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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Fighting Exclusion With Culture And Art. Examples From Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Fighting Exclusion With Culture And Art. Examples From Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article demonstrates that artistic activity is an important tool for deepening democracy, because it provides a vehicle for the excluded to reach the public sphere, thus making it more heterogeneous. As artists, they become active citizens and step out of the invisibility into which racism and exclusion has forced them.


Education Reform, Race, And Politics In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Education Reform, Race, And Politics In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article discusses the main findings and conclusions from my field research evaluating education reform in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data collection was done during two exploratory research trips to Salvador, the state capital, in 2001 and in 2005. The Bahian Education Reform, initiated by the state government in 1999 and funded to a great extent by the World Bank, has achieved some very significant goals, most importantly the expansion of high school education and the broadening of access to primary education in areas where access was far from universal. My research nevertheless points to some sever shortcomings, namely ...


Embracing Hip Hop As Their Own: Hip Hop And Black Racial Identity In Brazil, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell Jan 2014

Embracing Hip Hop As Their Own: Hip Hop And Black Racial Identity In Brazil, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell

Bernd Reiter

The article examines the positive relationship between listening to Hip Hop music and racial consciousness among younger generations of Afro-Brazilians. The authors observe that Brazilian Hip Hop culture has maintained a strong role in shaping racial and political consciousness. Additionally, they explain that Hip Hop has become a useful instrument to express the struggles faced by poor, urban Afro-Brazilian youth. They also claim that by listening to Hip Hop lyrics, more and more young poor Afro-Brazilians are increasingly aware of the ideologies and normalizing powers that hold them.


A Genealogy Of Black Organizing In Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

A Genealogy Of Black Organizing In Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article argues that the vast literature on “new social movements” misrepresents the historicity of identity-based organization in Latin America. Such organizing is indeed much older than the literature suggests. To prove this argument, I provide a genealogy of black, identitybased organizing in Brazil. This genealogy makes clear that black organizing started when Africans first arrived in Brazil. To explain the ebbs and flows of this organizing, the theoretical frameworks of Sidney Tarrow and Susan Epstein, who focus on political opportunities and changing repertoires, respectively, prove to be more useful.


Pracatum: Escola Profissionalizante De Músicos De Rua, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Pracatum: Escola Profissionalizante De Músicos De Rua, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


The Shortcomings Of Democratic School Management In Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Shortcomings Of Democratic School Management In Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article analyses the limits of community involvement in Bahian public schools. Despite the explicit legal requirement to actively involve parents and neighborhoods in the democratic management of schools, parental and community participation remains very limited in most Bahian public schools. Exploratory research carried out in 2001 in six public schools in Bahia’s capital Salvador points to two main reasons for this shortcoming: both the municipal and the state administrations were reluctant to effectively shift over power to parents and communities and secondly, a very ingrained and “structural” racism was responsible for portraying local poor communities as dangerous places ...


The Limits Of Popular Participation In Salvador, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Limits Of Popular Participation In Salvador, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article focuses on the changing nature of state--society interactions in the state of Bahia, Brazil and on the factors that condition democratic participation. During several research trips, conducted between 2001 and 2006, I collected data on participatory budgeting and on participatory urban planning in the city of Salvador. I was therefore able to compare two thematic sites where local states interacted with society in general, and with civil society specifi cally. In both cases, I found a very wide gap between the de jure mandate of citizen participation and the de facto state of affairs. The examined empirical cases ...


The Democratic Challenge. Democratization And De-Democratization In Global Perspective, Bernd Reiter, Jorge Nef Jan 2014

The Democratic Challenge. Democratization And De-Democratization In Global Perspective, Bernd Reiter, Jorge Nef

Bernd Reiter

This text provides a critical but systematic overview of democratic theory and practice in the contemporary world. The authors show that recent developments are more complex than admitted by proponents of the idea of a democratic world with, what they call, de-democratization of various forms running in parallel with democratization.


What’S New In Brazil’S New Social Movements?, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

What’S New In Brazil’S New Social Movements?, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The concept of “new social movements,” characterized by a focus on identity, cannot readily be transferred to a Latin American context. Latin America never experienced the postmaterialist turn that led some to call certain European social movements “new.” In addition, as the case of black organizing in Brazil demonstrates, identity-based Latin American social movements are much older than the literature suggests. What was indeed a Latin American novelty of the 1980s was the massive emergence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In the case of Brazil, these organizations emerged in response to new financial opportunities provided by international donors and the coercive ...


Review Of Wampler, Brian. 2007. “Participatory Budget In Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation And Accountability”, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Review Of Wampler, Brian. 2007. “Participatory Budget In Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation And Accountability”, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The article reviews the book "Participatory Budgeting in Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation, and Accountability," by Brian Wampler.


Reforma Educacional, Exclusão E Racismo Na Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Reforma Educacional, Exclusão E Racismo Na Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Este artigo apresenta os achados principais da nossa pesquisa, desenvolvida durante o período de junho 2001 a janeiro 2002 sobre a reforma educacional em Salvador - Bahia. Concluimos que dois fatores principais impedem o maior sucesso desta reforma. Primeiro, detectamos um sistema de racismo estrutural, responsável por nortear as percepções que professores, diretores e administradores tinham sobre o alunado pobre e negro nas escolas pesquisadas, no sentido de esperar e exigir pouco desses alunos. Baixas expectativas resultavam em baixo empenho. Segundo, encontramos que a educação pública, mesmo melhorando, ainda não pode competir com a educação privada. Como consequência, escolas públicas continuam ...


Inequality And School Reform In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Inequality And School Reform In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil’s extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author’s research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates ...


Review Of Fikes, Kesha. 2009. “Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction”, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Review Of Fikes, Kesha. 2009. “Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction”, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Sociedade Civil, Democratização, E Exclusão Racial No Brasil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Sociedade Civil, Democratização, E Exclusão Racial No Brasil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Art, Culture, And Social Justice: New Strategies Of The Bahian Poor, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Art, Culture, And Social Justice: New Strategies Of The Bahian Poor, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.