this systemic level change have continued to take place into the early twenty-first century. Within the context of this large-scale shift in human and state relations, one question that has often been asked by analysis is whether changing forms of insurgency are taking place. If this is so, these changing forms of insurgency would be distinct from the currently dominant political form of ...


Cultural Relativism And Afghanistan: A Failure Of Policy Not Counterinsurgency Efforts, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Cultural Relativism And Afghanistan: A Failure Of Policy Not Counterinsurgency Efforts, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

While it may be true that many Afghani people yearn for our freedoms and system of governance, such nation building cannot be done without radically reengineering Afghani tribal society. Incising only the offending portions of Afghani culture, as the sergeant suggests, will not work. Do we eliminate blood feuds but not child brides and the honor killings of soiled daughters? Do we stop the execution of Muslim converts to Christianity?