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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Empty Chair At The Table: Bargaining, Costs And Litigation At The World Trade Organization, Felicia Anneita Grey Jul 2017

Empty Chair At The Table: Bargaining, Costs And Litigation At The World Trade Organization, Felicia Anneita Grey

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This study examines the World Trade Organization (WTO) to test how, if at all, its Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) serves the needs of its members. More specifically, it probes why countries would join the institution, but do not use it if a trade dispute arises. To test this expectation, the study hypothesizes that exorbitant dispute settlement costs can inhibit litigation. This occurs, however, across all dyads and not just when developing and developed countries litigate.

The project uses mixed methods comprising an extensive form game, case studies and the information theory approach for comparative case analysis. The cases selected have ...


The 2002 National Security Strategy: The Foundation Of A Doctrine Of Preemption, Prevention, Or Anticipatory Action, Troy Lorenzo Ewing Jul 2013

The 2002 National Security Strategy: The Foundation Of A Doctrine Of Preemption, Prevention, Or Anticipatory Action, Troy Lorenzo Ewing

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, initiated a strategic shift in American national security policy. For the United States, terrorism was no longer a distant phenomenon visited upon faraway regions; it had come to America with stark brutality.1 Consequently, the administration of President George W. Bush sought to advance a security strategy to counter the proliferating threat of terrorism.

The ensuing 2002 National Security Strategy articulated the willingness of the United States to oppose terrorists, and rogue nation-states by merging the strategies of "preemptive" and "preventive" warfare into an unprecedented strategy of "anticipatory action," known as the Doctrine ...


Piracy, Slavery, And The Limits Of International Law: The Gap Between The Rhetoric And Reality Of Jus Cogens, Stephanie Elizabeth Smith Apr 2013

Piracy, Slavery, And The Limits Of International Law: The Gap Between The Rhetoric And Reality Of Jus Cogens, Stephanie Elizabeth Smith

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

A gap currently exists between the sources of international law in the canon of jus cogens or peremptory norms. This gap is observed in the comparison of the rhetoric perpetuated by the community of international lawyers and the actions of states. It is especially apparent in the two oldest tenets of jus cogens, the prohibitions against piracy and slavery. The disconnect between rhetoric and reality exposes the limitations and the political nature of international law.

The gap is demonstrated by using peremptory norms as a crucial case in the international legal system because of its perceived status as the strongest ...


Energy Crises And Cooperation: Do International Institutions Matter?, Vessela P. Chakarova Apr 2010

Energy Crises And Cooperation: Do International Institutions Matter?, Vessela P. Chakarova

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The risk of an oil supply disruption still exists. Oil reserves are increasingly concentrated in a handful of unreliable regimes, plagued by piracy and terrorism. Natural disasters and chokepoint incidents have increased in frequency. In addition, oil is expected to remain a significant part of the energy mix up until 2030. By that time Europe will be importing 90% of its oil. Thus, oil supply security will become an increasingly important feature of European politics.

One way to counter the noxious consequences of an oil disruption is to cooperate. International cooperation is a critical factor in any type of crisis ...


Generals In Three-Piece Suits—Contractors In Camouflage: A Critical Assessment Of Contractors In Iraq, Wyman E. Shuler Iii Apr 2008

Generals In Three-Piece Suits—Contractors In Camouflage: A Critical Assessment Of Contractors In Iraq, Wyman E. Shuler Iii

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Contractors compose part of the total force for U.S. warfare capability in Iraq.

Some augment U.S. warfare capability; others do not. Some of the contractors are controlled by the military; others are controlled by civilian (nonmilitary/political) government agencies. The problem: Who are the contractors and how has the nature of government oversight and control over contractors determined whether contractor contributions augment or diminish U.S. warfare capability in the Iraq War?

Argument: It is the degree of government control over contractors that determines whether the contractors' contributions have a positive or negative impact on warfare capability. Ultimately ...


Institutional Conditionality And State Compliance: The Czech And Slovak Accession To Nato And The Eu, Eva Svobodova Jan 2008

Institutional Conditionality And State Compliance: The Czech And Slovak Accession To Nato And The Eu, Eva Svobodova

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation studies the interaction between international institutions and nation states. More specifically, it examines how the membership conditionality of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) was adopted by candidate states. It uses the Czech and Slovak accessions to NATO and the EU to argue that, in order to understand the external phenomenon of conditionality, we need to study its effects within states. Critical to this process is national leadership. National leaders determine whether and how conditionality is implemented. Furthermore, this dissertation asserts that successful compliance with NATO and EU conditionality is decisively determined by ...


