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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Do The Right Thing: The Impact Of Ingo Legitimacy Standards On Stakeholder Input, Christopher Pallas, David Gethings, Max Harris Jul 2015

Do The Right Thing: The Impact Of Ingo Legitimacy Standards On Stakeholder Input, Christopher Pallas, David Gethings, Max Harris

Christopher L. Pallas

International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) are frequently criticized for failing to adequately represent or engage with grassroots stakeholders. Yet most explanations of this shortcoming have focused on factors external to the organizations, e.g., economic pressures that privilege donor interests. What has been largely lacking is an examination of the role of internal INGO characteristics. We address this by examining INGOs’ legitimacy standards: how INGOs understand themselves to be doing the right thing and seek to convey that righteousness to others. Drawing on the literature from business ethics and organizational behavior, we show that organizations’ self-selected standards of legitimacy are key ...


Why Do Activists Lobby Institutions That Have Already Reformed? Modelling Target Selection And Learning In Ngo Advocay, Christopher Pallas, Kimberly Fletcher, Bing Han Mar 2015

Why Do Activists Lobby Institutions That Have Already Reformed? Modelling Target Selection And Learning In Ngo Advocay, Christopher Pallas, Kimberly Fletcher, Bing Han

Christopher L. Pallas

In conducting advocacy, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) often repeatedly lobby targets that have already made reforms, while also ignoring some serious, unreformed offenders. Drawing on recent literature on the economic influences on NGO activity, this article proposes a new model of target selection that explains such behaviour. In the model, NGOs select their targets in order to maximise the level of reform achieved with their available resources. Initial target selection is based on limited information. Target response to initial advocacy reveals whether the target is ‘soft’ (low cost to benefit ratio) or ‘hard’ (high cost to benefit ratio). NGOs employ this ...


Civil Society Influence On International Organizations: Theorizing The State Channel, Christopher Pallas, Anders Uhlin May 2014

Civil Society Influence On International Organizations: Theorizing The State Channel, Christopher Pallas, Anders Uhlin

Christopher L. Pallas

The literature on transnational civil society tends to treat civil society organizations (CSOs) as independent actors, accomplishing policy change largely through moral force or popular pressure. However, a significant portion of CSO successes in policy advocacy actually utilizes alliances with state actors. To understand the implications of this ‘state channel’ of CSO influence, we develop a new model of CSO use of state influence. We identify four factors that determine whether the state channel is accessible for CSOs to use and is likely to produce more effective CSO influence than direct CSO engagement with the international organization (IO): the porousness ...


Civil Society Influence On International Organizations: Making Sense Of The State Channel, Christopher Pallas, Anders Uhlin Mar 2013

Civil Society Influence On International Organizations: Making Sense Of The State Channel, Christopher Pallas, Anders Uhlin

Christopher L. Pallas

Abstract forthcoming


Mission And Interests: The Strategic Formation And Function Of North-South Ngo Campaigns, Christopher Pallas, Johannes Urpelainen Dec 2012

Mission And Interests: The Strategic Formation And Function Of North-South Ngo Campaigns, Christopher Pallas, Johannes Urpelainen

Christopher L. Pallas

International advocacy campaigns allow the concerns of disadvantaged groups in developing countries to reach policymakers. However, recent research has challenged the motivations of the Northern nongovernmental organizations involved and raised concerns about the impacts of North-South NGO partnerships on Southern NGO control. This article addresses these concerns by developing a typology of NGOs based on their financial incentives and the rigidity with which they adhere to their established organizational mission. It then models interactions between NGOs of different types as a strategic game. In the game, NGOs decide whether to enter international campaigns and, if so, manage campaign function to ...


Identity, Individualism, And Activism Beyond The State: Examining The Impacts Of Global Citizenship, Christopher Pallas Mar 2012

Identity, Individualism, And Activism Beyond The State: Examining The Impacts Of Global Citizenship, Christopher Pallas

Christopher L. Pallas

The concept of global citizenship has risen to prominence through its use by policy makers, activists, and scholars, who employ the idea of global interconnectedness to encourage individuals to actively engage with transnational issues. Proponents of global citizenship claim that it will promote greater global unity and equality of rights, and even generate a new, post-national identity. Yet self-professed global citizens operate in a transnational realm marked by extreme disparities in power between the members of different states and economic classes. This article assesses whether global citizenship can live up to the claims of its adherents, or whether it will ...


