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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Convergence Of The War On Terror And The War On Drugs: A Counter-Narcoterrorism Approach As A Policy Response, Lindsay Burton Jan 2019

The Convergence Of The War On Terror And The War On Drugs: A Counter-Narcoterrorism Approach As A Policy Response, Lindsay Burton

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis investigates how and why U.S. policies and agencies are ill-equipped to respond to narco-terrorism and offers some policy recommendations for remedying that. Narco-terrorism is the merging of terrorism and drug trafficking. Terrorist organizations and narcotics traffickers each have much to offer the other; there is potential for symbiosis in the form of cooperation and even hybridization. Examination of the dynamics between terrorist organizations and drug traffickers, combined with an evaluation of the US responses to narcoterrorism in Colombia and Afghanistan, makes it clear that current US policy responses fail to recognize narcoterrorism as a unique challenge, and ...


Terrorist Celebrity: Online Personal Branding And Jihadist Recruitment And Planning, Ari Weil Jan 2018

Terrorist Celebrity: Online Personal Branding And Jihadist Recruitment And Planning, Ari Weil

Pomona Senior Theses

Shifts in culture and technology have changed the manifestation of celebrity in modern society, culminating in the practice of internet microcelebrity, where one views followers as fans, produces content consistent with a personal brand, and engages in strategic interaction with devotees. This thesis examines how those effects have also changed how terrorists present themselves and operationalize celebrity status. An original typology of terrorist celebrity is presented: traditional, martyr, and internet micro-celebrity. Two in-depth case studies of terrorist micro-celebrities are analyzed: Anwar al-Awlaki of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Junaid Hussain of the Islamic State. The case studies are ...


Strength Through Diplomacy: A Fundamental Review Of The Relationship Between North Korea And The United States, Benjamin D. Blackstone Jan 2018

Strength Through Diplomacy: A Fundamental Review Of The Relationship Between North Korea And The United States, Benjamin D. Blackstone

CMC Senior Theses

At the time that this thesis is printed, we are reminded of the tumultuous relationship between North Korea and the United States every day. If we follow the mainstream news regularly, it seems like we are on a steady path to war. Ultimately, this paper is centered around the question: what is the best foreign policy strategy for both countries to achieve respective goals, without descending into armed conflict? Specifically, I evaluated the failures of the last three U.S. Presidents and used their shortcomings to explain limitations in current foreign policy strategy. I also attempted to show North Korean ...


De-Fence Europe! The Defence Industry, The Refugee Crisis, And The Shaping Of Eu Border Policy, Sarah C. Sanbar Jan 2017

De-Fence Europe! The Defence Industry, The Refugee Crisis, And The Shaping Of Eu Border Policy, Sarah C. Sanbar

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores some of the connections between the defence industry and the European border policy that emerged leading up to, and following, the European refugee crisis of 2015. The paper is divided into two parts. The first seeks to examine and understand the context in which the refugee crisis occurred. In order to do this, I begin with a literature review that uses the integration theory of Multilevel Governance to understand how and where the European Union (EU) is susceptible to political pressure or special interest influence. Next, I present a brief history of the causes and course of ...


Islamic State Online Recruitment: Narratives And Counter-Narratives, Makella Brems Jan 2017

Islamic State Online Recruitment: Narratives And Counter-Narratives, Makella Brems

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis looks beyond the sensationalized coverage of Islamic State and instead utilizes Islamic State materials as a window into the remote radicalization and recruitment process of susceptible English-speaking individuals in the West. This thesis considers Islamic State’s mode of operation in conjunction with the appeals made in its online materials to devise a framework for understanding how Islamic State materials interact with susceptible individuals. The framework lends insight into how the body tasked with creating counter-narratives within the U.S. State Department can more effectively disrupt the remote recruitment and radicalization process.


After The Avalanche: The Post-Snowden Intelligence Politics Between The United States, The United Kingdom, And Germany, Jobel Kyle P. Vecino Sep 2016

After The Avalanche: The Post-Snowden Intelligence Politics Between The United States, The United Kingdom, And Germany, Jobel Kyle P. Vecino

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

The revelations of PRISM and XKeyscore by ex-National Security Agency (NSA) analyst Edward Snowden resulted in arguably the largest intelligence leak so far in the 21st century. The leak revealed that the NSA was working with the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) on surveillance and data collection of individuals throughout Europe. Similarly, the NSA also colluded with the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) on similar data collection and surveillance activities. Whereas the British government reacted relatively benignly to the revelations despite cries of government abuse, the German government reacted negatively to the revelations, eventually opening a rift between Washington ...