Geopolitical Rivalry In The Caspian-Caucasus Region And The Dilemma Of Interstate Cooperation, Nurettin Altundeger Jul 2007

Geopolitical Rivalry In The Caspian-Caucasus Region And The Dilemma Of Interstate Cooperation, Nurettin Altundeger

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation develops a unique way of analyzing the interstate relationship in the Caspian region over the development of Caspian oil resources. Based on three different independent variables, this dissertation seeks to understand the main reasons behind the absence of interstate cooperation in the Caspian Sea region.

Among the variety of factors that might have affected the nature of interstate relationships and cooperation in the region, national interest considerations among the littoral states and external powers involved in the affairs of the Caspian Sea region proved to be the most important factor(s) that explain the lack of cooperation in ...


The Good Governance Agenda Of International Development Institutions, Kerry L. Hofheimer Apr 2006

The Good Governance Agenda Of International Development Institutions, Kerry L. Hofheimer

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

International development institutions (IDIs) have increasingly emphasized good governance and democratic reform in the provision of foreign assistance. This is especially apparent with respect to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank, European Union (EU), and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This project describes and explains the good governance and democracy promotion program of each institution.

Previous studies have accounted for IDIs' good governance and democracy promotion in the 1990s in a generalized way. They have taken into consideration external international changes such as the fading of the Cold War and increased global interdependence between the North ...


The Reinvention Of Nato, Robert M. Antis Apr 2006

The Reinvention Of Nato, Robert M. Antis

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

In 2006, NATO is operating well out of area and conducting missions beyond the collective defense limits of its founding Treaty. NATO increasingly supports humanitarian relief operations, while also engaged in Afghanistan, the Mediterranean, and African crisis spots.

These changes provide the reason to examine the thesis: only if NATO is able to effectively transform will it be able to continue in its role as the primary European security institution. This transformation of the Alliance is a process, and one that could yet come to an untimely conclusion following any crisis. How NATO has adapted so far, and the potential ...


Telecommunications Technology And Sovereignty: Effects On States As Information Transfer Increased From The Speed Of Oxcart To The Speed Of Light, James H. Radford Jan 2005

Telecommunications Technology And Sovereignty: Effects On States As Information Transfer Increased From The Speed Of Oxcart To The Speed Of Light, James H. Radford

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Sovereignty---the absolute and unlimited power of the state---provides independence of action. Information about actions or intentions of competitors, enemies, or even friends, arriving after extended periods of time, resulted in responses to fait accompli. When information travels nearly instantaneously, states must consider potentially rapid international reactions before the fact. This suggests that since a state's freedom of action has been abridged, the nature of their sovereignty has altered.

This study pursues the research question: In what ways does telecommunications technology affect state sovereignty? The evolution of sovereignty is compared to development of telecommunications technology over four distinct eras, each ...


The Application Of A System Of Systems Analysis To Assessments Of National Power, George T. Hodermarsky Jan 2005

The Application Of A System Of Systems Analysis To Assessments Of National Power, George T. Hodermarsky

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation proposes an approach and methodology for the utilization of the fundamentals of systems theory as an aid to national security decision-making. At its core is an examination of the elements of nations' or non-state actor's power resources. The product of the analysis is the compilation of a set of nodes, and the relationships between these, upon which actions may be taken to achieve desired effects. Since the boundaries between the subsystems of power resources are flexible and permeable, and there will be interactions between elements in different subsystems, a system of systems approach is essential so that ...


The Smugglers' Landscape: Geography, Route Selection And The Global Heroin Trade, James Dallis Medler Jul 2004

The Smugglers' Landscape: Geography, Route Selection And The Global Heroin Trade, James Dallis Medler

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This study focuses on transnational smuggling, and puts forth an analytical framework from the smugglers' perspective with respect to route selection, focusing primarily on aspects of economic, political, and human geography. It is predicated on three interconnected decision-making domains that constitute the smuggler's operational landscape, namely access, risk and connectivity, which interact to drive the smugglers' perceptions of route attractiveness. The first two domains operate reciprocally, primarily at the national level of analysis, and together both shape and are shaped by the third at the transnational level to form a feedback loop. With respect to connectivity, the convention of ...


Space Cooperation Under Anarchy: Commercialization Of Outer Space And Space Security In The Post-Cold War Era, Irina V. Louts Jul 2004

Space Cooperation Under Anarchy: Commercialization Of Outer Space And Space Security In The Post-Cold War Era, Irina V. Louts

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The 20th century brought the most horrific weapons and most devastating wars in the history of human civilization. It also gave us the most breathtaking discoveries and technological breakthroughs, including the opening up of outer space to human reach. The commercialization of outer space is one of the most significant developments of our time, giving us an opportunity to put the richness of this medium to the betterment of human conditions on Earth on an increasingly widening scale.

Technological advances have also made space more important militarily. A puzzle now is whether the commercialization of outer space facilitates international cooperation ...


