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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker Jun 2015

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the TRENDS terrorism futures series focuses on trends in the manufacturing of homemade and printed firearms along with the emergence of remote (teleoperated) firearms. Each of these trends is discussed in turn in this short essay, as are the implications of their cumulative effects on terrorism and insurgency. Ultimately, as will be highlighted in this piece, both physical and cyber forms of terrorism are increasingly merging as a result of firearm and computer components becoming more closely integrated [1].


Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker Mar 2015

Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The variation in human borne suicide bomb types used by terrorist organizations is much broader than is typically realized due to a number of iterations that have taken place over the course of decades. In this installment of the terrorism futures series, the more specialized close to the body and body cavity types will be focused upon. In addition, HAZMAT (hazardous materials) variants will be discussed along with the future potentials of these devices and the increased security interest in detecting them.


Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker Feb 2015

Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the terrorism futures series will highlight the emergence of fifth dimensional battlespace, its implications for both the conduct of terrorism and counterterrorism operations, and, to some extent, interactions with terrorist disruptive targeting capabilities. Additionally, the larger civilizational context in which a dynamic yet little recognized terrorism and counterterrorism ‘fifth dimensional capabilities race’ that is taking place will be highlighted. While initially this concept may seem abstract, the importance of understanding its implications will become apparent.


Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This short terrorism futures essay will focus upon differing forms of targeting and their effects, that is, destructive versus disruptive, and the interrelationship between these and the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements, highlighting the differences between legitimate state use of coercion and the illegitimate use of disruptive targeting—and the subsequent magnification of the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements—when employed by terrorists. It will conclude with a discussion of the counter-threat implications of acknowledging terrorism as a form of disruptive targeting and the need for states to focus on new counter-threat protocols that go beyond ...


The Emergence Of Feral And Criminal Cities: U.S. Military Implications In A Time Of Austerity, Robert J. Bunker Apr 2014

The Emergence Of Feral And Criminal Cities: U.S. Military Implications In A Time Of Austerity, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This Land Warfare Paper considers the nature of the emerging global security environment. With the spread of economic liberalism that gained foothold after the conclusion of the Cold War, one might think that the 21st century is the perfect time for the modern democratic state to be a ubiquitous institution. However, between power vacuums developing in formerly autocratic states and economic troubles becoming more prevalent, the atmosphere of the world is increasingly toxic to the values upheld in Western democracy. With that being the case, nation building, and even city building, is presently beyond the scope of the diminishing resources ...


Vbieds In The Mexican Criminal Insurgency, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan Jan 2013

Vbieds In The Mexican Criminal Insurgency, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

At least 130,000 people have been killed in the ongoing Mexican “crime war,” and many more have been kidnapped or simply gone missing. Yet despite the significance of these numbers, official reports and news accounts frequently underreport the toll of this war.


Narco Armor: Improvised Armored Fighting Vehicles In Mexico, Robert J. Bunker, Byron Ramirez Jan 2013

Narco Armor: Improvised Armored Fighting Vehicles In Mexico, Robert J. Bunker, Byron Ramirez

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The introduction of this work analyzes the types and evolution of cartel IAFVs in Mexico. To this analysis can be added “vehicle number 24” in the picture gallery, which highlights fixed 50 cal. sniper rifles and machine guns found in or on various vehicles seized from the cartels. These represent multiple 50 cal. sniper rifles and heavy machine guns on fixed mounts inside vehicles and, in one instance, on the back of a vehicle with armored gun shield protection. While we have seen no photographic evidence of an organic (main) gun placed on cartel IAFVs as of yet, these weapons ...


Book Review: Convergence: Illicit Networks And National Secuirty In The Age Of Globalization, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Book Review: Convergence: Illicit Networks And National Secuirty In The Age Of Globalization, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a book review.


Op-Ed: The Need For A "Half-Pivot To The Americas", Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Op-Ed: The Need For A "Half-Pivot To The Americas", Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Much discussion has been generated over the still relatively new U.S. strategic “Pivot to Asia” and what this will mean for our national defense policy and force structure. This pivot represents what will become a multi-year shift from the legacy of 9-11, with over a decade’s focus on ground and counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, to a rebalancing of national effort, emphasizing air, naval, and space (both orbital and cyber) forces, focused on a rising China. Concern now exists that China, with the world’s largest population of over 1.3 billion people and the world’s ...


Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, And Strategic Competition Conference, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, And Strategic Competition Conference, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 14: Anti-Aircraft Mounted .50 Cal. Machine Gun And Surface-To-Air Missile Recovered In 2009, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 14: Anti-Aircraft Mounted .50 Cal. Machine Gun And Surface-To-Air Missile Recovered In 2009, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Adversary Weaponry To 2025, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Adversary Weaponry To 2025, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This chapter will provide an overview of adversary weaponry that will be utilized by criminals and opposing forces (OPFORs) which U.S. law enforcement personnel may encounter domestically. The projected time frame will cover the futures period from 2009 through 2025. Criminal weaponry use will be analyzed using a criminal threat continuum that starts with minimal threats and increases in severity. OPFOR weaponry use will be analyzed using a similar continuum. It should be noted that OPFOR threats, like criminal threats, are illicit in nature and derived from individuals and groups that can be designated as engaging in criminal behavior ...


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 2: Colombian Intelligence (Departamento Administrativo De Seguridad - Das) Compromised By Drug Traffickers, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 2: Colombian Intelligence (Departamento Administrativo De Seguridad - Das) Compromised By Drug Traffickers, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


The Projected Al Qaeda Use Of Body Cavity Suicide Bombs Against High Value Targets, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

The Projected Al Qaeda Use Of Body Cavity Suicide Bombs Against High Value Targets, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This work is initially derived from a non-public disclosure series of early warning presentations, first delivered in September 2006, by the author on the projected terrorist use of body cavity suicide bombs against high value targets. Subsequent terrorist use of such a device, in August 2009 in Saudi Arabia by an Al Qaeda operative, has allowed for this body of research (along with post-incident analysis) to now be published in an open venue. The work provides a historical overview of the use of suicide bombs by military forces and terrorists; addresses the co-evolution of suicide bombs and countermeasures by security ...


The Mexican Cartel Debate: As Viewed Through Five Divergent Fields Of Security Studies, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

The Mexican Cartel Debate: As Viewed Through Five Divergent Fields Of Security Studies, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The Mexican cartel debate is becoming increasingly more important to U.S. national security, however, it is also becoming ever more confused, heated, and at times downright nasty, with little agreement about what is taking place in Mexico or in other regions of the Americas, such as Guatemala, Honduras, and even this side of the U.S. border. To shed some light on this critical debate—a debate we need to have now and not later— it is the contention of this author that, since the Mexican cartel phenomena is being looked at by scholars from divergent fields of security ...


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 7: Us National Security And The Mexican Cartels: Proceso Magazine Interview With Dr. Robert J. Bunker, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 7: Us National Security And The Mexican Cartels: Proceso Magazine Interview With Dr. Robert J. Bunker, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


The Growing Mexican Cartel And Vigilante War In Cyberspace: Information Offensives And Counter-Offensives, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

The Growing Mexican Cartel And Vigilante War In Cyberspace: Information Offensives And Counter-Offensives, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This short essay blends traditional Mexican cartel analysis indicative of earlier Small Wars Journal writings by this author with advanced (5th dimensional) warfighting concepts. These concepts have utility for engagement with non-state (new warmaking) entities. They are being increasingly discussed now that cyberspace and ‘dual dimensional’ operations are more frequently breaking out in the Mexican conflict.


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 4: Texas Border Security: A Strategic Military Assessment, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 4: Texas Border Security: A Strategic Military Assessment, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 3: U.S. Strategy To Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Doa (Dead On Arrival)?, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 3: U.S. Strategy To Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Doa (Dead On Arrival)?, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 3: Narco Armored Vehicle Threats And Countermeasures, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 3: Narco Armored Vehicle Threats And Countermeasures, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Leadership And Opfor Networks, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2010

Leadership And Opfor Networks, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay will address the topic of leadership and OPFOR networks. This subject area has suffered from quite a bit of neglect yet has great homeland security potentials. For law enforcement purposes, this represents an important topic because gaining an understanding of one’s opponents and their organizational and leadership approaches is the first step in achieving mastery and dominance over them. The primary reason for the neglect of this topic it is that it requires interdisciplinary knowledge concerning three distinct areas of study— leadership, OPFORs, and networks— and their subsequent analytical fusion. It is the intent of this essay ...