A Kantian Revision Of The Doctrine Of Double Effect, Andrew H. Chung Jan 2016

A Kantian Revision Of The Doctrine Of Double Effect, Andrew H. Chung

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper, I will present a Kantian revision of the Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE). In order to do so, I will explain the concept of jus in bello – focusing in particular on the distinction between intent and foresight. I will then argue that we ought to take an agency-inspired look at the DDE. Finally, I will conclude by arguing for my thesis that Boyle’s theory of agency, while good, needs to be revised in order to accommodate concerns stemming from Kant’s Formula of Humanity… namely consent.


The International Community's Response To The Hypothetical Emergence Of Superheroes, Brittany Nicole Woods Jan 2016

The International Community's Response To The Hypothetical Emergence Of Superheroes, Brittany Nicole Woods

CMC Senior Theses

In a golden era for comic based media, this paper uses the hypothetical emergence of superheroes to analyze the assumptions and predictions of three international relations theories: realism, liberalism, and constructivism. Comics consistently reflect the real world, paralleling events and concepts discussed in foreign affairs dialogues. The thought experiment, and the comic genre itself, provides a vehicle for thinking broadly about the political and social ramifications of successful or failed problem solving, state interaction, and scientific advances.


Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker Jun 2015

Home Made, Printed, And Remote Controlled Firearms— Terrorism And Insurgency Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the TRENDS terrorism futures series focuses on trends in the manufacturing of homemade and printed firearms along with the emergence of remote (teleoperated) firearms. Each of these trends is discussed in turn in this short essay, as are the implications of their cumulative effects on terrorism and insurgency. Ultimately, as will be highlighted in this piece, both physical and cyber forms of terrorism are increasingly merging as a result of firearm and computer components becoming more closely integrated [1].


Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker Mar 2015

Close To The Body And Body Cavity Suicide Bombs, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The variation in human borne suicide bomb types used by terrorist organizations is much broader than is typically realized due to a number of iterations that have taken place over the course of decades. In this installment of the terrorism futures series, the more specialized close to the body and body cavity types will be focused upon. In addition, HAZMAT (hazardous materials) variants will be discussed along with the future potentials of these devices and the increased security interest in detecting them.


Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker Feb 2015

Fifth Dimensional Battlespace: Terrorism And Counter-Terrorism Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This essay in the terrorism futures series will highlight the emergence of fifth dimensional battlespace, its implications for both the conduct of terrorism and counterterrorism operations, and, to some extent, interactions with terrorist disruptive targeting capabilities. Additionally, the larger civilizational context in which a dynamic yet little recognized terrorism and counterterrorism ‘fifth dimensional capabilities race’ that is taking place will be highlighted. While initially this concept may seem abstract, the importance of understanding its implications will become apparent.


Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Terrorism As Disruptive Targeting, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This short terrorism futures essay will focus upon differing forms of targeting and their effects, that is, destructive versus disruptive, and the interrelationship between these and the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements, highlighting the differences between legitimate state use of coercion and the illegitimate use of disruptive targeting—and the subsequent magnification of the scale of effect of weaponry in engagements—when employed by terrorists. It will conclude with a discussion of the counter-threat implications of acknowledging terrorism as a form of disruptive targeting and the need for states to focus on new counter-threat protocols that go beyond ...


Terrorist And Insurgent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Use, Potentials, And Military Implications, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2015

Terrorist And Insurgent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Use, Potentials, And Military Implications, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Books

This manuscript focuses on the present threat posed by terrorist and insurgent use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as well as associated future threat potentials. This work presents a counterintuitive analysis in the sense that armed drones are typically viewed as a component of America’s conventional warfighting prowess—not a technology that would be used against U.S. troops deployed overseas or against civilians back home. The emerging threat of such UAV use against the United States is investigated, and the unique analysis and creative approach related to the threat scenario variants generated are very informative. Hopefully, the larger ...


