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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Chapter 4 (Draft): John Locke And The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Very Similar Colonial Prejudice Found Its Way Into The Natural Rights Justification Of Private Property, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Oct 2015

Chapter 4 (Draft): John Locke And The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Very Similar Colonial Prejudice Found Its Way Into The Natural Rights Justification Of Private Property, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This chapter is a preliminary draft of Chapter 4 of the book, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." The role of this chapter is to show that what we call "the Hobbesian Hypothesis" is an essential premise in John Locke's justification of private property. The Hobbesian hypothesis, in this context, is the claim that everyone is better off in a society with private land and resource ownership (even if they own no land or resources) than they could reasonably except to be in a society in which these resources remained unowned and people lived as hunter-gatherers. This chapter does ...


Chapter 3 (Draft) The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Colonial Prejudice Became An Essential Premise In The Most Popular Justification Of Government, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Aug 2015

Chapter 3 (Draft) The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Colonial Prejudice Became An Essential Premise In The Most Popular Justification Of Government, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This chapter is a draft of Chapter Three of the book that Grant McCall and I are writing. The book is called, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." This chapter shows now Hobbes introduce an empirical claim into his most influential justification of the state. We call this claim the Hobbesian hypothesis: everyone is better off under the authority of a sovereign government than everyone would be outside of that authority. The chapter argue that this hypothesis is a strong, counterfactual, empirical claim about people in small-scale stateless societies that has not been well-established by empirical evidence.


Chapters 1-2 (Drafts) Of Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy: Chapter 1-2, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Jan 2015

Chapters 1-2 (Drafts) Of Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy: Chapter 1-2, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

These two chapters are early and very preliminary drafts of the first to chapters of the book, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." The first chapter sets up what we are trying to do with this research project and previews our findings. The basic argument of the book is that political philosophers make dubious claims about prehistory in theor theories. These claims are poorly (if at all) research even though they are essential premises in many important political theories. The role of the book is both to show that these claims are necessary to support the arguments in influential political ...


The People’S Endowment, Karl Widerquist Jan 2015

The People’S Endowment, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Many private institutions, such as universities and museums, have large and growing endowments. Why doesn’t the government have one? Simply, we have failed to take advantage of enormous opportunities to create one. This paper argues that governments should start to build up a permanent endowment of publicly held assets, both financial and physical, lease at least some of them out to private industry, and use the revenue for two purposes: half for government spending and the other half for a dividend in the form of an unconditional basic income for all people—in recognition of their shared ownership of ...


Myths About The State Of Nature And The Reality Of Stateless Societies, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Jan 2015

Myths About The State Of Nature And The Reality Of Stateless Societies, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This article is a spin-off of my book project (with Grant McCall), "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." This article makes the following points. Most justifications of government using social contact theory (contractarianism) require a claim we call, “the Hobbesian hypothesis,” which we define as the claim that all people are better off under state authority than they would be outside of it. The Hobbesian hypothesis is an empirical claim about all stateless societies. Many small-scale societies are stateless. Anthropological evidence from the smallest-scale human societies provides sufficient reason to doubt the truth of the hypothesis, if not to reject ...


The Big Casino, Karl Widerquist Jan 2014

The Big Casino, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This paper uses an analogy to illustrate two things: (1) the economy is and will always be a casino, and (2) in existing societies and most libertarian, liberal, and socialist visions of society individuals are effectively forced to participate in the casino economy. It argues justice requires that individuals must be free from forced participation in such an economy and that the best way to free people from forced participation is the provision of a Basic Income Guarantee.


A People's Endowment, Karl Widerquist Jan 2014

A People's Endowment, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This chapter discusses the possibility of the government using common assets to set up an endowment that will generate revenue for the people. It argues that in addition to generating a lot of money, this strategy will provide a much better mechanism for managing the environment for the good of current and future generations.


Is Basic Income Still Worth Talking About?, Karl Widerquist Mar 2013

Is Basic Income Still Worth Talking About?, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Universal Basic Income (UBI) is the hugely ambitious policy of granting a small income to every person, unconditionally as a right of citizenship. Usually, a “full” UBI is considered to be enough to meet basic needs, while anything less is a “partial” UBI (USBIG Network 2011). In the post-financial crisis days of austerity, cutbacks, and retrenchment it might seem that such a policy is too ambitious to be worth discussing in the current political climate, especially in the United States. But this chapter will argue that UBI is (and should be) an important part of the political dialogue today. Part ...


Chapter 0: Prologue, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 0: Prologue, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter X10: Conclusion, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter X10: Conclusion, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 3: Forty Acres And A Mule? Implications Of The Duty To Respect Person Independence, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 3: Forty Acres And A Mule? Implications Of The Duty To Respect Person Independence, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 2: Status Freedom As Effective Control Self-Ownership, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 2: Status Freedom As Effective Control Self-Ownership, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 5: The Importance Of Independence Ii: Freedom An Integrity, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 5: The Importance Of Independence Ii: Freedom An Integrity, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 9: On Duty, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 9: On Duty, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 6: The Importance Of Independence Iii: Market Vulnerability, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 6: The Importance Of Independence Iii: Market Vulnerability, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 4: The Importance Of Independence I: Framing The Issue, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 4: The Importance Of Independence I: Framing The Issue, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 8: If You're An Egalitarian, Why Do You Want To Be The Boss Of The Poor? Independence And Liberal-Egalitarian Theories Of Justice, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 8: If You're An Egalitarian, Why Do You Want To Be The Boss Of The Poor? Independence And Liberal-Egalitarian Theories Of Justice, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 7: What Good Is A Theory Of Freedom That Allows Forced Labor? Independence And Modern Theories Of Freedom, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 7: What Good Is A Theory Of Freedom That Allows Forced Labor? Independence And Modern Theories Of Freedom, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


A Permanent Endowment For The United States, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

A Permanent Endowment For The United States, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This is a chapter from the book, "Exporting the Alaska Model." The chapter argues that the United States can create a permanent resource-based endowment that could finance both a substantial dividend (in the form of an unconditional basic income) and a significant portion of government spending, perhaps nearly all government spending. It argues why endowment financing is a more progressive alternative to the more traditional approach of taxation and regulation.


Citizens’ Capital Accounts: A Proposal, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Citizens’ Capital Accounts: A Proposal, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This chapter proposes a personalized version of Alaska’s Permanent Fund (APF) and Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) system, called “Citizens’ Capital Accounts” (CCAs), which will combine some of the benefits of Basic Income and Stakeholder Grants. CCAs make for a more flexible and meaningful use of revenue than an equal-sized Basic Income, resource dividend, or Stakeholder grant.


Chapter X: Bibliography, Karl Widerquist Dec 2011

Chapter X: Bibliography, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Why We Demand An Unconditional Basic Income: The Ecso Freedom Case, Karl Widerquist Dec 2010

Why We Demand An Unconditional Basic Income: The Ecso Freedom Case, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Philippe Van Parijs’s (1995) Real Freedom for All: What (If Anything) Can Justify Capitalism makes a very thorough and challenging philosophical argument for basic income. But I believe that it has two important limitations that inhibit it from giving a compelling explanation why basic income supporters believe that support for the disadvantage must be not only universal but also unconditional and enough to meet an individual’s basic needs. This essay briefly discusses those limitations and then proposes an alternative argument for basic income that I believe relies on a more compelling concept of freedom, defined below as “Freedom ...