Compellence: An Empirical Perspective, Michael G. Dziubinski Jan 2004

Compellence: An Empirical Perspective, Michael G. Dziubinski

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Compellence, the use of a contingent threat of force to get a target state to modify a behavior, is an understudied area of international relations. An empirical examination of this area reveals patterns of the frequency of attempted compellence and successful compellence that are not explained by current research or broader international relations theories. In the post-World War II period (1946–2001), the pattern is a rapid drop and continued suppression of success, but a continuation of compellence attempts at the historic level. Existing compellence research and international relations theory do not explain this puzzling disparity of low success and ...


East European Security Revisited: Institutions, Power, And Security, Blagovest Tashev Apr 2002

East European Security Revisited: Institutions, Power, And Security, Blagovest Tashev

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Drawing on the literatures on democratization, security studies, and small states this dissertation explores the relationship of small states' domestic and international institutionalization and their security. Small states have limited power not only to affect their environment but also to guarantee national security. Small states, it is hypothesized, enhance their security through the consolidation of domestic institutions and the accumulation of capacities provided by their participation in capacity-reach international institutions.

The dissertation tests the hypothesis by applying the comparative method to the post-communist states of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, and Lithuania. The three case studies analyze the effects of domestic ...


Clinton's Foreign Policy And The Politics Of Intervention: Cases Of Ethnic Cleansing And Democratic Governance, Daneta G. Billau Jan 2002

Clinton's Foreign Policy And The Politics Of Intervention: Cases Of Ethnic Cleansing And Democratic Governance, Daneta G. Billau

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the sources of U.S. President Bill Clinton's foreign policy, with special attention to understudied political elements of intervention. The basis of this study is the Clinton Doctrine, in which Clinton opposed ethnic cleansing, and supported democratic governance worldwide. The primary research question asks to what extent and why was there a variation in Clinton's application of his own doctrine in the specific cases of Rwanda in 1994, Haiti in 1994, and East Timor in 1999. To address this question, the following five hypotheses are posited:

H1: The more vital interests are at stake, and ...


Identity, Conflict And Cooperation In International River Basins, Jack V. Kalpakian Jul 2000

Identity, Conflict And Cooperation In International River Basins, Jack V. Kalpakian

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation tests the hypothesis that water disputes cause serious conflict within and between states. It uses a structured case study approach to see whether there is a link between the independent and dependent variables. It also considers the effect of other variables on serious conflict. Specifically it addresses the effects of national identity and the othering process on conflict. The three case studies are built around rivers in the drier parts of the world. This biases the dissertation towards affirming the established mainstream hypothesis which states that water disputes cause serious conflict. In all three cases, historical animosities and ...


Community Building In Ethically Restructured States: The Baltics, Dovile Budryte Jul 2000

Community Building In Ethically Restructured States: The Baltics, Dovile Budryte

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Drawing on democratic theory, this dissertation explores a thesis that the experience of ethnic restructuring significantly effects the ability of a democratizing state to successfully consolidate its emerging democracy. Ethnically restructured states, it is hypothesized, have an especially hard time creating inclusive democratic political communities, which is a necessary prerequisite for a consolidated democracy.

To test the thesis, the comparative case study method is applied to the ethnically restructured states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. The goal of the case studies is to examine the approaches that the Baltic states used to reduce polarization. The historical background to the case ...


Evolution And Devolution: The Dynamics Of Sovereignty And Security In Post-Cold War Europe, Thomas M. Lansford Apr 1999

Evolution And Devolution: The Dynamics Of Sovereignty And Security In Post-Cold War Europe, Thomas M. Lansford

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

At a time when individual defense outlays are being significantly diminished, the national governments of Western Europe are confronted with the necessity of reforming and adapting their militaries to address new security concerns and undertake new missions. This study will examine multinational military integration as one possible approach whereby national governments can limit defense spending and still maintain military capabilities to meet the contemporary security threats faced by the nation states of the continent. The first three chapters of the work will explore the broad patterns of change in the international system which have propelled states to reexamine how they ...


"Never Draw Unless You Mean To Shoot": United States Department Of State's Responses To Property Seizures In Latin America, Nathan D. Younge Jan 1996

"Never Draw Unless You Mean To Shoot": United States Department Of State's Responses To Property Seizures In Latin America, Nathan D. Younge

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This thesis examines the U.S. Department of State's diplomatic handling of disputes over the seizure of U.S.-owned property in Latin America between 1937 and 1973. Seizures in Bolivia, Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, Peru and Chile are used as case studies, and provide examples of successful and unsuccessful diplomatic outcomes.

Several key factors are analyzed in each dispute, including Several key factors are analyzed in each dispute, including whether the Department took a conciliatory or confrontational approach toward each country, the kind of economic pressure applied, the situations under which the Department opted for official diplomatic involvement, and ...