U.S. Foreign Policy In Pakistan: Bringing Pakistan Into Line With American Counterterrorism Interests, Henry E. Appel Jan 2015

U.S. Foreign Policy In Pakistan: Bringing Pakistan Into Line With American Counterterrorism Interests, Henry E. Appel

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis is a review of U.S. foreign policy in Pakistan through a realist lens. It critiques the current state of U.S. policy and recommends that the United States prioritize national security interests, particularly with regards to counterterrorism, over building Pakistani democracy and running civilian aid programs. It then further recommends ways for the United States government to account for ground level dynamics in Pakistani politics in crafting foreign policy aimed at bringing Pakistan into line with U.S. counterterrorism priorities.


The Tragedy Of American Supremacy, Dante R. Toppo Jan 2015

The Tragedy Of American Supremacy, Dante R. Toppo

CMC Senior Theses

Why has the United States, given its status as the sole remaining superpower following its Cold War victory, been unable to translate its preponderance of power into the outcomes it desires? The system established by the United States over the course of the Cold War does not effectively translate its power into influence in the post-Cold War world. In fact, the way US-Soviet competition shaped global affairs created systemic problems, weak and failing states, terrorism, autocracy and human rights abuse, that cannot be solved by the mechanisms of influence the US relied upon to win the Cold War. However, precisely ...


The Emergence Of Feral And Criminal Cities: U.S. Military Implications In A Time Of Austerity, Robert J. Bunker Apr 2014

The Emergence Of Feral And Criminal Cities: U.S. Military Implications In A Time Of Austerity, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This Land Warfare Paper considers the nature of the emerging global security environment. With the spread of economic liberalism that gained foothold after the conclusion of the Cold War, one might think that the 21st century is the perfect time for the modern democratic state to be a ubiquitous institution. However, between power vacuums developing in formerly autocratic states and economic troubles becoming more prevalent, the atmosphere of the world is increasingly toxic to the values upheld in Western democracy. With that being the case, nation building, and even city building, is presently beyond the scope of the diminishing resources ...


The Long Arm Of The Law: Executive Overreach And The Aumf, Tyler Mcbrien Jan 2014

The Long Arm Of The Law: Executive Overreach And The Aumf, Tyler Mcbrien

CMC Senior Theses

Since World War II, the executive branch has dominated foreign policy and national security decisions, expanding war powers well beyond the president’s constitutional purview. Aided by a complicit Congress, the president has bypassed the legislator and unilaterally prosecuted some of the United States’ bloodiest conflicts. Continuing this tradition of executive overreach, Congress passed the Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) on September 14, 2001, which ostensibly empowered the president to pursue those responsible for the 9/11 attacks, namely al Qaeda and the nations supporting them. However, the broadly-worded force authorization and equally far-reaching legal interpretations by ...


An Ever Closer Union: The European Security And Defense Policy And The Development Of Hard Power Capabilities In The European Union, Daniel Stepanicich Apr 2013

An Ever Closer Union: The European Security And Defense Policy And The Development Of Hard Power Capabilities In The European Union, Daniel Stepanicich

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

No abstract provided.


Vbieds In The Mexican Criminal Insurgency, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan Jan 2013

Vbieds In The Mexican Criminal Insurgency, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

At least 130,000 people have been killed in the ongoing Mexican “crime war,” and many more have been kidnapped or simply gone missing. Yet despite the significance of these numbers, official reports and news accounts frequently underreport the toll of this war.


Narco Armor: Improvised Armored Fighting Vehicles In Mexico, Robert J. Bunker, Byron Ramirez Jan 2013

Narco Armor: Improvised Armored Fighting Vehicles In Mexico, Robert J. Bunker, Byron Ramirez

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The introduction of this work analyzes the types and evolution of cartel IAFVs in Mexico. To this analysis can be added “vehicle number 24” in the picture gallery, which highlights fixed 50 cal. sniper rifles and machine guns found in or on various vehicles seized from the cartels. These represent multiple 50 cal. sniper rifles and heavy machine guns on fixed mounts inside vehicles and, in one instance, on the back of a vehicle with armored gun shield protection. While we have seen no photographic evidence of an organic (main) gun placed on cartel IAFVs as of yet, these weapons ...


