Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 97

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

All Americans Not Equal: Mistrust And Discrimination Against Naturalized Citizens In The U.S., Alev Dudek Aug 2015

All Americans Not Equal: Mistrust And Discrimination Against Naturalized Citizens In The U.S., Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

Approximately 13 percent of the U.S. population — nearly 40 million — is foreign-born, of which about 6 percent are naturalized U.S. citizens. Given the positive image associated with immigrants — the “nation of immigrants” or “the melting pot” — one would assume that all Americans in the U.S.A., natural born or naturalized, have equal worth as citizens. This, however, is not necessarily the case. Despite U.S. citizenship, naturalized Americans are seen less than equal to natural born Americans. They are often confused with “foreign nationals.” Moreover, their cultural belonging, allegiance, English-language skills, as well as other qualifications, are ...


Bending The Arc: How To Achieve Justice At The International Criminal Court, Jacqueline Mcallister Aug 2015

Bending The Arc: How To Achieve Justice At The International Criminal Court, Jacqueline Mcallister

Jacqueline McAllister

This article explores how the ICTY's experience in apprehending 'big fish' might inform the ICC's efforts to do the same.


Deferred Action, Supervised Enforcement Discretion, And The Rule Of Law Basis For Executive Action On Immigration, Anil Kalhan Jun 2015

Deferred Action, Supervised Enforcement Discretion, And The Rule Of Law Basis For Executive Action On Immigration, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

In November 2014, the Obama administration announced the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) initiative, which built upon a program instituted two years earlier, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative. As mechanisms to channel the government’s scarce resources toward its enforcement priorities more efficiently and effectively, both DACA and DAPA permit certain individuals falling outside those priorities to seek “deferred action,” which provides its recipients with time-limited, nonbinding, and revocable notification that officials have exercised prosecutorial discretion to deprioritize their removal. While deferred action thereby facilitates a highly tenuous form of quasi-legal ...


U.S. Police Officers Kill Primarily Because They Are Attacked, Not To Disrupt Crime, Alev Dudek Mar 2015

U.S. Police Officers Kill Primarily Because They Are Attacked, Not To Disrupt Crime, Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

In spite of the steady decline in violent crimes, law enforcement in the U.S.A. is becoming significantly more violent. Compared to other developed countries, such as Germany or Great Britain, disproportionately more arrest-related deaths occur in the U.S. Additionally, in the treatment of suspects, a racial disparity is evident; disproportionately more black males get killed by white police officers. Political exploitation of “crime” and militarization of law enforcement are factors that contribute to the status-quo and may explain why most arrest-related killings by the police are not a result of attempting to disrupt crime, but in defense ...


Three Arguments About War, Robert Tsai Dec 2014

Three Arguments About War, Robert Tsai

Robert L Tsai

The rise of the United States as a military power capable of mounting global warfare and subduing domestic rebellions has helped produce a corresponding shift in the language of liberal constitutionalism. Arguments invoking war have become prevalent, increasingly creative and far-reaching, and therefore an emerging threat to rule of law values. It is not only legal limits on the capacity to wage war that have been influenced by the ascendance of war-inspired discourse; seemingly unrelated areas of law have also been reshaped by talk of war, from the constitutional rules of criminal procedure to the promise of racial and sexual ...


El Futuro Del Tribunal De Aforados, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo Oct 2014

El Futuro Del Tribunal De Aforados, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo

Javier E Revelo-Rebolledo

No abstract provided.


La Reforma Político-Judicial De Santos, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo Jul 2014

La Reforma Político-Judicial De Santos, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo

Javier E Revelo-Rebolledo

No abstract provided.


America's Forgotten Constitutions: Defiant Visions Of Power And Community, Robert Tsai Mar 2014

America's Forgotten Constitutions: Defiant Visions Of Power And Community, Robert Tsai

Robert L Tsai

The U.S. Constitution opens by proclaiming the sovereignty of all citizens: "We the People." Robert Tsai's gripping history of alternative constitutions invites readers into the circle of those who have rejected this ringing assertion--the defiant groups that refused to accept the Constitution's definition of who "the people" are and how their authority should be exercised. America's Forgotten Constitutions is the story of America as told by dissenters: squatters, Native Americans, abolitionists, socialists, internationalists, and racial nationalists. Beginning in the nineteenth century, Tsai chronicles eight episodes in which discontented citizens took the extraordinary step of drafting a ...


Fighting Exclusion With Culture And Art. Examples From Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Fighting Exclusion With Culture And Art. Examples From Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article demonstrates that artistic activity is an important tool for deepening democracy, because it provides a vehicle for the excluded to reach the public sphere, thus making it more heterogeneous. As artists, they become active citizens and step out of the invisibility into which racism and exclusion has forced them.


