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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The 2002 National Security Strategy: The Foundation Of A Doctrine Of Preemption, Prevention, Or Anticipatory Action, Troy Lorenzo Ewing Jul 2013

The 2002 National Security Strategy: The Foundation Of A Doctrine Of Preemption, Prevention, Or Anticipatory Action, Troy Lorenzo Ewing

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, initiated a strategic shift in American national security policy. For the United States, terrorism was no longer a distant phenomenon visited upon faraway regions; it had come to America with stark brutality.1 Consequently, the administration of President George W. Bush sought to advance a security strategy to counter the proliferating threat of terrorism.

The ensuing 2002 National Security Strategy articulated the willingness of the United States to oppose terrorists, and rogue nation-states by merging the strategies of "preemptive" and "preventive" warfare into an unprecedented strategy of "anticipatory action," known as the Doctrine ...


Grand Strategy Analysis: A Proto-Theoretical Approach, Patrick Magee Apr 2005

Grand Strategy Analysis: A Proto-Theoretical Approach, Patrick Magee

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

International relations scholarship begins and ends with assumptions—about human nature; about human interaction; about starting points, relative information, and outcomes. Such assumptions are necessary to further the intellectual coherence and development of scholarly work. However, they restrict the applicability of scholarly research to those situations that parallel the work's underlying assumptions.

This work argues the body of international relations scholarship as a whole would benefit from the development of a pre-theory state, absent any assumptions about international relations, from which observers can identify those works of scholarship that are most effective in explaining perceptive states and the strategic ...


Johann August Weppen's Der Hessische Officer In Amerika And David Christoph Seybold's Reizenstein: The American Revolution And The German Bürgertum's Reassessment Of America, Virginia Sasser Delacey Jan 2004

Johann August Weppen's Der Hessische Officer In Amerika And David Christoph Seybold's Reizenstein: The American Revolution And The German Bürgertum's Reassessment Of America, Virginia Sasser Delacey

Institute for the Humanities Theses

While American, British, and French reactions to the American Revolution are well-known, those of the German people are not, despite the presence of almost 30,000 German soldiers in America fighting for the British army and hundreds of German volunteers fighting for the American patriots. The participation of German soldiers on both sides of the conflict inspired numerous works of German poetry, prose, and drama, all largely forgotten in the wake of the French Revolution and the rise of German Classicism and Romanticism. This thesis examines two works that have received brief mention in the past two centuries: Der hessische ...


Southern Strategies, James R. Sweeney Jan 1998

Southern Strategies, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

From the mid-1960's, Virginia Republicans, in tune with President Richard Nixon's active "Southern strategy," revived party fortunes in the state by capitalizing on the ongoing degeneration of Virginia Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr.'s powerful conservative Democratic organization and the factionalization of the state Democratic Party. Republican Abner Linwood Holton, Jr., solidly carried the 1969 gubernatorial election. In the 1970 senatorial election Independent Harry Flood Byrd, Jr., defeated Republican Ray Lucian Garland and Democrat George Rawlings. Senator Byrd, Jr., had enjoyed Nixon's "benevolent neutrality," but never did join the Republican Party as the president had hoped; in ...


A Segregationist On The Civil Rights Commission, James R. Sweeney Jan 1997

A Segregationist On The Civil Rights Commission, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

In 1957 President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed to the newly created Commission on Civil Rights John Stewart Battle, a former longtime Virginia General Assembly member and governor who was also a staunch segregationist. Eisenhower appointed him to represent white Southern opinion and because of his national reputation for deft political conciliation. The article reviews Battle's personal background, political career, racial philosophy, and interactions with other figures prominent in the era's civil rights politics, including Father Theodore Martin Hesburgh, Harry F. Byrd, Sr., and J. Lindsay Almond, Jr. During his service on the commission during 1957-59, Battle's segregationist ...