Book Review: Convergence: Illicit Networks And National Secuirty In The Age Of Globalization, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Book Review: Convergence: Illicit Networks And National Secuirty In The Age Of Globalization, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This is a book review.


Op-Ed: The Need For A "Half-Pivot To The Americas", Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Op-Ed: The Need For A "Half-Pivot To The Americas", Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Much discussion has been generated over the still relatively new U.S. strategic “Pivot to Asia” and what this will mean for our national defense policy and force structure. This pivot represents what will become a multi-year shift from the legacy of 9-11, with over a decade’s focus on ground and counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, to a rebalancing of national effort, emphasizing air, naval, and space (both orbital and cyber) forces, focused on a rising China. Concern now exists that China, with the world’s largest population of over 1.3 billion people and the world’s ...


Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, And Strategic Competition Conference, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2013

Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, And Strategic Competition Conference, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 14: Anti-Aircraft Mounted .50 Cal. Machine Gun And Surface-To-Air Missile Recovered In 2009, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Mexican Cartel Tactical Note No. 14: Anti-Aircraft Mounted .50 Cal. Machine Gun And Surface-To-Air Missile Recovered In 2009, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Adversary Weaponry To 2025, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2012

Adversary Weaponry To 2025, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This chapter will provide an overview of adversary weaponry that will be utilized by criminals and opposing forces (OPFORs) which U.S. law enforcement personnel may encounter domestically. The projected time frame will cover the futures period from 2009 through 2025. Criminal weaponry use will be analyzed using a criminal threat continuum that starts with minimal threats and increases in severity. OPFOR weaponry use will be analyzed using a similar continuum. It should be noted that OPFOR threats, like criminal threats, are illicit in nature and derived from individuals and groups that can be designated as engaging in criminal behavior ...


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 2: Colombian Intelligence (Departamento Administrativo De Seguridad - Das) Compromised By Drug Traffickers, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 2: Colombian Intelligence (Departamento Administrativo De Seguridad - Das) Compromised By Drug Traffickers, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


The Projected Al Qaeda Use Of Body Cavity Suicide Bombs Against High Value Targets, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

The Projected Al Qaeda Use Of Body Cavity Suicide Bombs Against High Value Targets, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This work is initially derived from a non-public disclosure series of early warning presentations, first delivered in September 2006, by the author on the projected terrorist use of body cavity suicide bombs against high value targets. Subsequent terrorist use of such a device, in August 2009 in Saudi Arabia by an Al Qaeda operative, has allowed for this body of research (along with post-incident analysis) to now be published in an open venue. The work provides a historical overview of the use of suicide bombs by military forces and terrorists; addresses the co-evolution of suicide bombs and countermeasures by security ...


The Mexican Cartel Debate: As Viewed Through Five Divergent Fields Of Security Studies, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

The Mexican Cartel Debate: As Viewed Through Five Divergent Fields Of Security Studies, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

The Mexican cartel debate is becoming increasingly more important to U.S. national security, however, it is also becoming ever more confused, heated, and at times downright nasty, with little agreement about what is taking place in Mexico or in other regions of the Americas, such as Guatemala, Honduras, and even this side of the U.S. border. To shed some light on this critical debate—a debate we need to have now and not later— it is the contention of this author that, since the Mexican cartel phenomena is being looked at by scholars from divergent fields of security ...


Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 7: Us National Security And The Mexican Cartels: Proceso Magazine Interview With Dr. Robert J. Bunker, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

Mexican Cartel Strategic Note No. 7: Us National Security And The Mexican Cartels: Proceso Magazine Interview With Dr. Robert J. Bunker, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


The Growing Mexican Cartel And Vigilante War In Cyberspace: Information Offensives And Counter-Offensives, Robert J. Bunker Jan 2011

The Growing Mexican Cartel And Vigilante War In Cyberspace: Information Offensives And Counter-Offensives, Robert J. Bunker

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

This short essay blends traditional Mexican cartel analysis indicative of earlier Small Wars Journal writings by this author with advanced (5th dimensional) warfighting concepts. These concepts have utility for engagement with non-state (new warmaking) entities. They are being increasingly discussed now that cyberspace and ‘dual dimensional’ operations are more frequently breaking out in the Mexican conflict.