Domestic Radical Islamic Insurgency By Ones And Twos And The Politics Of Self-Delusion, Robert J. Bunker, Hakim Hazim Jan 2009

Domestic Radical Islamic Insurgency By Ones And Twos And The Politics Of Self-Delusion, Robert J. Bunker, Hakim Hazim

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The contention being made is that governmental officials are downplaying a threat to the US homeland—that compromised of a small, yet virulent, component of domestic radical Islamic insurgency derived from the actions of one and two man cells. While a well intended policy, such actions may be in actuality setting up our nation for some sort of disaster down the road.


Violent Non-State Actors In 2030: Suggested Dutch Armed Forces Response, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2009

Violent Non-State Actors In 2030: Suggested Dutch Armed Forces Response, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Reconceptualizing The 2006 Qdr Threat Categories, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2009

Reconceptualizing The 2006 Qdr Threat Categories, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Projections of the future national-security environment are always laden with uncertainty and ambiguity. However, they help to serve an early-warning function concerning emergent threats and the nationalist capabilities that will be required to respond to them. With this in mind, I would like to offer a reconceptualization of the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review, or QDR, threat categories by viewing these threat potentials through a modified perceptual lens.


Convergence: The Changing Missions Of Police And The Military, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2008

Convergence: The Changing Missions Of Police And The Military, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The continued convergence of policing and military missions represents the new world in which we increasingly find ourselves. The need for such convergence can be explained at both the operational and strategic levels of analysis. This document will use four conceptual figures to aid understanding of the convergence.


Laser Weapons: An Emerging Threat, Robert J. Bunker, Dan Lindsay Jan 2008

Laser Weapons: An Emerging Threat, Robert J. Bunker, Dan Lindsay

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Laser and beam weapons have been the stuff of science fiction lore for many years. Good science fiction, however, is based on some kind of science fact and, if done properly, will become less implausible over time. This now is occurring with lasers--both when used in an improvised weaponry role and when produced as dedicated laser weapons.


Congressional Testimony: Beijing, Unrestricted Warfare, And Threat Potentials, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2007

Congressional Testimony: Beijing, Unrestricted Warfare, And Threat Potentials, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a transcript of a hearing on "China’s Military Modernization and Its Impact on the United States and the Asia-Pacific, Panel II: Beijing’s Doctrine on the Conduct of 'Irregular Forms of Warfare'" before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.


Third Generation Gang Studies: An Introduction, John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2007

Third Generation Gang Studies: An Introduction, John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This paper reviews the literature and research related to third generation street gangs. Widely known as third generation gangs (3 GEN Gangs), these complex gangs operation with broad reach—often across borders—and have mercenary and at times political and potentially terrorist objectives. These are frequently identified as transnational gangs, known as Maras, and occupy the 3 GEN niche. The typology of the three generations of gang revolution, based on the interaction of three factors: politicization, internationalism, and sophistication found in the literature is also described. Finally, future research and security concerns are identified.


Suicide Bombings In Operation Iraqi Freedom, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan Jan 2004

Suicide Bombings In Operation Iraqi Freedom, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Suicide bombing is the act of blowing oneself up in order to kill (destroy) or injure (damage) a target. The target may be military or civilian or both. Typically, the killing or physical destruction of the target is less important than the terror generated by undertaking the act. This ultimately makes suicide bombing a “disruptive firepower” capability (based on Bond-Relationship Targeting) utilized by opposing forces (OPFORs) which lack traditional destructive firepower.


Grenades, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2003

Grenades, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Grenades have been in existence since the 15th century and are generally used in tandem with infantry small arms for siege (trench) and urban warfare. These devices also provide the basis for numerous forms of booby traps used in both conventional and unconventional warfare.