Ngo Monitoring And The Legitimacy Of International Cooperation: A Strategic Analysis, Christopher Pallas, Johannes Urpelainen Feb 2012

Ngo Monitoring And The Legitimacy Of International Cooperation: A Strategic Analysis, Christopher Pallas, Johannes Urpelainen

Christopher L. Pallas

States often invite NGOs to monitor international cooperation. Under what circumstances are states likely to take this step? We argue that NGO monitoring allows states to provide domestic publics with credible evidence regarding successful cooperation, but that this credibility carries a cost: if states fail to cooperate, a participating NGO will expose this failure and thus delegitimize the cooperation effort. Our formal analysis indicates that states obtain a dual benefit from NGO participation: in addition to enhanced legitimacy, NGO scrutiny helps states credibly commit to high cooperation levels vis-á-vis each other. The increased costs of failure, however, may deter state ...


Revolutionary, Advocate, Agent, Or Authority: Context-Based Assessment Of The Democratic Legitimacy Of Transnational Civil Society Actors, Christopher Pallas Aug 2010

Revolutionary, Advocate, Agent, Or Authority: Context-Based Assessment Of The Democratic Legitimacy Of Transnational Civil Society Actors, Christopher Pallas

Christopher L. Pallas

The literature on transnational civil society encompasses a number of conflicting views regarding civil society organizations’ (CSOs) behavior and impacts and the desirability of civil society involvement in international policymaking. This piece suggests that this lack of consensus arises from the diverse range of contexts in which CSOs operate and the wide variety of activities in which they engage. This article seeks to organize and analyze the disparate data on civil society by developing a context-based standard of democratic legitimacy for CSOs. The article disaggregates democracy into input, throughput, and output components, and shows how CSOs must support or manifest ...


The World Bank's Use Of Country Systems Of Procurement: A Good Idea Gone Bad?, Christopher Pallas, Jonathan Wood Feb 2009

The World Bank's Use Of Country Systems Of Procurement: A Good Idea Gone Bad?, Christopher Pallas, Jonathan Wood

Christopher L. Pallas

The World Bank's newest country-systems policy, adopted in 2008, allows borrowers to use their national systems to conduct procurement and manage finances for Bank-funded projects. In principle, it will incentivise institutional reform, increase local ownership, and facilitate donor harmonisation. In practice, its content and the handling of stakeholder input seem to indicate that the Bank's dominant desire has been to preserve its market share. This article demonstrates (i) how deficiencies in the policy may reverse the Bank's work on governance and undercut aid efficiency, and (ii) how its handling of public consultations on the policy ignored the ...


Balancing The Scales Or Tilting The Field? Assessing The Capacity Of Global Civil Society To Democratize The World Bank, Christopher Pallas Dec 2007

Balancing The Scales Or Tilting The Field? Assessing The Capacity Of Global Civil Society To Democratize The World Bank, Christopher Pallas

Christopher L. Pallas

A significant body of recent scholarship anticipates that global civil society (GCS) will eventually democratize international governmental institutions, reducing the intermediation of state actors and making international institutions more directly responsive to citizens. This paper argues that such optimism rests on flawed theorization and insufficient empirical analysis. Theories of GCS-driven democratization that envision GCS as an independent watchdog or deliberative, cosmopolitan space conflate political liberalism with functional democracy. They give no assurance that citizen-stakeholders are equally represented in GCS actions. This weakness is demonstrated in the case of the World Bank, where lobbying for policy changes during the 10th replenishment ...


Canterbury To Cameroon: A New Partnership Between Faiths And The World Bank, Christopher Pallas Jan 2007

Canterbury To Cameroon: A New Partnership Between Faiths And The World Bank, Christopher Pallas

Christopher L. Pallas

Abstract forthcoming.