Education Reform, Race, And Politics In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Education Reform, Race, And Politics In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article discusses the main findings and conclusions from my field research evaluating education reform in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data collection was done during two exploratory research trips to Salvador, the state capital, in 2001 and in 2005. The Bahian Education Reform, initiated by the state government in 1999 and funded to a great extent by the World Bank, has achieved some very significant goals, most importantly the expansion of high school education and the broadening of access to primary education in areas where access was far from universal. My research nevertheless points to some sever shortcomings, namely ...


Embracing Hip Hop As Their Own: Hip Hop And Black Racial Identity In Brazil, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell Jan 2014

Embracing Hip Hop As Their Own: Hip Hop And Black Racial Identity In Brazil, Bernd Reiter, Gladys Mitchell

Bernd Reiter

The article examines the positive relationship between listening to Hip Hop music and racial consciousness among younger generations of Afro-Brazilians. The authors observe that Brazilian Hip Hop culture has maintained a strong role in shaping racial and political consciousness. Additionally, they explain that Hip Hop has become a useful instrument to express the struggles faced by poor, urban Afro-Brazilian youth. They also claim that by listening to Hip Hop lyrics, more and more young poor Afro-Brazilians are increasingly aware of the ideologies and normalizing powers that hold them.


A Genealogy Of Black Organizing In Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

A Genealogy Of Black Organizing In Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article argues that the vast literature on “new social movements” misrepresents the historicity of identity-based organization in Latin America. Such organizing is indeed much older than the literature suggests. To prove this argument, I provide a genealogy of black, identitybased organizing in Brazil. This genealogy makes clear that black organizing started when Africans first arrived in Brazil. To explain the ebbs and flows of this organizing, the theoretical frameworks of Sidney Tarrow and Susan Epstein, who focus on political opportunities and changing repertoires, respectively, prove to be more useful.


Pracatum: Escola Profissionalizante De Músicos De Rua, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Pracatum: Escola Profissionalizante De Músicos De Rua, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


The Shortcomings Of Democratic School Management In Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Shortcomings Of Democratic School Management In Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article analyses the limits of community involvement in Bahian public schools. Despite the explicit legal requirement to actively involve parents and neighborhoods in the democratic management of schools, parental and community participation remains very limited in most Bahian public schools. Exploratory research carried out in 2001 in six public schools in Bahia’s capital Salvador points to two main reasons for this shortcoming: both the municipal and the state administrations were reluctant to effectively shift over power to parents and communities and secondly, a very ingrained and “structural” racism was responsible for portraying local poor communities as dangerous places ...


The Limits Of Popular Participation In Salvador, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Limits Of Popular Participation In Salvador, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article focuses on the changing nature of state--society interactions in the state of Bahia, Brazil and on the factors that condition democratic participation. During several research trips, conducted between 2001 and 2006, I collected data on participatory budgeting and on participatory urban planning in the city of Salvador. I was therefore able to compare two thematic sites where local states interacted with society in general, and with civil society specifi cally. In both cases, I found a very wide gap between the de jure mandate of citizen participation and the de facto state of affairs. The examined empirical cases ...


The Democratic Challenge. Democratization And De-Democratization In Global Perspective, Bernd Reiter, Jorge Nef Jan 2014

The Democratic Challenge. Democratization And De-Democratization In Global Perspective, Bernd Reiter, Jorge Nef

Bernd Reiter

This text provides a critical but systematic overview of democratic theory and practice in the contemporary world. The authors show that recent developments are more complex than admitted by proponents of the idea of a democratic world with, what they call, de-democratization of various forms running in parallel with democratization.


What’S New In Brazil’S New Social Movements?, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

What’S New In Brazil’S New Social Movements?, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The concept of “new social movements,” characterized by a focus on identity, cannot readily be transferred to a Latin American context. Latin America never experienced the postmaterialist turn that led some to call certain European social movements “new.” In addition, as the case of black organizing in Brazil demonstrates, identity-based Latin American social movements are much older than the literature suggests. What was indeed a Latin American novelty of the 1980s was the massive emergence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In the case of Brazil, these organizations emerged in response to new financial opportunities provided by international donors and the coercive ...


Review Of Wampler, Brian. 2007. “Participatory Budget In Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation And Accountability”, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Review Of Wampler, Brian. 2007. “Participatory Budget In Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation And Accountability”, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

The article reviews the book "Participatory Budgeting in Brazil: Contestation, Cooperation, and Accountability," by Brian Wampler.


