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Nonpunctuated And Sweeping Policy Change: Bhutan Tobacco Policy Making From 1991 To 2009, Michael S. Givel Aug 2012

Nonpunctuated And Sweeping Policy Change: Bhutan Tobacco Policy Making From 1991 To 2009, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

This paper examines policy outputs associated with the 2004 Bhutan antitobacco law, including 2009 amendments, to determine if the law is congruent with punctuated equilibrium or social policy realism theories of policy change. There was no direct and sudden tobacco policy output change in Bhutan due to a shock to the policy system contrary to what punctuated equilibrium theory would predict. Rather, policy change was sweeping but nonpunctuated. This paper reconfirms prior findings of social policy realism theory that various and complex policy output patterns occur due to a mixture of contingent and complex factors. Under social policy realism, a ...


Bureaucratic Advocacy And Ethics A State-Level Case Of Public Agency Rulemaking And Tobacco Control Policy, Michael S. Givel, Andrew Spivak Dec 2011

Bureaucratic Advocacy And Ethics A State-Level Case Of Public Agency Rulemaking And Tobacco Control Policy, Michael S. Givel, Andrew Spivak

Michael S. Givel

Before 2001, the Oklahoma Department of Health achieved little to protect the public from the dangers of secondhand tobacco smoke. In an ongoing effort between 2000 and 2003, the department joined with health groups to lobby for stronger requirements, resulting in a new Oklahoma administrative rule in 2002 and legislation in 2003 regulating secondhand tobacco smoke. This action was congruent with the American Society of Public Administration's Code of Ethics for interactive democratic policymaking, in which administrators are required to serve the public interest with compassion, benevolence, fairness, and optimism.


Bureaucratic Advocacy And Ethics: A State-Level Case Of Public Agency Rulemaking And Tobacco Control Policy, Michael S. Givel Dec 2011

Bureaucratic Advocacy And Ethics: A State-Level Case Of Public Agency Rulemaking And Tobacco Control Policy, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

Before 2001, the Oklahoma Department of Health achieved little to protect the public from the dangers of secondhand tobacco smoke. In an ongoing effort between 2000 and 2003, the department joined with health groups to lobby for stronger requirements, resulting in a new Oklahoma administrative rule in 2002 and legislation in 2003 regulating secondhand tobacco smoke. This action was congruent with the American Society of Public Administration's Code of Ethics for interactive democratic policymaking, in which administrators are required to serve the public interest with compassion, benevolence, fairness, and optimism.


Progress Delayed: State Of Tobacco Control Policymaking In Oklahoma From 2005-2011, Michael Givel, Ami Stearns, Andrew Spivak Jun 2011

Progress Delayed: State Of Tobacco Control Policymaking In Oklahoma From 2005-2011, Michael Givel, Ami Stearns, Andrew Spivak

Michael S. Givel

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • Oklahoma’s 1987 Smoking In Public Places Act required the inclusion of smoking sections in restaurants and pre-empted more stringent local anti-tobacco laws with state regulations. • With the 2001 arrival of an aggressive new Commissioner of Health, Dr. Leslie Beitsch, the tide turned with new legislation (Senate Joint Resolution 21 in 2003) that prohibited smoking inside public places and restaurants were allowed to build separately-ventilated “smoking rooms.” • In 2004, State Question 713 increased the cigarette tax by 80 cents per package. • Dr. Beitsch resigned in 2003 and since that time, efforts toward clean air have stalled. Although restaurants ...


Progress Delayed: State Of Tobacco Control Policymaking In Oklahoma From 2005-2011, Michael S. Givel, Ami E. Stearns, Andrew L. Spivak May 2011

Progress Delayed: State Of Tobacco Control Policymaking In Oklahoma From 2005-2011, Michael S. Givel, Ami E. Stearns, Andrew L. Spivak

Michael S. Givel

• Oklahoma’s 1987 Smoking In Public Places Act required the inclusion of smoking sections in restaurants and pre-empted more stringent local anti-tobacco laws with state regulations. • With the 2001 arrival of an aggressive new Commissioner of Health, Dr. Leslie Beitsch, the tide turned with new legislation (Senate Joint Resolution 21 in 2003) that prohibited smoking inside public places and required restaurants to build separately-ventilated “smoking rooms.” • In 2004, State Question 713 increased the cigarette tax by 55 cents per package. • Dr. Beitsch resigned in 2003 and since that time, efforts toward clean air have stalled. Although restaurants were required to ...