Presidential Philosophies And American Foreign Policy: From The Long Telegram To The New Look, John R. Moore Apr 1995

Presidential Philosophies And American Foreign Policy: From The Long Telegram To The New Look, John R. Moore

History Theses & Dissertations

American foreign policy often undergoes alteration as presidential administrations change. After World War II president Harry S. Truman and President Dwight D. Eisenhower both implemented a foreign policy aimed at containing the Soviet Union, but the philosophical underpinnings of their foreign policies differed greatly. While the demands of partisan and international politics account for some of this difference, the impact on foreign policy of the two men's personalities deserves attention and investigation. In other words, how did the individual backgrounds, personal beliefs and world views of Truman and Eisenhower dictate their approach to foreign policy? The source used in ...


A New Day In The Old Dominion, James R. Sweeney Jan 1994

A New Day In The Old Dominion, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

The presidential campaign of 1964 became a significant turning point in Virginia politics as the 24th Amendment eliminated poll taxes, black political organizations organized voter registration drives, and suburbanites, newcomers, and recent college graduates were attracted to the Republican Party. Republican candidates had made strong showings in elections in 1962 and 1963, due in part to the policies of the Kennedy administration. Democratic Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr., publicly opposed many of the fiscal and social policies of the Kennedy-Johnson administration, creating difficulty among Republicans in choosing someone to oppose him. His position also created a rift among pro- and ...


Whispers In The Golden Silence: Harry F. Byrd, Sr., John F. Kennedy, And Virginia Democrats In The 1960 Presidential Election, James R. Sweeney Jan 1991

Whispers In The Golden Silence: Harry F. Byrd, Sr., John F. Kennedy, And Virginia Democrats In The 1960 Presidential Election, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

In the election of 1960, Richard M. Nixon carried Virginia, the third consecutive victory for a Republican ticket in the strongly Democratic state. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr., the conservative Democratic power broker of Virginia, maintained what became known as a "golden silence," failing to endorse John F. Kennedy and privately working to ensure Nixon's victory. Byrd's stance angered many state Democrats, and by 1964 they broke the senator's power over the party, passing a resolution endorsing President Lyndon B. Johnson over Byrd's objections.


Rum, Romanism, And Virginia Democrats: The Party Leaders And The Campaign Of 1928, James R. Sweeney Jan 1982

Rum, Romanism, And Virginia Democrats: The Party Leaders And The Campaign Of 1928, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

The 1928 presidential election posed problems for Virginia Democrats, who were traditionally Protestant and prohibitionist. New Yorker Al Smith's nomination split Virginia's party, allowing Republican Herbert C. Hoover to win by a healthy majority. Led by a Methodist Bishop James Cannon, Jr., Virginians who opposed Smith, a Roman Catholic, cited his link with Tammany Hall and his views on prohibition legislations as justifications to vote against him. State party leaders Harry Byrd, Carter Glass, Louis Joffe, and John Garland Pollard mounted a party loyalty campaign for Smith, but the election's central issue was whether or not a ...


Revolt In Virginia: Harry Byrd And The 1952 Presidential Election, James R. Sweeney Jan 1978

Revolt In Virginia: Harry Byrd And The 1952 Presidential Election, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

When Senator Harry F. Byrd, longtime opponent of the policies of Presidents Roosevelt and Truman, decided to support Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower for the Presidency in 1952, he weakened the Democratic Party in Virginia and set off a political revolt in that state that lasted for a quarter century. Based on newspaper accounts and on primary material in the University of Virginia; 40 notes.


The Golden Silence: The Virginia Democratic Party And The Presidential Election Of 1948, James R. Sweeney Jan 1974

The Golden Silence: The Virginia Democratic Party And The Presidential Election Of 1948, James R. Sweeney

History Faculty Publications

Disturbed by President Harry S. Truman's stand on civil rights, the Democratic Party leadership in Virginia, headed by Senator Harry Flood Byrd, determined to fight Truman's election in 1948. The Byrd organization's strategy was to keep Truman from winning Virginia's electoral votes by releasing the state's electors from the obligation to vote for the national party nominee, but Byrd's opposition managed to mount a last minute pro-Truman movement which carried the state for the President.