Reforma Educacional, Exclusão E Racismo Na Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Reforma Educacional, Exclusão E Racismo Na Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Este artigo apresenta os achados principais da nossa pesquisa, desenvolvida durante o período de junho 2001 a janeiro 2002 sobre a reforma educacional em Salvador - Bahia. Concluimos que dois fatores principais impedem o maior sucesso desta reforma. Primeiro, detectamos um sistema de racismo estrutural, responsável por nortear as percepções que professores, diretores e administradores tinham sobre o alunado pobre e negro nas escolas pesquisadas, no sentido de esperar e exigir pouco desses alunos. Baixas expectativas resultavam em baixo empenho. Segundo, encontramos que a educação pública, mesmo melhorando, ainda não pode competir com a educação privada. Como consequência, escolas públicas continuam ...


Portugal: National Pride And Imperial Neurosis, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Portugal: National Pride And Imperial Neurosis, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

Points out that Portugal's journey, from a minor colonizing power to a member of the European Union, transformed its sense of national belonging and citizenship. African colonial possessions later disavowed, along with those Africans who had become Portuguese citizens under the earlier arrangement; Failure of Portugal to recognize the existence within its borders of a black community, its history and its exclusion.


Inequality And School Reform In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Inequality And School Reform In Bahia, Brazil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil’s extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author’s research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates ...


Review Of Fikes, Kesha. 2009. “Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction”, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Review Of Fikes, Kesha. 2009. “Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction”, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Sociedade Civil, Democratização, E Exclusão Racial No Brasil, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Sociedade Civil, Democratização, E Exclusão Racial No Brasil, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


Civil Society And Democracy: Weimar Reconsidered, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Civil Society And Democracy: Weimar Reconsidered, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

This article argues that such authors as Sheri Berman and Ariel Armony have overstated the importance of the state when explaining the relationship between civil society and democracy. They have done so because no theoretical framework is currently available to assess civil society's democratic potential, which led them to focus rather on the state as the central explanans. Furthermore, Berman's incorrect interpretation of Weimar's civic organizing led her to draw erroneous conclusions about civil society in general. This article seeks to correct this view on Weimar's civil society and offers a theoretical framework able to capture ...


The Perils Of Empire: Nationhood And Citizenship In Portugal, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

The Perils Of Empire: Nationhood And Citizenship In Portugal, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

After the demise of the Portuguese empire and even more after joining the European Union, the Portuguese state redefined the borders of national belonging. The shift was one from a multi-continental nation, which included parts of Africa, to a more restricted definition of nationhood, one that stressed Portugal's connection to Europe and thus defined belonging by descent. This article, based on research conducted in Lisbon, Portugal in 2003, discusses the impact of this shift on Portuguese citizens of ethnically diverse backgrounds. The Portuguese state, media, academia, and civil society are all involved in constructing, disseminating, and hence consolidating a ...


Art, Culture, And Social Justice: New Strategies Of The Bahian Poor, Bernd Reiter Jan 2014

Art, Culture, And Social Justice: New Strategies Of The Bahian Poor, Bernd Reiter

Bernd Reiter

No abstract provided.


The Road To Mass Democracy: Original Intent And The Seventeenth Amendment, Christopher Hoebeke Dec 2013

The Road To Mass Democracy: Original Intent And The Seventeenth Amendment, Christopher Hoebeke

Christopher H Hoebeke

Until 1913 and passage of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, US senators were elected by state legislatures, not directly by the people. Progressive Era reformers urged this revision in answer to the corruption of state "machines" under the dominance of party bosses. They also believed that direct elections would make the Senate more responsive to popular concerns regarding the concentrations of business, capital, and labor that in the industrial era gave rise to a growing sense of individual voicelessness. Popular control over the higher affairs of government was thought to be possible, since the spread of information ...


Beyond Judicial Populism, Anil Kalhan Dec 2013

Beyond Judicial Populism, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

No abstract provided.


Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia Dec 2013

Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The 'Arab Spring' that began in 2011 has placed a spotlight on the transfer of political power in Islamic societies, reviving old questions about the place of political dissent and rebellion in Islamic civilization and raising new ones about the place of religion in modern Islamic societies.

In Anatomy of Dissent in Islamic Societies, Ahmed E. Souaiaia examines the complex historical evolution of Islamic civilization in an effort to trace the roots of the paradigms and principles of Islamic political and legal theories. This study is one of the first attempts at providing a fuller picture of the place of ...


Courting Power, Anil Kalhan Oct 2013

Courting Power, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

No abstract provided.