In Search Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel Jan 2011

In Search Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel

Michael S. Givel

Since the 1950s, despite considerable and long-term tobacco industry and government efforts, attempts to develop a less risky cigarette that reduces harmful ingredients, generally or specifically, have failed. Moreover, even under ideal conditions with adequate scientific testing, the efficacy of purportedly reducing the severe health effects cannot be scientifically verified for up to 20 years after the introduction of a product on the market. A key and central provision in the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation is to reduce the risk or harm of cigarettes. Because creating a less risky cigarette is not currently possible, this ...


Deconstructing Social Constructionist Theory In Tobacco Policy: The Case Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel Jan 2011

Deconstructing Social Constructionist Theory In Tobacco Policy: The Case Of The Less Hazardous Cigarette, Michael Givel

Michael S. Givel

Scholars in tobacco control have utilized a social construction approach to test and explain tobacco control policy and advocacy. Some recent tobacco control policy research has contended that Philip Morris's support of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco (including purportedly reducing the harm of cigarettes) is to obtain the social construction goal of a socially responsible company. However, the primary motivation for Philip Morris's support of proposed FDA regulation and harm reduction for cigarettes was to maintain the company's market stability and profitability implemented by U.S. political process and institutions. In ...


The Evolution Of The Theoretical Foundations Of Punctuated Equilibrium Theory In Public Policy, Michael S. Givel Feb 2010

The Evolution Of The Theoretical Foundations Of Punctuated Equilibrium Theory In Public Policy, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

Punctuated equilibrium theory in public policy replicated from biological punctuated equilibrium theory has concluded that public policies alternate between stasis and punctuation. However, recent research on Pacific Northwest forest policy, U.S. state tobacco policy, and U.S federal auto efficiency policy have found no punctuations despite an attempt to do so. What is the efficacy of using biological punctuated equilibrium theory to also explain punctuated equilibrium in public policy? Significant differences exist between biological and public policy punctuated equilibrium theory including time frames for change, what constitutes outside disturbances of equilibrium, venues of punctuated equilibrium, levels of analysis for ...


Tobacco Use Policymaking And Administration In Bhutan, Michael S. Givel Oct 2009

Tobacco Use Policymaking And Administration In Bhutan, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

No abstract provided.


Neoliberal And Public Health Impact Of Not Adopting Osha’S Proposed National Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Rule, Michael Givel Jan 2006

Neoliberal And Public Health Impact Of Not Adopting Osha’S Proposed National Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Rule, Michael Givel

Michael S. Givel

From the early 1980s to the present, neo-liberal doctrine has called for governmental policies of privatization, funding cutbacks, and deregulation of public health and other domestic social programs in the belief that the market can best organize and distribute crucial societal services rather than the public sector. Proponents of a neoliberal and deregulatory mixed approach of command and control and self-regulation argue this approach provides the most adequate means to conduct regulation in the legalistic and adversarial United States regulatory process. In April 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued a proposed rule to eliminate tobacco smoking in most ...


Punctuated Equilibrium In Limbo: The Tobacco Lobby And U.S. State Policy Making From 1990 To 2003, Michael S. Givel Dec 2005

Punctuated Equilibrium In Limbo: The Tobacco Lobby And U.S. State Policy Making From 1990 To 2003, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

Since the mid-1980s, U.S. tobacco policy has been an intense and acrimonious issue between antitobacco advocates and the tobacco industry. In the United States, the tobacco industry has responded to heightened state antitobacco litigation, adverse public opinion, and public health advocacy by aggressively mobilizing against tobacco taxes and regulations. This article examines whether these tobacco policy trends can be generalized to punctuated equilibrium theory ideas that policy monopolies are stable over long periods and usually change because of sharp and short-term exogenous shocks to the policy system. From 1990 to 2003, there was a sharp mobilization by health advocates ...